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The Electric Propulsion Systems

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The Future option for marine power plant

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The Electric Propulsion Systems

  1. 1. THE ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS Presented By : Mohamed Gamal Hussien & AhmedYasser Soliman Under the supervision of :
  2. 2. 1 • Overview ofThe Conventional Power Plants in Marine System. 2 • The Electric Propulsion System . 3 • Types of Electric Propulsion System . 4 • Electric propulsion system components . 5 • The Advantages and the Disadvantages of the Electric Propulsion 6 • Case Study. 7 • FutureTrends of Power Electronics and Drives . 8 • Conclusion
  3. 3. OVERVIEW OF THE CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANTS IN MARINE SYSTEM : CHAPTER (1) :
  4. 4. Selection of marine power plant system 1. Reliability. 2. Machinery space and arrangement 3. Machinery weight and volume requirements 4. Type of fuel and fuel consumption 5. Machinery costs . 6. Interrelations with auxiliaries 7. Maintainability 8. Vibration and noise . 9. Reversing capability . 10. Operating personal .
  5. 5. Classification of Conventional Marine Power Plants Diesel Engine Power Plant Steam turbine power plant Gas turbine power plant Nuclear power plant Combined power plants
  6. 6. Diesel Engine Power Plant The Main demerits of marine diesel engines in conventional system 1. The DE is slightly greater weight compare to the gas turbine for the same power . 2. The high speed DE provides high fraction losses in operation particularly at partial loads . 3. The DE has a high fuel consumption at partial load . 4. The high and medium speed engine must coupled to a GEAR BOX .
  7. 7. Fuel consumption of the DE : The efficiency drops fast as the load becomes lower than 50% of MCR. At this working condition, the combustion is inefficient, with high NOx and SOx content , and with a high degree of soothing which increases the need for maintenance .
  8. 8. Snaky Diagram of the DE
  9. 9. Steam turbine power plant The Disadvantages Of Steam Power Plant : 1. Fuel consumption is considerably higher than the diesel engine . 2. Low Efficiency engine compared to Diesel Engine . 4. Capital cost of the Steam power plant is high . 3. Turbines must run at high speed for best efficiency so a high ratio reduction gear is essential to obtain an economical propeller speed .
  10. 10. Efficiency of the steam power plant :
  11. 11. Emissions of the Steam Power Plant :
  12. 12. Gas turbine power plant The Disadvantages of GasTurbine system . 1- The GasTurbine has high fuel consumption . 2- It needs a big reduction gear and reversing mechanism . 3- It requires large area and space for the inlet air system .
  13. 13. Nuclear power plants The Disadvantages Of The Nuclear Power Plant are : 1. Reactor plants are heavy and require very dense shielding to contain radiation . 2. The high capital costs of installation , operation and maintenance .
  14. 14. Combined power plants Disadvantage : 1- Their complexity . 2- Occupying large machinery space . 3- Higher first and installation cost .
  15. 15. The First cost of the combined power plants compared to Diesel power plant :
  16. 16. THE ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEM CHAPTER (2):
  17. 17. History Of Electric Propulsion … more than 170 years 1839: a small Russian ferry was built which was propelled by an electric motor fed by a storage battery.  In 1903 / 1904 , diesel engines were reliable enough to be used as ship propulsion but they were still non-reversible. At that time, electric power transmission therefore was the only method to overcome this basic technical problem. After the rather experimental applications of battery driven electric propulsion at the end of the 19th century took place in Russia and Germany…
  18. 18. • As a result of the strong competence of reducing transatlantic crossing times for passenger liners. • the high propulsion power demand could only be achieved by turbo-electric machinery. First generation of electric propulsion 1920’S Steam turbine generators provided electric power that was used to drive the 29MW synchronous electrical motors on each of the four screw shafts.
  19. 19. Second generation of electric propulsion 1980’S • In the middle of the 20th century ,diesel engines appeared with : 1- High efficiency. 2- Economical value. Therefore, steam turbine technology and electric propulsion disappeared from merchant marine vessels.
  20. 20. • The development of variable speed electric drives : • First by the AC/DC rectifier in the 1970’s . • Second by the AC/DC converters in the early 1980’s. • These solutions were firstly used in special vessels like survey ships and icebreakers, but also in cruise vessels. • “S/S Queen Elizabeth II” was converted to electric propulsion in the mid 1980’s.
  21. 21. Breakthrough for Electric Propulsion 1990’S • Podded propulsion was introduced in early 1990’s where the electric motor is installed directly on the FPP shaft in a submerged, rotatable pod. • Enhance the performance of icebreakers, it benefits on hydrodynamic efficiency and maneuverability. • After the fist application in a cruise liner, “M/S Elation”, podded propulsion became a standard on new cruise liners.
