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Contempor
Prof. Sam B
2/14/202
Globalization
• Manfred Stager
• Process as Expansion and
Intensification of social relations
and consciousness across world
time and across work-space.
• Expansion
• Multiplication of existing
connections that cut across
traditional political, economic,
cultural and geographic
boundaries
• Social Media
• Global Connection
• NGO
• Networks that connect specific group e.g.
global social advocates and activists
2
Globalization
Intensification
• Refers to the expansion, stretching
and acceleration of networks
• Connections are multiplying,
becoming more closely-knit and
expanding their reach
• E.g. Strong financial market
between London and New York,
advent of electronic trading, volume
of electronic trade increase thus the
world becomes financially
integrated
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
3
Globalization
Globalism
• Widespread
belief among
powerful people
that the global
integration of
economic
markets is
beneficial for
everyone
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
4
Globalization
Arjun Appadurai
Anthropologist who proposed that kinds of
globalization occur on multiple and intersecting
dimensions of integration
Ethnoscape
• Global movement of people
Mediascape
• Flow of culture
Technoscape
• Circulation of mechanical goods and software
Financescape
• Global Circulation of Money
Ideoscape
• Realm where political ideas move around
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
5
Exchang
e
Culture
Oil
Youth
Money
Obligation
News
Economic Globalization
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
Economic Globalization
• International Monetary Fund:
Historical process representing the
result of human innovation and
technological progress
• Characteristic: Increasing
integration of economies around
the world through the movement of
goods, services and capital across
borders
• GDP Trade: From 42.1% in 1980
to 62.1% in 2007
• Mode: From Physical Matter to
Downloadable Data E.g. Books to E-
books and CDs to iTunes
6
Economic Globalization
• International Trading System
Silk Road
• Oldest known international
trade route
• From China through Middle East
to Europe
• Opened by Han dynasty in 130
BC until closed by Ottoman
empire in 1453 AD
• International only but not
Global since it did not reach
America
Gold
• Common basis for currency
prices and fixed exchange rate
system led by Europe and US at
the International Money
Conference in 1867 Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
>
/
Economic Globalization
Bretton Wood System
• Inaugurated in 1944 during the UN
Monetary and Financial Conference
• Aim is to prevent past financial
catastrophes (Usually brought by wars)
from reoccurring and affecting
international ties.
John Maynard Keynes
• Influenced Bretton Wood System
• Believed that economic crisis occur
not when a country does not have
enough money, but when is not being
spent and, thereby, not moving
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
8
Economic Globalization
Bretton Wood System
• Created financial institutions:
• World Bank or International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
• Reconstruct War and devastated world
cities
• International Monetary Fund (IMF)
• Global Lender to prevent countries from
credit crises
Global Keynesianism
• Role of governments in managing
spending
General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade (GATT)
• Created in 1947 with the purpose of
reducing tariffs and other hindrance
to free trade
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
Global Politics
International Relations
• Jeremy Bentham
• British Philosopher in 1780
• Coined the word "International"
• Political interactions between states
World Politics
• Key Attributes
• Countries/ States are Independent
• Countries/ States interact with each
other with diplomacy
• United Nations (UN) facilitates these
interactions
• UN has agencies e.g. World Health
Organization (WHO), World Food
Organization (WFO) and International
Labor Organization (ILO)
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
10
Global Politics
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
STATE
• Country and its government
• Attributes
• Territory
• Sovereign over its territory
• Internal Sovereignty
• Laws abided by International
Organizations operating inside the
State
• External Sovereignty
• Independent from intervention
from other state
• Government
• Authority over its citizens
11
Nation
• Benedict Anderson:
Imagined Community
i.e. feeling of
connection with
community even he
will not meet them in
his lifetime
• E.g. Filipino
cheering for Manny
Pacquiao even he
do not personally
know the Filipino
Athlete
• E.g. Bangsamoro is
a nation seeking to
become a state
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Global Politics
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
Global Politics
Metternich System
• Named after Klemens von Metternich
• Austrian Diplomat
• Architect of Metternich System to counter Napoleon
Bonaparte
• Restored the "Great powers"
Great Powers
• United Kingdom, China, Russia, France and United
State
• Still hold significant influence over world politics
Internationalism
• Interaction between various sovereign states,
particularly the desire for greater cooperation and
unity among states
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM 13
ACTIVITY: Create a concept map about Globalization
Global Governance
• International Organization
• Powers:
• Classification
• E.g. Classifying Refugees
(Foreign, Alien,
Immigrants etc.)
