CFU: Green Algae• Are green algae unicellular or multicellular• Autotrophic or heterotrophic• What is an important organelle in photosynthesis• How does green algae grow in length? – Same cell, division of nucleus• What is the function of the Stipe?
Phylum Rhodophyta (red algae)• Primarily marine• Most diverse among seaweeds• Cholorphylls a and d, pigments: phycoerythrins and phycocyanins• Not always red in color- can appear yellow to black
Structure• Multicellular and less than 1 meter long• Wide variety of shapes and organization among species
Reproduction• Can vary from simple to complex…but 2 unique features………..1. Lack flagella on spores and gametes2. 3 multicellular stages 1. Carpospore-unique to red algae
Ecological Roles• Porphhra- used as food in oriental dishes• Seasonal food source for urchins, mollusks, fish, and crustaceans• Some grow on other plants or animals• Help form base of coral reef• Agar- used as a thickening agent in foods such as ice cream, pudding, and salad dressings• Used in cosmetics for creamy foundations
CFU: Red Algae• Heterotrophic or Autotrophic?• Multicellular or unicellular• What are the two unique stages?• What organisms feed on red algae?
Phaeophyta (brown algae)• Mostly marine• Higher diversity than green but less diverse than red• Size: from microscopic to kelps (100 meters)• Chlorophylls a and c and pigment fucoxanthin• Mostly in high latitudes• Large flat leaf-like blades with bladders help bouy plant toward light• Representative species Sargassum, Fucus
reproduction• Gametophyte is eliminated from life cycle (difference from Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta)• Egg develops root-like structures (rhizoids) after fertilization
Ecological role• Habitats for a variety of marine life• Harvested for thickening agents used in dentistry, cosmetic, and food industries• Previously iodine was extracted and put into table salt (iodized salt) to prevent a goiter
• Excessive nutrients – Runoff from fertilizer Human Impacts• Causes huge algae blooms! – When algae dies off decomposers consume majority of the oxygen in the environment – Eutrophication• Kills off fish and marine life
CFU: Algae• What macromolecule allows algae to live in marine environments without swelling?• What causes algae blooms?• What is this process called?• What are the harmful effects of algae blooms?
Salt Marsh Plants and Sea Grasses• Salt marshes are in Estuaries – The kidneys of the coasts• Nursery for small fish – 75% of commercial fish are hatched in estuaries• Estuaries are severly affected by humans – Coastal development – Pollution – Eutrophication• Protect us from storms
Phylum Anthophyta• Seagrasses, salt marsh plants, mangroves• Ecological Roles- Primary producers, habitats, stabilizing sediments• Help slow down erosion• Have to deal with extreme changes in salinty and oxygen Mixing of salt and fresh water Eutrophication
Sea grasses (marine flowering plants)• Related to lilies• Reproduce by pollination of seed; Male and female flowers on separate plants contain pollen• Literally look like grass• Food for manatees and sea turtles• Can live up to 100 meters below sea level
Salt Marsh Plants• Adapted to high levels of salinity and tidal action• Found in estuaries – level of succession based on salinity and tidal tolerance• Species native to Jacksonville – SpartinaAlternaflora – BatisMaritima – Spartina patens – Juncus – Salicorniavirginica
Mangroves• Found in south of St. Augustine to Key West• 3 genra local to Florida – Rhizophora mangle –red mangle-----prop roots – Avicennia germinans – black mangle--- pneumatophores – Laguncularia racemosa- white mangle• Distinctive by their root system and pods
Mangroves: Highly adaptive• Use active transport to regulate water levels in their roots• Live in anaerobic mud – Why they stand above the water• Protect coral reefs from eutrophication – Filter, kidney
Help Protect Coastal Development 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami
Mangrove reproduction• Flowers pollinated by wind or bees• Embryo grows on the plant in a propagule (similar to seed)• Propagule eventually falls from parent and is carried by current until it settles and takes root
Red MangroveBlack MangroveRed, White, and Black mangrove White Mangroveleaves