  22. 22. The market for electrical propulsion will grow significantly 0 % 5 % 10 % 15 % 20 % 25 % 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 2003 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 ELECTRICALANDHYBRIDPROPULSIONSHAREOFTOTAL ORDEREDVESSELS ORDEREDVESSELS# Ordered vessels over 2000GT by vessel number, (ABB Estimate) Share of vessels with electrical propulsion, % (ABB Estimate) Electrical propulsion share of vessels by number, % (ABB estimate based on Diesel&Gas Turbine Worldwide 2010)  Electric propulsion has become the technology of choice for several vessel segments due to the fuel efficiency and low emissions.  Electric propulsion will become as the solution for new merchant vessel segments, e.g.: container, dry cargo vessels.  Electrical propulsion vessels are projected to represent 20% of vessel numbers in 2020.
  23. 23. CHAPTER (3) : TYPES OF ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEM
  24. 24. Types of electric propulsion system 1- DIESEL ELECTRIC MACHINERY SYSTEM . 2- CODED “COMBINED DIESEL-ELECTRIC AND DIESEL-MECHANICAL MACHINERY ” . 3- DUAL FUEL ELECTRIC PROPULSION . 4- CODLAG ” COMBINED DIESEL-ELECTRIC AND GAS MACHINARY ” . 5- COGES “ COMBINED-CYCLE GAS AND STEAMTURBINE ELECTRIC MACHINERY ” .
  25. 25. 1- Diesel-electric propulsion system By using diesel electric propulsion, we will able to operate diesel engines at : 1- Raise the overall efficiency. 2- Reducing emissions. 3- Making the ship greener.  A medium speed diesel engine has a low fuel consumption at the optimum operation point.
  26. 26. 3- Dual fuel electric propulsion  Most of regulations focus on NOX and SOX emissions that for the most part, have a local impact on the environment.  The only ways for ships to reduce their CO2 emissions are either to reduce fuel consumption is natural gas.  Switching from HFO to natural gas will significantly reduce all important exhaust gas emissions from a ship, including a 30% reduction in CO2 emissions .
  27. 27. 4- CODLAG: This means that there is at least one diesel engine and one gas turbine driving generators to create electric power for both the propulsion and the hotel side. The CODLAG concept was to be able to operate without any smoke formation in special areas such as Alaska.
  28. 28. Gas turbines are directly connected to the alternators. Heat-recovery boilers are fitted in the gas turbine exhaust lines and the resulting superheated steam (at approximately 30bar) is led to a steam turbo alternator. This solution changes completely the properties of a simple-cycle turbine; whereas gas turbine efficiency decrease at low load, the steam turbine recovers the lost power. 5- COGES: Heat for ship’s services is taken directly from the steam turbine exhaust (back-pressure turbine), and thus there is normally no need to fire-up auxiliary boilers.
  29. 29. General comparison : Total fuel cost COGES HIGHERTHAN CODLAG & DIESEL-ELECTRIC Weight of the machinery CODLAG LOWERTHAN DIESEL-ELECTRIC The space needed COGES SMALLERTHAN DIESEL-ELECTRIC All these systems have the advantages of electric propulsion but with different values  The CODED machinery is better than diesel-electric machinery combines the benefits Reduce : The first cost The fuel consumption.  Compare between dual fuel electric machinery and other systems Offers significantly lower emission levels
  30. 30. Electric propulsion system components CHAPTER (4):
  31. 31. How can the System work ?
  32. 32. Electric propulsion system components: ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION Prime mover. Generators. Energy storage system. ELECTRIC POWER DISTRIBUTION Energy Transmission “SWITCHBOARDS” Transformers, filters and power converters. ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION Electric propulsion motors. Propulsion units.
  33. 33. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION: 1-The prime mover : The function of the prime mover is to deliver mechanical energy which will be converted into electrical energy. • May be one of the following:  Diesel engine  Gas turbine  Steam turbine  Combined cycles
  34. 34. 2- Generators : A device that converts mechanical energy obtained from prime mover into electrical energy. Wound rotor synchronous generator. Permanent magnet synchronous generator. 3- Energy storage system: Batteries Super capacitors
  35. 35. 2-Transformers, filters and power converters: Transformers and filters. AC/DC converters. Variable frequency converters. 1- EnergyTransmission “SWITCHBOARD” AC transmission. DC transmission.  ELECTRIC POWER DISTRIBUTION:
  36. 36. ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION: The electrical motor is the most commonly used device for conversion from electrical to mechanical power and is used for electric propulsion. 1- Electric propulsion motors Induction motors. Synchronous motors. Permanent magnet motors. High temp. superconductor motors.
  37. 37. 2- Propulsion units Shaft propulsion Azimuth thrusters Podded Propulsion
  38. 38. • Podded Propulsion benefits : 1- Increases the hydrodynamic efficiency of the propeller. 2- Reduces the risk for cavitation. 3- Reduced noise and vibrations. Podded propulsion units have been in operation in a decade in cruise vessels, icebreakers, service vessels and tankers.
  39. 39. CHAPTER (5) : The Advantages and the Disadvantages of the Electric Propulsion
  40. 40. THE ADVANTAGES OF THE ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEM : Flexibility of layout It is estimated that a reduction of about 30% volume is possible compared to the conventional mechanical drive system
  41. 41. Load diversity There are advantages in having a single central power generation facility which can service the propulsion and all other ship loads as required . Fuel savings For ships spending more time at low speed, fewer engines can run at full power, resulting in greater energy efficiency and hence less fuel consumption. The navy ship with IEP may save an estimated 15–25% in fuel compared to a similar ship with mechanical drive. The lifetime cost saving from reduced fuel consumption may exceed the higher initial procurement cost of electrical propulsion .