• Fix Meanings
• E.g. Security as Safety
from Military Violence
and Environmental Harm
• Diffuse Norms
• Norms are accepted
codes of conduct that
may be strict law and
produce regularity in
behavior
• Establishing Global
Standards of Norms
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
Global Governance
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
International Organization
• United Nations
• Most important International Organization
• Created after World War II
• Primary Goal is to avert another global war
• Has 193 Member States
• Five Organs:
• General Assembly (GA)
• Main deliberative Policymaking and
representative organ
• Decides on most important questions e.g.
peace and security, admission of new
members and budgetary matters
• Require 2/3 of the members to decide
15
Global Governance
• International Organization
• United Nations
• Five Organs:
• General Assembly (GA)
• Elects GA President
annually for 1 term of office
• Carlos P. Romulo (President,
GA, 1949-1950)
• Security Council
• Most Powerful Organ
• Consist of 15 Member States
(10 Elected by GA for 2-year Term
and the other is known as the
Permanent 5 (China,
France, Russia, UK and US)
which is permanent from
the founding of UN and
cannot be replaced through
election
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
16
Global Governance
• International Organization
• United Nations
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
Five Organs:
• Security Council
• Takes the lead in determining the existence
of threat to the peace or an act of aggression
• Calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle
the act by peaceful means and recommends
methods of adjustment or terms of
settlement
• Can resort to imposing sanctions or even
authorizing the use of force to maintain or
restore international peace and security
• Permanent 5 (P5) member has veto power
to stop a Security Council action dead in its
tracts. Hence P5 is heir to the tradition of
great power di lc macy of Metternich System
Global Governance
International Organization
• United Nations
• Five Organs:
• Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
• Principal Body for coordination, policy
review, policy dialogue and
recommendations on social and
environmental issues as well as the
implementation of internationally agreed
development goals
• Has 54 States Members elected for 3-year
terms.
• Central platform for discussion on
sustainable development
• International Court of Justice
• Task is to settle, in accordance to
international law, legal disputes submitted
to it by states and to give advisory
opinions
• Different from International Criminal
Court
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
18
Global Governance
International Organization
• United Nations
• Five Organs:
• Secretariat
• Consist of Secretary General and
10,000 international UN Staff
members "intlMIIH
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
19
Global Governance
International Organization
• United Nations
• Salvador P. Lopez
• Filipino
• Chairman, UN Commission on
Human Rights
• Designed the system whereby
any citizen of any state may
petition the UN to look into
human rights violations in a
country
• Limitations:
• UN is not a World Government
• Function because of
voluntary cooperation from
states e.g. rapporteurs
must be invited and placed
under conditions by the
state being investigated
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
20
World of Regions
Governments, Associations,
Societies, Groups
• Form regional organizations or
networks as way of coping with
the challenges of globalization
• E.g. Association of Southeast
Asian Nations (ASEAN)
• Member countries: Brunei,
Cambodia, Lao, Malaysia,
Myanmar, Philippines,
Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam,
Regions
• Not natural
• Constructed and defined
by policymakers
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
21
World of Regions
Regions
• Edward D. Mansfield and
Helen V. Milner: A group of
countries located in the same
geographically specified area
Regionalization
• Regional concentration of
economic flaws
Regionalism
• Political process characterize
by economic policy cooperation
and coordination among countries
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
22
World of Regions
China
• Large country, have
enough resources, offers its
cheap and huge workforce
to attract foreign businesses
and expand trade with
countries it once considered
its enemies (US, Japan) but
now sees as markets for its
goods
Singapore and Switzerland
• Compensate for their lack
of resources by turning their
themselves into financial
and banking hubs
Assets
managed for
non-residents,
2014
Number of
private
banks in
Switzerland
Source: FT
research
Photo:
Dreamstime
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
23
World of Regions
