Chapter 7 multicellular plants


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Chapter 7 multicellular plants

  1. 1. Chapter 7Multicellular Primary Producers
  2. 2. SeaweedsSeaweeds!!!Come in all kinds of interestingShapes and sizes!• some are delicious!• some are poisonous• Some have weird names• Come in all sorts of colors
  3. 3. Seaweed Structure• Thallus-body• Lack vascular tissue -Do not have roots, stems, or leaves• Holdfast -The structure that attaches the seaweed to the substrate• Stipe-stem-likestructure
  4. 4. Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae)• Contain chlorophylls a and b for photosynthesis• Most are freshwater• Ecologically important – food source – Contribute to coral reef formation – Some are invasive
  5. 5. Green algae structure• Most unicellular• Marine species have coenocytic thallus- containing more than 1 nucleus – Occurs by cell growing – nucleus divides but cell never divides
  6. 6. Reproduction of Algae• Sexual• Gametes released from gametophyte 2 flagella• spores released from sporophyte- 4 flagella
  7. 7. Representative species• Halimeda• Caluerpa-invasive
  8. 8. CFU: Green Algae• Are green algae unicellular or multicellular• Autotrophic or heterotrophic• What is an important organelle in photosynthesis• How does green algae grow in length? – Same cell, division of nucleus• What is the function of the Stipe?
  9. 9. Red Algae
  10. 10. Phylum Rhodophyta (red algae)• Primarily marine• Most diverse among seaweeds• Cholorphylls a and d, pigments: phycoerythrins and phycocyanins• Not always red in color- can appear yellow to black
  11. 11. Structure• Multicellular and less than 1 meter long• Wide variety of shapes and organization among species
  12. 12. Reproduction• Can vary from simple to complex…but 2 unique features………..1. Lack flagella on spores and gametes2. 3 multicellular stages 1. Carpospore-unique to red algae
  13. 13. Ecological Roles• Porphhra- used as food in oriental dishes• Seasonal food source for urchins, mollusks, fish, and crustaceans• Some grow on other plants or animals• Help form base of coral reef• Agar- used as a thickening agent in foods such as ice cream, pudding, and salad dressings• Used in cosmetics for creamy foundations
  14. 14. CFU: Red Algae• Heterotrophic or Autotrophic?• Multicellular or unicellular• What are the two unique stages?• What organisms feed on red algae?
  15. 15. Brown Algae
  16. 16. Phaeophyta (brown algae)• Mostly marine• Higher diversity than green but less diverse than red• Size: from microscopic to kelps (100 meters)• Chlorophylls a and c and pigment fucoxanthin• Mostly in high latitudes• Large flat leaf-like blades with bladders help bouy plant toward light• Representative species Sargassum, Fucus
  17. 17. reproduction• Gametophyte is eliminated from life cycle (difference from Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta)• Egg develops root-like structures (rhizoids) after fertilization
  18. 18. Ecological role• Habitats for a variety of marine life• Harvested for thickening agents used in dentistry, cosmetic, and food industries• Previously iodine was extracted and put into table salt (iodized salt) to prevent a goiter
  19. 19. • Excessive nutrients – Runoff from fertilizer Human Impacts• Causes huge algae blooms! – When algae dies off decomposers consume majority of the oxygen in the environment – Eutrophication• Kills off fish and marine life
  20. 20. CFU: Algae• What macromolecule allows algae to live in marine environments without swelling?• What causes algae blooms?• What is this process called?• What are the harmful effects of algae blooms?
  21. 21. Sea grasses, salt marsh plants, mangroves
  22. 22. Salt Marsh Plants and Sea Grasses• Salt marshes are in Estuaries – The kidneys of the coasts• Nursery for small fish – 75% of commercial fish are hatched in estuaries• Estuaries are severly affected by humans – Coastal development – Pollution – Eutrophication• Protect us from storms
  23. 23. Phylum Anthophyta• Seagrasses, salt marsh plants, mangroves• Ecological Roles- Primary producers, habitats, stabilizing sediments• Help slow down erosion• Have to deal with extreme changes in salinty and oxygen Mixing of salt and fresh water Eutrophication
  24. 24. Sea grasses (marine flowering plants)• Related to lilies• Reproduce by pollination of seed; Male and female flowers on separate plants contain pollen• Literally look like grass• Food for manatees and sea turtles• Can live up to 100 meters below sea level
  25. 25. Sea Grasses in Florida• 12 genra – Genra native to Florida • Syringodium - manateegrass • Halophila-paddlegrass • Thalassia- turtlegrass • Ruppia- • Halodule- shoalgrass
  26. 26. Salt Marsh Plants• Adapted to high levels of salinity and tidal action• Found in estuaries – level of succession based on salinity and tidal tolerance• Species native to Jacksonville – SpartinaAlternaflora – BatisMaritima – Spartina patens – Juncus – Salicorniavirginica
  27. 27. Mangroves• Found in south of St. Augustine to Key West• 3 genra local to Florida – Rhizophora mangle –red mangle-----prop roots – Avicennia germinans – black mangle--- pneumatophores – Laguncularia racemosa- white mangle• Distinctive by their root system and pods
  28. 28. Mangroves: Highly adaptive• Use active transport to regulate water levels in their roots• Live in anaerobic mud – Why they stand above the water• Protect coral reefs from eutrophication – Filter, kidney
  29. 29. Help Protect Coastal Development 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
  30. 30. Mangrove reproduction• Flowers pollinated by wind or bees• Embryo grows on the plant in a propagule (similar to seed)• Propagule eventually falls from parent and is carried by current until it settles and takes root
  31. 31. Red MangroveBlack MangroveRed, White, and Black mangrove White Mangroveleaves