  42. 42. The Norwegian Epic cruise ship It has a beneficial impact on the environment from reducing fuel consumption by 14,000 tons per year .
  43. 43. Greater maneuverability The use of podded propulsion can permit a tighter turning radius and give an ability to change the direction or orientation of the ship even at very low speeds Moreover, the speed and direction of the prime mover need not be changed to affect the speed, direction, and rotation of the propeller For icebreakers, ferries, tugboats, oceanographic vessels , and cable-laying ships that require frequent speed changes and direction reversals, electric propulsion offers a great advantage over mechanical propulsion .
  44. 44. Low noise An electric motor is able to provide a drive with very low vibration characteristics and this is of importance in warships, oceanographic survey vessels and cruise ships where, for different reasons, a low noise signature is required . Higher automation The electric propulsion system can be designed to be highly automated and self-monitoring , hence requiring less maintenance and fewer crew members to operate than with a mechanical drive system.
  45. 45. Best Complementation with the propeller
  46. 46. Economical part-load running Part-load in a conventional system .
  47. 47. Part-load in an electrical system .
  48. 48. Low Emissions
  49. 49. Disadvantages of System Lower overall energy efficiency for ships running at full-rated speed all the time due to losses Higher initial capital cost Different and improved training for ship’s crew as the system is completely different from mechanical system and involves major automation.
  50. 50. Losses Component Fuel ( 100 % ) 53 % Prime mover 47 % 4 % Generation 45.12 % 1 % Distribution 44.67 % 1 % Transformers 44.22 % 4 % Propulsion convertor 42.45 % 4 % Propulsion Motor 40.75 % lower overall energy efficiency for ships running at full-rated speed all the time due to losses
  51. 51. Losses Component Fuel ( 100 % ) 43.6 % Variable speed Prime mover Estimated 20 % improvement in efficiency 56.9 % 4 % HTS generation 54.14 % 0.77 % DC Distribution estimated 23 % reduction in losses 53.72 % 3.16 % Use silicon- carbide Propulsion convertor estimated 21 % reduction in losses 52.02 % 4 % HTS Propulsion Motor 49.94 % The solutions :
  52. 52. MISC Berhad
  53. 53. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has designed and constructed an electric propulsion carrier for MISC Berhad that makes use of dual-fuel diesel engines. This paper describes our dual-fuel diesel–electric propulsion LNG carrier, which is the first ship of its kind constructed in Japan.
  54. 54. The measured fuel oil consumption rate (FOCR) of this carrier during its sea trial and FOCR of an identical horsepower steam-turbine propulsion plant are shown in Figure . The propeller shaft horsepower FOCR indicated approximately 20% energy savings compared to the steam- turbine propulsion plant .
  55. 55. FutureTrends of Power Electronics and Drives CHAPTER (6) :
  56. 56. Quick Charging Plug-in Electric Boat “ RAICHO-I ”
  57. 57. Main Specification of the boat : - 18 [kWh] lithiumion battery of which weight is about 400 [kg] - 80 % of full charge of the battery can be recharged by the quick charger within -30 [min] -The operational time with the full charged battery is about 45 [min]. - the motor power is about 25 [kW] . -The maximum speed of “RAICHO-I” is about 10 [knots] with half load and 8.5 [knots] with full load. Full load means 2 crews and 10 passengers on board.
  58. 58. The world's first electrical ferry “ AMBER ”
  59. 59. Length 80 m Wide 20 m Electric motor 2 each with 450 KW output Material Aluminum . Batteries 10 ton Passengers about 360 vehicles about 120 ferry travels 6 Km across the fjord 34 times a day, with each trip taking around 20 minutes.
  60. 60. The Norled ferry will consume around two million kWh per year, whereas a traditional diesel ferry consumes at least one million liters of diesel a year and emits 570 tons of CO2 and 15 metric tons of NOx Reduces cost of fuel by 60 percent Ferry only uses 150 kilowatt hours (kWh) per route
  61. 61. Batteries lithium-ion batteries which are charged from hydro power. The 260-kWh-units supply electricity to the ferry while it waits. More efficient and less expensive in the next few years, which tip the scales further away from diesel as the most popular fuel source. Developed by Siemens and Norwegian shipyard Fjellstrand, the vessel can recharge its batteries in just ten minutes.
  62. 62. ADVANTAGES OF All-ELECTRIC SYSTEM : 1- Zero emission of NOx, SOx and CO2 when running . 2- Low noise and vibration . 3- No smell of exhaust gas . 4- 50 – 70 % of CO2 can be reduced by electric boats compared with conventional boats.
  63. 63. Conclusion: Using Electric Propulsion System means : 1- Increase space for payload. 2- Less maintenance of generator sets. 3- Improve dynamic response and maneuverability. 4- Up to 25 % fuel saving. 5- Low emissions.
  64. 64. Any

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