Singapore
• Developed its harbor facilities
and made them a first class transit
port for ships carrying different
commodities from Africa, Europe,
Middle East, Southeast Asia and
Asia-Pacific
Regional Associations
• Purpose
• Military Defense e.g. North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (NATO) was
formed during the Cold War when
several Western European
countries plus the United States
agreed to protect Europe against
the treat of Soviet Union
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
24
World of Regions
Organization of the
Petroleum Exporting
Countries (OPEC)
• Members: Iran,
Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi
Arabia and
Venezuela
• Established in 1960
• Member countries
pool their resources,
get better return for
their exports and
expand their
leverage against
their trading
partners
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
World of Regions
• Non-aligned Movement (NAM)
• Members: Egypt, Ghana, India, Indonesia
and Yugoslavia
• Established in 1961
• Member countries form regional blocks to
protect their independence from pressures of
superpower politics
• Created to pursue world peace,
international cooperation, human rights,
national sovereignty, racial and national
inequality, non-intervention and peaceful
conflict resolution
• Called "non-aligned" because of refusal to
side with either the First World capitalist
democracies in Western Europe and North
America or the communist states in Eastern
Europe
• Members today: 120 countries
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
26
World of Regions
Non-State Regionalism
• Rainforest Foundation
• Established by activists to protect
indigenous peoples and rainforests in
Brazil, Guyana, Panama and Peru
• Regional Interfaith Youth Networks
• Formed by youth Christians across
Asia, Africa, Middle East, America and
Caribbean
• Migrant Forum in Asia
• Network of NGOs and trade unions
committed in protecting and promoting
the rights and welfare of migrant
workers
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
27
1
1
.
Media and Globalization
• Media
• Jack Lule: Conveying something such as
channel of communication
• Plural of medium (In between)
• Marshall McLuhan: Media (Referring on
television since he wrote this in 1960)
reshape social behavior and reorient family
behavior. Media are turning the world into a
"global village."
• Hello Kitty
• Proof of Japan's influence over global
culture
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
28
Global City
• Globalization
• Spatial because it occurs in physical
spaces e.g. Skyscrapers
• People in urban areas: 30% in 1950
to 54% in 2014 and expected to reach
66% in 2050
• Global City
• Saskia Sassen
• Sociologist
• Popularized "global city" in 1990s
• Criteria of Global City: Primarily
Economic
• Global Cities: New York, London and
Tokyo
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
29
Global City
Stock Exchange
• New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) in
New York, USA
• Financial Times Stock Exchange
(FTSE) in London, UK
• Nikkei in Tokyo, Japan
• Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE)
Shanghai, China
• Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE) in
Manila, Philippines
Money Trading Comparison
• NYSE - $ 19,300 B
• PSE -$ 231.3 B
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
30
I City
• Global City Attributes
• Economic power
• Market Size (Number of traders)
• Purchasing power of citizens
• Size of middle class (businessmen)
• Center of Authority (Capital cities)
• Shanghai
• Worlds busiest container port with over 33 Million
container units moved in 2013
• Singapore (City, Island and Country)
• Asia's most competitive city
• Strong market
• Efficient and incorruptible government
• Livability
• Houses regional offices of many global corporations
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
31
Global City
• Global City Attributes
• Political Influence
• Washington D.C.
• Seat of American state of
power
• Brussels, Belgium
• Headquarters of European
Union
• New York
• Headquarters of United
Nations
• Jakarta, Indonesia
• Headquarters of ASEAN
• Frankfurt, Germany
• European Central Bank
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
32
Global City
Global City Attributes
• Higher learning and culture
• New York
• New York Times Newspaper
• Boston
• Harvard University
• Los Angeles
• Hollywood
• San Francisco
• Headquarters of Facebook, Twitter and Google
• Copenhagen, Denmark
• Culinary capital of the world
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
33
Global City
Gentrification
• Driving out of the poor in favor of
newer and wealthier residents
Banlieue
• Poor Muslim migrants are forced
out of Paris and have clustered
around ethnic enclaves in France
H 1 f 1 j 1
m 1* K i * - i R
1 i-;Si'FF™ ....... . .
. .
