Seven Strategies of Successful Readers:1. They use existing knowledge to make sense of new information.2. They ask questions about the text before, during, and after reading.3. They draw inferences from the text.4. They monitor their comprehension.5. They use “fix-up” strategies when meaning breaks down.6. They determine what is important.7. They synthesize information to create new thinking
Signals of Confusion:1. The voice inside the reader’s head isn’t interacting with the text.2. The camera inside the reader’s head shuts of.3. The reader’s mind begins to wander.4. The reader can’t remember what has been read.5. Clarifying questions asked by the reader are not answered.6. The reader reencounters a character and has no recollection when that character was introduced.
Fix-it Strategies:• Make a connection between the text and yourlife, your knowledge of the world, or another text.• Make a prediction.• Stop and think about what you have alreadyread.• Ask yourself a question and try to answer it.• Reflect in writing on what you have read.• Visualize.• Use print conventions.• Retell what you’ve read.• Reread.• Notice patterns in text structure.• Adjust your reading rate: slow down or speed up.
Making connections helps readers! Remember the following techniques to make connections: • Relate to characters. • Visualize. • Avoid boredom, if you start to get bored…take a short break. • Pay attention, take your reading seriously. • Listen to others’ ideas about the reading. • Read actively. • Remember what they read. • Ask questions.
Voices: What you “hear” whenyou are reading • Reciting Voice The voice a reader hears when he is only reciting the words and not drawing meaning from the text. • Conversation Voice The voice that has a conversation with the text. It represents the reader’s thinking as he/she talks back to the text in an interactive way. It can take two forms: o Interacting Voice This voice encourages the reader to infer, make connections, ask questions, and synthesize information. o Distracting Voice This voice pulls the reader away from the text.
Text-to-Reader Connections:How to relate to your reading• Text to self: Connections between the text andthe reader’s experiences and memories. The moreexperiences and memories a reader has about atopic, the easier the material is to read.• Text to world: Connections the reader makesbetween the text and what he knows about theworld (facts and information).• Text to text: Connections the reader makesbetween two or more types of texts. The readermay make connections relative to plot, content,structure, or style.
Questioning/I Wonder… Questions can be more powerful than answers. Good readers ask questions throughout the reading process: before, during, and after reading. Readers who ask questions when they read assume responsibility for their learning and improve their comprehension in four ways: • By interacting with text. • By motivating themselves to read. • By clarifying information in the text. • By inferring beyond the literal meaning.
Correcting ConfusionComprehension Technique:• Sticky NotesPlace sticky notes next to passagesthat cause confusion so that you canreturn to them.• HighlightersUse highlighters to mark places youunderstand (pink) and places that areconfusing (yellow).
Understanding PurposeA reader’s purpose affects everything about reading. Itdetermines what’s important in the text, what isremembered, and what comprehension strategy a readeruses to enhance meaning.Comprehension Technique:• Read the article and circle what you think is important.• Read the piece again, and this time use a pink highlighterto mark places in the text that a _____ would find important.• Read the piece again, and this time use a yellowhighlighter to mark places in the text that a _____ would findimportant.• What did you notice about the three times youhighlighted. The first time was probably the hardest becauseyou had no purpose.
DiscoveringMeaning/Vocabulary• Look it up!! Do not be afraid to use adictionary. (Free dictionary apps foryour smart phone are even available!)• Look at the structure of the word. Isthere a familiar prefix, root, or suffix?• Use the glossary.• Read the words around the unknownword. Can another word be substituted?
Thinking AloudGood readers engage in mental processes before, during,and after they read in order to comprehend text. Theystop often to think out loud and describe what is going onin their minds as they read.Comprehension Technique:• Select a short piece of text.• Foresee difficulty.• Read the text out loud and stop often to share yourthinking.• Point out the words in the text that trigger your thinking. o I am reminded of _____ o I wonder _________ o I am confused _____________ o I notice that this piece is organize like this _________.
Marking TextMarking text helps readers pay attention andremember what they read.Comprehension Technique:• Assign codes to the types of thinking in which youengage. As you read, mark these codes next to thepassages in the text that trigger these kinds of thinkingand explain the connection. o C = connection reader makes to own life and text o ? = questions reader has about text o I = inference or conclusion reader draws from text• Read the text.• Use sticky notes to attach to appropriate spots.• Use highlighters. Use yellow to highlight portion notunderstood. Write a fix-up strategy next to it.
Double-entry Diaries (DED)DEDs are similar to taking notes.Comprehension Techniques:• Divide page in half with questions and main ideas onthe left and specific information on the right.• Divide page in half with direct quote from text andpage number on the left and thinking options on theright (reader’s reactions).• Divide page in half with facts or details on the leftand author’s message on the right.• Divide page in half with confusing part in text on theleft and reader’s attempt to get unstuck on the right.• Divide page in half with new/confusing vocabularyon the left and reader’s knowledge on the right.
Comprehension ConstructorsThis requires readers to use two or more thinkingstrategies.Comprehension Technique:• Call up any background knowledge you have abouttopic in the text.• Read the text.• As you read the piece, you should have a number ofquestions. Jot them down (at least 3) in the marginswhere they occur to you.• At the end of the piece, write a response. It shouldbe a paragraph of at least four sentences.• Look back at the questions you asked. Write the threebest questions below and then decide where theanswers to the questions can be found: in the text, inyour head, in another source.
Sources: “Study Skills Activities: Reading as a Study Skill.” Montana State Literacy Resources: A Service of the National Institute of Literacy. http://www.nwlincs.org/mtlincs/pilotproje ct/studyskills/studyskillsindex.htm “Academic Support Guides: Reading Comprehension.” Cuesta College. http://academic.cuesta.edu/acasupp/as /300INDEX.HTM