Chapter 7Multicellular Primary Producers
• Remember how much seaweed was in your  household products…..  – What were some of the product that contained    algae th...
Seaweeds• Most found attached to a substrate• Inhibit 2% of seafloor• Life in the inner continental shelf depend upon  sea...
Seaweed Structure• Thallus-body• Lack vascular tissue -Do not have roots, stems,  or leaves• Holdfast -The structure that ...
Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae)• Ecologically important   – food source   – Contribute to coral reef     formation   – So...
Green algae structure/characteristics• Most unicellular• Most are freshwater( we saw some out at  pond)• Contain chlorophy...
Reproduction (draw pic in your         reproductive box)• Sexual• Gametes released from gametophyte 2 flagella• spores rel...
Representative species• Halimeda• Mermans shaving brush
Phylum Rhodophyta (Red algae)• Primarily marine• Most diverse among seaweeds• Not always red in color- can appear yellow t...
Structure• Multicellular and less than 1 meter long• Wide variety of shapes and organization  among species• Chlorophylls ...
Reproduction• Can vary from simple  to complex…but 2  unique features………..1. Lack flagella on   spores and gametes2. 3 mul...
Ecological Roles/ Representative                 Species• Seasonal food source for  urchins, mollusks, fish, and crustacea...
Phaeophyta (brown algae)• Mostly marine• Higher diversity than green  but less diverse than red• Size: from microscopic to...
Reproduction• Gametophyte is  eliminated from  life cycle (difference  from Chlorophyta and  Rhodophyta)• Egg develops  ro...
Ecological role• Habitats for a variety of marine life• Harvested for thickening agents used in  dentistry, cosmetic, and ...
Phylum Anthophyta• Seagrasses, salt marsh plants, mangroves• Ecological Roles- Primary producers, habitats,  stabilizing s...
Sea grasses (marine flowering plants)• Related to lilies• Reproduce by pollination of seed; Male and  female flowers on se...
Salt Marsh Plants• Adapted to high levels of salinity and tidal action• Found in estuaries – level of succession based on ...
Mangroves• Found in south of St. Augustine to Key West• 3 genra local to Florida  – Rhizophora mangle –red mangle-----prop...
Mangrove reproduction• Flowers pollinated by wind or bees• Embryo grows on the plant in a propagule  (similar to seed)• Pr...
Red MangroveBlack MangroveRed,     White, and Black mangrove        White Mangroveleaves
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Chapter 7 multicellular plants

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Chapter 7 multicellular plants

  1. 1. Chapter 7Multicellular Primary Producers
  2. 2. • Remember how much seaweed was in your household products….. – What were some of the product that contained algae that you found in your home in Lab 2??
  3. 3. Seaweeds• Most found attached to a substrate• Inhibit 2% of seafloor• Life in the inner continental shelf depend upon seaweeds for food• Abiotic Factors most influential are – Light ***** – Temp***** (most diverse in tropical waters) – Tidal exposure – Salinity – Availability of nutrients
  4. 4. Seaweed Structure• Thallus-body• Lack vascular tissue -Do not have roots, stems, or leaves• Holdfast -The structure that attaches the seaweed to the substrate• Stipe-stem-like structure
  5. 5. Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae)• Ecologically important – food source – Contribute to coral reef formation – Some are invasive • Caulerpa taxifolia – https://www.youtube.c om/watch?v=aT4LY2Kc Ors
  6. 6. Green algae structure/characteristics• Most unicellular• Most are freshwater( we saw some out at pond)• Contain chlorophylls a and b for photosynthesis• Marine species have coenocytic thallus- containing more than 1 nucleus – Occurs by cell growing nucleus divides but cell never divides
  7. 7. Reproduction (draw pic in your reproductive box)• Sexual• Gametes released from gametophyte 2 flagella• spores released from sporophyte-4 flagella
  8. 8. Representative species• Halimeda• Mermans shaving brush
  9. 9. Phylum Rhodophyta (Red algae)• Primarily marine• Most diverse among seaweeds• Not always red in color- can appear yellow to black
  10. 10. Structure• Multicellular and less than 1 meter long• Wide variety of shapes and organization among species• Chlorophylls a and d, pigments: phycoerythrins and phycocyanins
  11. 11. Reproduction• Can vary from simple to complex…but 2 unique features………..1. Lack flagella on spores and gametes2. 3 multicellular stages (2n) 1. Carpospore-unique to red algae- 2. Tetrasporophyte 3. Cystocarp
  12. 12. Ecological Roles/ Representative Species• Seasonal food source for urchins, mollusks, fish, and crustaceans• Some grow on other plants or animals• Help form base of coral reef• Used in cosmetics for creamy foundations• Representative Species: – Porphyra- used as food in oriental dishes – Agar- used as a thickening agent in foods such as ice cream, pudding, and salad dressings
  13. 13. Phaeophyta (brown algae)• Mostly marine• Higher diversity than green but less diverse than red• Size: from microscopic to kelps (100 meters)• Chlorophylls a and c and pigment fucoxanthin• Mostly in high latitudes• Large flat leaf-like blades with bladders help buoy plant toward light• Representative species Sargassum, Fucus
  14. 14. Reproduction• Gametophyte is eliminated from life cycle (difference from Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta)• Egg develops root-like structures (rhizoids) after fertilization
  15. 15. Ecological role• Habitats for a variety of marine life• Harvested for thickening agents used in dentistry, cosmetic, and food industries• Previously iodine was extracted and put into table salt (iodized salt) to prevent a goiter
  16. 16. Phylum Anthophyta• Seagrasses, salt marsh plants, mangroves• Ecological Roles- Primary producers, habitats, stabilizing sediments
  17. 17. Sea grasses (marine flowering plants)• Related to lilies• Reproduce by pollination of seed; Male and female flowers on separate plants contain pollen• 12 genra – Genra native to Florida • Syringodium -manateegrass • Halophila-paddlegrass • Thalassia- turtlegrass • Ruppia- • Halodule- shoalgrass
  18. 18. Salt Marsh Plants• Adapted to high levels of salinity and tidal action• Found in estuaries – level of succession based on salinity and tidal tolerance• Species native to Jacksonville (will be responsible for these on the test!!!) – Spartina Alternaflora – Batis Maritima – Spartina patens – Juncus – Salicornia virginica
  19. 19. Mangroves• Found in south of St. Augustine to Key West• 3 genra local to Florida – Rhizophora mangle –red mangle-----prop roots – Avicennia germinans – black mangle--- pneumatophores – Laguncularia racemosa- white mangle• Distinctive by their root system and pods
  20. 20. Mangrove reproduction• Flowers pollinated by wind or bees• Embryo grows on the plant in a propagule (similar to seed)• Propagule eventually falls from parent and is carried by current until it settles and takes root
  21. 21. Red MangroveBlack MangroveRed, White, and Black mangrove White Mangroveleaves

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