. "
mi * *»■,
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
34
Movement andSustainability
• Global Demography
• Number of children
• Rural and Poor Urban
• Tend to have more children for farming (Crop
cultivation, planting harvesting) and hawk their
wares on streets
• Urbanized, educated and professionals
• Tend to have fewer children
• Tied down or committed to profession
• Lesser time to devote to kids and parenting
• Saving plans on healthcare and education of
children
• Have more access to birth control
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
35
• Food
• Eaten that satisfies
appetite in order to
meet physiological
needs for growth,
maintaining body
processes and
supply energy to
maintain body heat
and activities
• One of the most
crucial needs of
human beings
• People cannot live
and survive without
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Food
' '*a
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
Food
Functions of Food
• Maintains
physiological process
by giving sustenance
to the body
• Symbolic
experience and
representation
• Continuum life
for the human
species
• Shape national
boundaries and
identities
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
37
Food
Pillars of Food
Security
• Food
Availability
•
Sufficient
and
consisten
t
quantities
• Food
Access
• Enough
resources
to obtain
• Food Use
•
Nutrition
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
38
Ufgji
* * ' 'x- ■
~ it i TA
■ ■ 1 ■" ................
k ™ _____ H
Global Migration
• Migration
• Movement of people from one place to another
• Domestic/ Internal Migration
• Within Country
• Foreign/ International Migration
• Outside Country
• Immigrants
• Permanently moved to another country
• Workers in fixed period
• E.g. 6 months
• Illegal Immigrants
• Alien
• Petitioned Migrants
• By families
• Refugees
• Asylum
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
39
Global Migration
• Migration
• Emigration
• Going-out of Country
• Immigration
• Coming-in of Country
• Migrants
• 247 Million as of 2018
• 90% Workers
• 10% Asylee
• 18% from Latin America
• 16% from Eastern Europe and
Central Asia
• 14% from Middle East and North Africa
• Destination: Europe, Middle East
and United States
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
40
Global Migration
• Remittance
• $ 580 B in 2014
• India ($ 70 B)
• China ($ 62 B)
• Philippines ($ 28 B)
• Mexico ($ 25 B)
• Brain Drain
• 52% of Filipino college graduate
migrated
• 23% of Filipino population
• White/Blue Collar change
• From Doctors, Engineers and
Managers to Industrial and Domestic
Works
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
41
Activity
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
Topic
• Migration
Situation
• As an OFW
Instruction
• Discussion
• Cite an OFW (Family,
Relatives, Friends, Neighbor, et
al)
Question
• What changed in their house,
dress, vehicles?
• How are people cope with
frequent departure and arrival?
• What changed happened to
migrant in the way they dress,
Global Migration
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
Human
Trafficking
• 3rd largest global
crime in 2012
according to FBI
• Victims of
Forced Labor (21 M
people) equivalent
to 3 of every 1000
person worldwide
• Sexually abused
(22% or 4.5 M
person)
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM 43
• It Is Finished!
Consumatum Est
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM
Contemporary World
Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
44
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted, in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of the publisher.
Published in the Republic
of the Philippines.
2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM n , r
K
Prof. Sam
orary World
Bernales, Jr.
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8293
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The-Contemporary-World.ppt

  • 1. Tell your insights to following illustrations
  • 2.
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  • 8. Globalization • Manfred Stager • Process as Expansion and Intensification of social relations and consciousness across world time and across work-space. • Expansion • Multiplication of existing connections that cut across traditional political, economic, cultural and geographic boundaries • Social Media • Global Connection • NGO • Networks that connect specific group e.g. global social advocates and activists 2
  • 9. Globalization Intensification • Refers to the expansion, stretching and acceleration of networks • Connections are multiplying, becoming more closely-knit and expanding their reach • E.g. Strong financial market between London and New York, advent of electronic trading, volume of electronic trade increase thus the world becomes financially integrated 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 3
  • 10. Globalization Globalism • Widespread belief among powerful people that the global integration of economic markets is beneficial for everyone 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 4
  • 11. Globalization Arjun Appadurai Anthropologist who proposed that kinds of globalization occur on multiple and intersecting dimensions of integration Ethnoscape • Global movement of people Mediascape • Flow of culture Technoscape • Circulation of mechanical goods and software Financescape • Global Circulation of Money Ideoscape • Realm where political ideas move around 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 5
