Chapter 7Multicellular Primary Producers
Seaweeds• Most found attached to a substrate• Inhibit 2% of seafloor• Life in the inner continental shelf depend upon  sea...
Seaweed Structure• Thallus-body• Lack vascular tissue -Do not have roots, stems,  or leaves• Holdfast -The structure that ...
Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae)• Contain chlorophylls a and b for  photosynthesis• Most are freshwater• Ecologically impo...
Green algae structure• Most unicellular• Marine species have coenocytic thallus-  containing more than 1 nucleus  – Occurs...
Reproduction• Sexual• Gametes released from gametophyte 2 flagella• spores released from sporophyte-4 flagella
Representative species• Halimeda• Caluerpa-invasive
Phylum Rhodophyta (red algae)• Primarily marine• Most diverse among seaweeds• Cholorphylls a and d, pigments:  phycoerythr...
Structure• Multicellular and less than 1 meter long• Wide variety of shapes and organization  among species
Reproduction• Can vary from simple  to complex…but 2  unique features………..1. Lack flagella on   spores and gametes2. 3 mul...
Ecological Roles• Porphyra- used as food in oriental dishes• Seasonal food source for urchins, mollusks,  fish, and crusta...
Phaeophyta (brown algae)• Mostly marine• Higher diversity than green but less diverse  than red• Size: from microscopic to...
reproduction• Gametophyte is  eliminated from  life cycle (difference  from Chlorophyta and  Rhodophyta)• Egg develops  ro...
Ecological role• Habitats for a variety of marine life• Harvested for thickening agents used in  dentistry, cosmetic, and ...
Phylum Anthophyta• Seagrasses, salt marsh plants, mangroves• Ecological Roles- Primary producers, habitats,  stabilizing s...
Sea grasses (marine flowering plants)• Related to lilies• Reproduce by pollination of seed; Male and  female flowers on se...
Salt Marsh Plants• Adapted to high levels of salinity and tidal action• Found in estuaries – level of succession based on ...
Mangroves• Found in south of St. Augustine to Key West• 3 genra local to Florida  – Rhizophora mangle –red mangle-----prop...
Mangrove reproduction• Flowers pollinated by wind or bees• Embryo grows on the plant in a propagule  (similar to seed)• Pr...
Red MangroveBlack MangroveRed,     White, and Black mangrove        White Mangroveleaves
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Chapter 7 multicellular plants

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Chapter 7 multicellular plants

  1. 1. Chapter 7Multicellular Primary Producers
  2. 2. Seaweeds• Most found attached to a substrate• Inhibit 2% of seafloor• Life in the inner continental shelf depend upon seaweeds for food• Abiotic Factors most influential are – Light ***** – Temp***** (most diverse in tropical waters) – Tidal exposure – Salinity – Availability of nutrients
  3. 3. Seaweed Structure• Thallus-body• Lack vascular tissue -Do not have roots, stems, or leaves• Holdfast -The structure that attaches the seaweed to the substrate• Stipe-stem-like structure
  4. 4. Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae)• Contain chlorophylls a and b for photosynthesis• Most are freshwater• Ecologically important – food source – Contribute to coral reef formation – Some are invasive
  5. 5. Green algae structure• Most unicellular• Marine species have coenocytic thallus- containing more than 1 nucleus – Occurs by cell growing nucleus divides but cell never divides
  6. 6. Reproduction• Sexual• Gametes released from gametophyte 2 flagella• spores released from sporophyte-4 flagella
  7. 7. Representative species• Halimeda• Caluerpa-invasive
  8. 8. Phylum Rhodophyta (red algae)• Primarily marine• Most diverse among seaweeds• Cholorphylls a and d, pigments: phycoerythrins and phycocyanins• Not always red in color- can appear yellow to black
  9. 9. Structure• Multicellular and less than 1 meter long• Wide variety of shapes and organization among species
  10. 10. Reproduction• Can vary from simple to complex…but 2 unique features………..1. Lack flagella on spores and gametes2. 3 multicellular stages 1. Carpospore-unique to red algae
  11. 11. Ecological Roles• Porphyra- used as food in oriental dishes• Seasonal food source for urchins, mollusks, fish, and crustaceans• Some grow on other plants or animals• Help form base of coral reef• Agar- used as a thickening agent in foods such as ice cream, pudding, and salad dressings• Used in cosmetics for creamy foundations
  12. 12. Phaeophyta (brown algae)• Mostly marine• Higher diversity than green but less diverse than red• Size: from microscopic to kelps (100 meters)• Chlorophylls a and c and pigment fucoxanthin• Mostly in high latitudes• Large flat leaf-like blades with bladders help bouy plant toward light• Representative species Sargassum, Fucus
  13. 13. reproduction• Gametophyte is eliminated from life cycle (difference from Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta)• Egg develops root-like structures (rhizoids) after fertilization
  14. 14. Ecological role• Habitats for a variety of marine life• Harvested for thickening agents used in dentistry, cosmetic, and food industries• Previously iodine was extracted and put into table salt (iodized salt) to prevent a goiter
  15. 15. Phylum Anthophyta• Seagrasses, salt marsh plants, mangroves• Ecological Roles- Primary producers, habitats, stabilizing sediments
  16. 16. Sea grasses (marine flowering plants)• Related to lilies• Reproduce by pollination of seed; Male and female flowers on separate plants contain pollen• 12 genra – Genra native to Florida • Syringodium -manateegrass • Halophila-paddlegrass • Thalassia- turtlegrass • Ruppia- • Halodule- shoalgrass
  17. 17. Salt Marsh Plants• Adapted to high levels of salinity and tidal action• Found in estuaries – level of succession based on salinity and tidal tolerance• Species native to Jacksonville – Spartina Alternaflora – Batis Maritima – Spartina patens – Juncus – Salicornia virginica
  18. 18. Mangroves• Found in south of St. Augustine to Key West• 3 genra local to Florida – Rhizophora mangle –red mangle-----prop roots – Avicennia germinans – black mangle--- pneumatophores – Laguncularia racemosa- white mangle• Distinctive by their root system and pods
  19. 19. Mangrove reproduction• Flowers pollinated by wind or bees• Embryo grows on the plant in a propagule (similar to seed)• Propagule eventually falls from parent and is carried by current until it settles and takes root
  20. 20. Red MangroveBlack MangroveRed, White, and Black mangrove White Mangroveleaves

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