This is a very basic primer I once created to teach a staff of technical writers about instructional design. It was not designed for non-verbal delivery, but it will give you an idea of basic ISD concepts.
Training is… The achievement of pre-determined learning objectives through planned instructional techniques The transfer of knowledge, skills & attitude (KSA) • Training focuses on influencing attitude, providing knowledge and transferring skills Developed through a systematic process known as instructional design or instructional systems design
The analysis of learning needs and systematic development of instruction to meet those needs Models typically specify a method, that if followed will facilitate the transfer of knowledge, skills and attitude to the learner Some Names to Know and Resources: • Robert Mager • Robert Gagne • Benjamin Bloom • Walter Dick, Lou and James Carey (Dick & Carey) • Ruth Clark • M. David Merrill http://www.instructionaldesign.org/ http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/sat.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructional_design http://www.afc-ispi.org/Repository/hptprimer.html
Analyze ADDIE Determine needs and Analyze performance gapEvaluate Design Write learning objectives Design Plan the training Develop evaluation plan Develop Build the course Implement Teach or make available Implement Develop Measure effectiveness or Evaluate impact
Objective Part Description Example Statement describing Given 5 case examples where a Condition circumstances under which clear need is presented… behavior is to be performed The agent will determine and Behavior What the student will say or do explain why term or whole life insurance is a better choice Statement that specifies how Within 5 minutes per case, with Criterion well the student must perform 80% accuracy (4 of 5 cases). the behaviorAt the end of this module, given <a set of conditions>, you will be able to <action verband behavior> to <criterion - level of accuracy>.
Chunk Sequence 1 2 3 4 5 Layer C. Then This B. Then This 6 4 A. This First 5 3 1 2
A Simple Method That Works: Tell: Provide the information, knowledge, expectations. • Include “What, Why, and How” (and sometimes, “When and Where”) • Have them verbally summarize their understanding to your satisfaction Show: Demonstrate how to do it • Have them demonstrate it back to you, to your satisfaction Do: Set expectations and have them do it • Observe them do it Review: • Provide feedback and shape their behavior appropriately • Have them do it again, using the feedback • Cycle between Do and Review until they master it • Monitor results after that, coaching as required.
Adults: Want to know why they should invest the time Need to feel responsible for their own learning Bring valuable experience to learning Are ready to learn when the need arises Are task-oriented (hands-on, activity-based)
Find ways to restate and review important concepts Get them doing something (Tell, Show, Do, Review) Engage multiple senses when possible Separate review and learning assessment • Review helps them and doesn’t need to be scored • Consider scoring assessments – they tell us whether students “got it” and helps us know how we’re doing, too (was the course effective?)
Write great objectives Think ADDIE but don’t get locked into a linear model Using objectives as a guide, how deep do they need to go per topic (per Bloom)? Design accordingly Keep Gagne’s Nine Events in mind – flow the events where you can Use the “Tell, Show, Do, Review” method – make training active Treat learners like adults Chunk, sequence and layer Repeat key points where possible Repeat key points where possible Review for them, assess for us.
Transfer, when it occurs, does so via strategy or luck • Note: Strategy is better! (Hope is not a business strategy.) Transfer is a purposeful, shared responsibility What will each stakeholder do to ensure transfer occurs? will Stakeholder Before During After Learner Trainer Learner’s SupervisorAdapted from Broad and Newstom’s book: Transfer Of Training: Action-packed Strategies To EnsureHigh Payoff From Training Investment
ReactionLearning Names to Know Donald, Jim and Wendy KirkpatrickApplication of Kirkpatrick Partners Jack and Patti Phillips of the ROI InstituteResults Jac Fitz-enz of Success Factors and founder, Saratoga InstituteROI / ROE (Expectations)
Stolovitch & Keeps: Telling Ain’t Training Mager: The New Mager Six-Pack Hodell: ISD From the Ground Up Swanson: Analysis for Improving Performance 15