  • 13. Economic Globalization 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. Economic Globalization • International Monetary Fund: Historical process representing the result of human innovation and technological progress • Characteristic: Increasing integration of economies around the world through the movement of goods, services and capital across borders • GDP Trade: From 42.1% in 1980 to 62.1% in 2007 • Mode: From Physical Matter to Downloadable Data E.g. Books to E- books and CDs to iTunes 6
  • 14. Economic Globalization • International Trading System Silk Road • Oldest known international trade route • From China through Middle East to Europe • Opened by Han dynasty in 130 BC until closed by Ottoman empire in 1453 AD • International only but not Global since it did not reach America Gold • Common basis for currency prices and fixed exchange rate system led by Europe and US at the International Money Conference in 1867 Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. > /
  • 15. Economic Globalization Bretton Wood System • Inaugurated in 1944 during the UN Monetary and Financial Conference • Aim is to prevent past financial catastrophes (Usually brought by wars) from reoccurring and affecting international ties. John Maynard Keynes • Influenced Bretton Wood System • Believed that economic crisis occur not when a country does not have enough money, but when is not being spent and, thereby, not moving 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 8
  • 16. Economic Globalization Bretton Wood System • Created financial institutions: • World Bank or International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) • Reconstruct War and devastated world cities • International Monetary Fund (IMF) • Global Lender to prevent countries from credit crises Global Keynesianism • Role of governments in managing spending General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) • Created in 1947 with the purpose of reducing tariffs and other hindrance to free trade 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  • 17. Global Politics International Relations • Jeremy Bentham • British Philosopher in 1780 • Coined the word "International" • Political interactions between states World Politics • Key Attributes • Countries/ States are Independent • Countries/ States interact with each other with diplomacy • United Nations (UN) facilitates these interactions • UN has agencies e.g. World Health Organization (WHO), World Food Organization (WFO) and International Labor Organization (ILO) 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 10
  • 18. Global Politics 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. STATE • Country and its government • Attributes • Territory • Sovereign over its territory • Internal Sovereignty • Laws abided by International Organizations operating inside the State • External Sovereignty • Independent from intervention from other state • Government • Authority over its citizens 11
  • 19. Nation • Benedict Anderson: Imagined Community i.e. feeling of connection with community even he will not meet them in his lifetime • E.g. Filipino cheering for Manny Pacquiao even he do not personally know the Filipino Athlete • E.g. Bangsamoro is a nation seeking to become a state 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Global Politics Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  • 20. Global Politics Metternich System • Named after Klemens von Metternich • Austrian Diplomat • Architect of Metternich System to counter Napoleon Bonaparte • Restored the "Great powers" Great Powers • United Kingdom, China, Russia, France and United State • Still hold significant influence over world politics Internationalism • Interaction between various sovereign states, particularly the desire for greater cooperation and unity among states 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM 13
  • 21. ACTIVITY: Create a concept map about Globalization
  • 22. Global Governance • International Organization • Powers: • Classification • E.g. Classifying Refugees (Foreign, Alien, Immigrants etc.) • Fix Meanings • E.g. Security as Safety from Military Violence and Environmental Harm • Diffuse Norms • Norms are accepted codes of conduct that may be strict law and produce regularity in behavior • Establishing Global Standards of Norms 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  • 23. Global Governance 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. International Organization • United Nations • Most important International Organization • Created after World War II • Primary Goal is to avert another global war • Has 193 Member States • Five Organs: • General Assembly (GA) • Main deliberative Policymaking and representative organ • Decides on most important questions e.g. peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters • Require 2/3 of the members to decide 15
  • 24. Global Governance • International Organization • United Nations • Five Organs: • General Assembly (GA) • Elects GA President annually for 1 term of office • Carlos P. Romulo (President, GA, 1949-1950) • Security Council • Most Powerful Organ • Consist of 15 Member States (10 Elected by GA for 2-year Term and the other is known as the Permanent 5 (China, France, Russia, UK and US) which is permanent from the founding of UN and cannot be replaced through election 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 16
