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Marine 2 16-12


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Marine 2 16-12

  1. 1. Chapter 8Sponges, Cnidarians
  2. 2. Review Animal Characteristics–Animals b/c have characteristics • Multicellular • eukaryotic & lack cell walls • Heterotrophs
  3. 3. Phylum Porferia• Asymmetric• Sessile- attach to a substrate• Color, shapes, and size vary• Structure – System of water canals – Ostia-circulates water that carries nutrients in (via spongeocoel) and out of cell (via oscula)
  4. 4. Level of Organization• Lack Organs and Tissues – Do have specialized cells • Choanocytes (collar cells) -flagella that move water into body • Pinacocytes- protection; outer layer • Archaeocytes-repair and regeneration• Body plan Evolution a.) usually in colonies-simplest b. Fist stages of folding – simple to complex c. Most efficient-most sponges have this (more efficient) body plan
  5. 5. MicrocionaProlifera- red beard sponge
  6. 6. Feeding and Digestion• Suspension and filter feeders• Collar cells strain food from H2O• Most food digested/stored in archaeocytes• Undigested material/waste leaves with water currents
  7. 7. Reproduction• Asexual – budding (uncommon) • New sponge buds off existing adult – Fragmentation • Usually result of storms, waves, predators• Sexual – Hermaphrodites-can produce eggs or sperm (but not at same time) – Sperm is spawned into the water and enters another sponge with eggs to fertilize – Zooplankton larvae –spend time swimming before settling on substrate mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
  8. 8. Ecological Roles• Recycle calcium• Compete with others for space• Mutualistic –serve as host for other organisms• Predator-prey: have few predators b/c don’t taste good – Hawksbill sea turtle• Commercial: polish metals, bath sponges• Medical: used in treatment of cancer
  9. 9. Review: Wrapping it all up• _k&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persi st_safety_mode=1&safe=active
  10. 10. Phylum: Cnidaria (pronounced "ny-DAIR-ee-an) “stinging cells”
  11. 11. • Characteristics – Radial symmetry – Most have nerves and muscles • 1st animals with this complexity – Body arranged in circular pattern • 2 different plan – Polyp: benthic; mouth surrounded by tentacles – Medusa: free floating • Both have – Epidermis – Gastrovascular cavity – Stinging Cells-cnida • Used for locomotion, defense, capturing prey
  12. 12. Representative organisms• Hydrozoans- colonial• Scyphozoans-true jellyfish• Anthozoans-sea anemones and corals
  13. 13. Feeding and Digestion• Hydrozoans and Anthozoans: Suspension feeders – Sea anemone feed on inverts like brine shrimp• Jellyfish – Carnivorous feed on fish and larger inverts• Prey is paralyzed by a toxin, drawn into mouth, digested in Gastrovascular cavity• Waste is forced back through mouth (meaning they poop through their mouth!!!!)
  14. 14. Reproduction • Variety of reproductive strategies – Asexual • Polyps produces more polyps or medusa • Hydrozoans: pinch off parts; fission – Sexual • Spawning • Can be hermaphrodites or separate sexes (jellyfish) • Go though a polyp stage and medusa stage • watch?v=06BPlLATtgc&safe ty_mode=true&persist_saf ety_mode=1&safe=active
  15. 15. Ecological Roles• Harmful poisonous• Predators- have few predators--- Why???• Forms habitats (coral reefs most biodiverse ecosystem)• Mutualistic – Sea anemone and clownfish – Sea anemones and hermit crabs
  16. 16. Phylum: Ctenophora• Radial symmetry• Lack stinging cells• Planktonic• Transparent• 8 rows of comb plates w/ cilia – Locomotion• Surface waters• Bioluminescence afety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe= active
  17. 17. • Feeding and Digestion – Carnivore-feed on planktonic animals – Digested in Gastrovascular cavity• Reproduction – Hermaphroditic – Spawn both eggs and sperm in water column