  • 25. Global Governance • International Organization • United Nations 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. Five Organs: • Security Council • Takes the lead in determining the existence of threat to the peace or an act of aggression • Calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle the act by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement • Can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorizing the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security • Permanent 5 (P5) member has veto power to stop a Security Council action dead in its tracts. Hence P5 is heir to the tradition of great power di lc macy of Metternich System
  • 26. Global Governance International Organization • United Nations • Five Organs: • Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) • Principal Body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue and recommendations on social and environmental issues as well as the implementation of internationally agreed development goals • Has 54 States Members elected for 3-year terms. • Central platform for discussion on sustainable development • International Court of Justice • Task is to settle, in accordance to international law, legal disputes submitted to it by states and to give advisory opinions • Different from International Criminal Court 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 18
  • 27. Global Governance International Organization • United Nations • Five Organs: • Secretariat • Consist of Secretary General and 10,000 international UN Staff members "intlMIIH 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 19
  • 28. Global Governance International Organization • United Nations • Salvador P. Lopez • Filipino • Chairman, UN Commission on Human Rights • Designed the system whereby any citizen of any state may petition the UN to look into human rights violations in a country • Limitations: • UN is not a World Government • Function because of voluntary cooperation from states e.g. rapporteurs must be invited and placed under conditions by the state being investigated 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 20
  • 29. World of Regions Governments, Associations, Societies, Groups • Form regional organizations or networks as way of coping with the challenges of globalization • E.g. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) • Member countries: Brunei, Cambodia, Lao, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Regions • Not natural • Constructed and defined by policymakers 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 21
  • 30. World of Regions Regions • Edward D. Mansfield and Helen V. Milner: A group of countries located in the same geographically specified area Regionalization • Regional concentration of economic flaws Regionalism • Political process characterize by economic policy cooperation and coordination among countries 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 22
  • 31. World of Regions China • Large country, have enough resources, offers its cheap and huge workforce to attract foreign businesses and expand trade with countries it once considered its enemies (US, Japan) but now sees as markets for its goods Singapore and Switzerland • Compensate for their lack of resources by turning their themselves into financial and banking hubs Assets managed for non-residents, 2014 Number of private banks in Switzerland Source: FT research Photo: Dreamstime 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 23
  • 32. World of Regions Singapore • Developed its harbor facilities and made them a first class transit port for ships carrying different commodities from Africa, Europe, Middle East, Southeast Asia and Asia-Pacific Regional Associations • Purpose • Military Defense e.g. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed during the Cold War when several Western European countries plus the United States agreed to protect Europe against the treat of Soviet Union 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 24
  • 33. World of Regions Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) • Members: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela • Established in 1960 • Member countries pool their resources, get better return for their exports and expand their leverage against their trading partners 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  • 34. World of Regions • Non-aligned Movement (NAM) • Members: Egypt, Ghana, India, Indonesia and Yugoslavia • Established in 1961 • Member countries form regional blocks to protect their independence from pressures of superpower politics • Created to pursue world peace, international cooperation, human rights, national sovereignty, racial and national inequality, non-intervention and peaceful conflict resolution • Called "non-aligned" because of refusal to side with either the First World capitalist democracies in Western Europe and North America or the communist states in Eastern Europe • Members today: 120 countries 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 26
  • 35. World of Regions Non-State Regionalism • Rainforest Foundation • Established by activists to protect indigenous peoples and rainforests in Brazil, Guyana, Panama and Peru • Regional Interfaith Youth Networks • Formed by youth Christians across Asia, Africa, Middle East, America and Caribbean • Migrant Forum in Asia • Network of NGOs and trade unions committed in protecting and promoting the rights and welfare of migrant workers 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 27 1 1 .
  • 36. Media and Globalization • Media • Jack Lule: Conveying something such as channel of communication • Plural of medium (In between) • Marshall McLuhan: Media (Referring on television since he wrote this in 1960) reshape social behavior and reorient family behavior. Media are turning the world into a "global village." • Hello Kitty • Proof of Japan's influence over global culture 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 28
  • 37. Global City • Globalization • Spatial because it occurs in physical spaces e.g. Skyscrapers • People in urban areas: 30% in 1950 to 54% in 2014 and expected to reach 66% in 2050 • Global City • Saskia Sassen • Sociologist • Popularized "global city" in 1990s • Criteria of Global City: Primarily Economic • Global Cities: New York, London and Tokyo 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 29
  • 38. Global City Stock Exchange • New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) in New York, USA • Financial Times Stock Exchange (FTSE) in London, UK • Nikkei in Tokyo, Japan • Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) Shanghai, China • Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE) in Manila, Philippines Money Trading Comparison • NYSE - $ 19,300 B • PSE -$ 231.3 B 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 30
  • 39. I City • Global City Attributes • Economic power • Market Size (Number of traders) • Purchasing power of citizens • Size of middle class (businessmen) • Center of Authority (Capital cities) • Shanghai • Worlds busiest container port with over 33 Million container units moved in 2013 • Singapore (City, Island and Country) • Asia's most competitive city • Strong market • Efficient and incorruptible government • Livability • Houses regional offices of many global corporations 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 31
  • 40. Global City • Global City Attributes • Political Influence • Washington D.C. • Seat of American state of power • Brussels, Belgium • Headquarters of European Union • New York • Headquarters of United Nations • Jakarta, Indonesia • Headquarters of ASEAN • Frankfurt, Germany • European Central Bank 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 32
  • 41. Global City Global City Attributes • Higher learning and culture • New York • New York Times Newspaper • Boston • Harvard University • Los Angeles • Hollywood • San Francisco • Headquarters of Facebook, Twitter and Google • Copenhagen, Denmark • Culinary capital of the world 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 33
  • 42. Global City Gentrification • Driving out of the poor in favor of newer and wealthier residents Banlieue • Poor Muslim migrants are forced out of Paris and have clustered around ethnic enclaves in France H 1 f 1 j 1 m 1* K i * - i R 1 i-;Si'FF™ ....... . . . . . " mi * *»■, 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 34
  • 43. Movement andSustainability • Global Demography • Number of children • Rural and Poor Urban • Tend to have more children for farming (Crop cultivation, planting harvesting) and hawk their wares on streets • Urbanized, educated and professionals • Tend to have fewer children • Tied down or committed to profession • Lesser time to devote to kids and parenting • Saving plans on healthcare and education of children • Have more access to birth control 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 35
  • 44. • Food • Eaten that satisfies appetite in order to meet physiological needs for growth, maintaining body processes and supply energy to maintain body heat and activities • One of the most crucial needs of human beings • People cannot live and survive without 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Food ' '*a Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr.
  • 45. Food Functions of Food • Maintains physiological process by giving sustenance to the body • Symbolic experience and representation • Continuum life for the human species • Shape national boundaries and identities 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 37
  • 46. Food Pillars of Food Security • Food Availability • Sufficient and consisten t quantities • Food Access • Enough resources to obtain • Food Use • Nutrition 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 38 Ufgji * * ' 'x- ■ ~ it i TA ■ ■ 1 ■" ................ k ™ _____ H
  • 47. Global Migration • Migration • Movement of people from one place to another • Domestic/ Internal Migration • Within Country • Foreign/ International Migration • Outside Country • Immigrants • Permanently moved to another country • Workers in fixed period • E.g. 6 months • Illegal Immigrants • Alien • Petitioned Migrants • By families • Refugees • Asylum 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 39
  • 48. Global Migration • Migration • Emigration • Going-out of Country • Immigration • Coming-in of Country • Migrants • 247 Million as of 2018 • 90% Workers • 10% Asylee • 18% from Latin America • 16% from Eastern Europe and Central Asia • 14% from Middle East and North Africa • Destination: Europe, Middle East and United States 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 40
  • 49. Global Migration • Remittance • $ 580 B in 2014 • India ($ 70 B) • China ($ 62 B) • Philippines ($ 28 B) • Mexico ($ 25 B) • Brain Drain • 52% of Filipino college graduate migrated • 23% of Filipino population • White/Blue Collar change • From Doctors, Engineers and Managers to Industrial and Domestic Works 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 41
  • 50. Activity 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. Topic • Migration Situation • As an OFW Instruction • Discussion • Cite an OFW (Family, Relatives, Friends, Neighbor, et al) Question • What changed in their house, dress, vehicles? • How are people cope with frequent departure and arrival? • What changed happened to migrant in the way they dress,
  • 51. Global Migration Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. Human Trafficking • 3rd largest global crime in 2012 according to FBI • Victims of Forced Labor (21 M people) equivalent to 3 of every 1000 person worldwide • Sexually abused (22% or 4.5 M person) 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM 43
  • 52. • It Is Finished! Consumatum Est 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM Contemporary World Prof. Sam Bernales, Jr. 44
  • 53. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Published in the Republic of the Philippines. 2/14/2021 6:14:10 PM n , r K Prof. Sam
  • 54. orary World Bernales, Jr. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8293 PDF Download