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  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 39 Figure: 39.7a Title: Camouflage assists predators Caption: As it waits for prey, a cheetah blends into the background of the grass. (b) Combining camouflage and aggressive mimicry, a frogfish waits in ambush, its camouflaged body matching the algae-encrusted rock on which it rests. Above its mouth dangles a lure that closely resembles a small fish. The lure attracts small predators, who will find themselves to be prey.
  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 39 Figure: 39.4a Title: Camouflage by blending in Caption: The sand dab is a flattened, bottom-dwelling ocean fish with a mottled color that closely resembles the sand on which it rests. (b) This nightjar on its nest in Belize is barely visible among the surrounding leaf litter.
  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 39 Figure: 39.5a Title: Camouflage by resembling specific objects Caption: A moth whose color and shape resemble a bird dropping sits motionless on a leaf. The leafy sea dragon (an Australian “seahorse” fish) has evolved extensions of its body that duplicate the algae in which it normally hides. (c) Florida treehopper insects avoid detection by resembling thorns on a branch.
  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 39 Figure: 39.8 Title: Warning coloration Caption: The South American poison arrow frog, with its poisonous skin, advertises its unpleasant taste with bright and contrasting color patterns.
  • Biology: Life on Earth (Audesirk) Chapter 39 Table 27-1 Interactions Among Organisms
  • 12 7-11

    1. 1. Ecology! The main components
    2. 2. What is Ecology? <ul><li>Ecology: the science that studies how organisms relate to each other and their environment </li></ul><ul><li>QUESTIONS YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO ANSWER BY THE END OF TODAY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is an ecosystem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is a community? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is a population? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is a habitat? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is a microhabitat? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is a niche? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are abiotic and biotic factors of ecosystems </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Abiotic and Biotic Factors <ul><li>What does biotic mean? </li></ul><ul><li>What does Abiotic mean? </li></ul><ul><li>What is one biotic factor of marine ecosystems we have already studied? </li></ul><ul><li>What would be some abiotic factors we’ve already studied? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Abiotic and Biotic Factors <ul><li>Abiotic: Non-living factors that affect an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature, wind, pH, currents, minerals, sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotic: autotrophs, heterotrophs (prey and predators) decomposers </li></ul>
    5. 5. Habitat <ul><li>FLASHCARD ALERT: HABITAT </li></ul><ul><li>A habitat includes the area and physical conditions in which you find an organism </li></ul><ul><li>FLASHCARD ALERT: MICROHABITAT </li></ul><ul><li>A very small habitat: </li></ul>
    6. 6. Habitat
    7. 7. Microhabitat
    8. 8. Niche <ul><li>FLASHCARD ALERT: NICHE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role an organism plays in its habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cleaner Shrimp/Cleaner Fish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish that want a cleaning will display specific behaviors to show the cleaner fish that they will not eat the cleaner </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Niche <ul><li>Each species unique living arrangement in a community </li></ul><ul><li>“Role” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about a specific position player on a team i.e. pitcher on a baseball team </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ex. Lizards in a rainforest </li></ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of day organism is most active </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Habitat is an organism’s address and a niche is its job!
    11. 11. Populations and Communities <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to a single species in a single space at a single time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to all populations living in an ecosystem </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. QUICK REVIEW <ul><li>What is community? </li></ul><ul><li>What is population? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Community Interactions <ul><li>Powerfully affect an ecosystem </li></ul><ul><li>Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiosis </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Competition <ul><li>When organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource at the same place and the same time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource  any necessity to life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorm some resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Would they be abiotic or biotic? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants and animals compete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winner and losers </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Interspecific competition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition between same two species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When 2 or more species rely on same limited resource in a community </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Predation <ul><li>Interaction where an organism captures and feeds on another organism </li></ul><ul><li>Predator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism that does the killing and eating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism that is being killed and eaten (victim) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Predator Adaptations <ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Agility </li></ul><ul><li>Coloring/camouflage to ambush prey </li></ul><ul><li>Packs/teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Wolves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acute senses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Rattle snake heat sensor organs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Claws, teeth, fangs, stingers, poison </li></ul><ul><li>Vampire Squid </li></ul>
    18. 18. Camouflage Assists Predators (a) Cheetah Frogfish (b)
    19. 19. Camouflage by Blending in Sand dab (fish) Nightjar (bird)
    20. 20. Prey adaptations <ul><li>Safe locations </li></ul><ul><li>Flee </li></ul><ul><li>Coloring/camouflage to hide </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive coloration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“warning coloration” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mimicry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms imitate dangerous organisms by appearance and actions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thorns, spines, poisonous chemicals </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Camouflage by Resembling Specific Objects Chapter 27 Leafy Sea Dragon-sea leaves/weed
    22. 22. Warning Coloration Chapter 27
    23. 23. Protection Through Mimicry Visual and Behavioral Mimicry The amazing Indonesian mimicry octopus
    24. 24. Symbiosis <ul><li>Any relationship where two species live closely together </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiosis literally means “living together” </li></ul><ul><li>3 main types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commensalism </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Mutualism <ul><li>Both species benefit from the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>A Happy couple </li></ul><ul><li>Clownfish and anemone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clownfish help clean the anemone and help with water circulation. The clownfish gains protection and food. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Commensalism <ul><li>One member of the relationship benefits while the other is neither harmed nor helped </li></ul><ul><li>One-sided </li></ul><ul><li>Rare in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Food or shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Barnacles on whale </li></ul><ul><li>Seaweed on back of crab </li></ul>
    27. 27. Parasitism <ul><li>One organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite obtains all or part of its nutrients from the other organism </li></ul><ul><li>Host </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism that is harmed in relation ship; the one that provides the nutrients to the parasite </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism that gets its nutrients from the host </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do they want to kill their host? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No, because they need them…they will weaken or hurt the host in some way </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Chapter 27 Symbiosis
    29. 30. Recap <ul><li>What is the difference between a population and a community? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between a niche and a habitat? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the three types of interactions in a community? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What types do we have? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commensalism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Ecological Succession <ul><li>Do all ecosystems stay the same all the time? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some things that cause changes to ecosystems? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural and unnatural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quickly and slowly </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. <ul><li>Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to human and natural disturbances. </li></ul><ul><li>As an ecosystem changes, older habitants die out and new organisms move in, causing more change </li></ul>
    32. 33. Ecological Succession <ul><li>Series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural disturbance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human disturbance </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Primary Succession <ul><li>Succession on land that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Glaciers melting </li></ul>
    34. 37. Stages of Primary Succession <ul><li>Start with no soil, just ash and rock </li></ul><ul><li>First species to populate this area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ pioneer species” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, pioneer species on volcanic rock are lichens (LY-kunz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lichens  made up of fungus and algae that can grow on bare rock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When lichens die, they for organic material that becomes soil…now plants can grow </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 38. Secondary Succession <ul><li>Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hurricane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human disturbances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forest clearing </li></ul></ul>
    36. 44. Succession in Marine Ecosystems <ul><li>Deep and dark </li></ul><ul><li>Can succession happen? </li></ul><ul><li>1987 dead whale off of California </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique community of organisms living in remains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents stage in succession in an otherwise stable, deep-sea ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whale-fall community </li></ul></ul>
    37. 46. Whale-Fall Succession <ul><li>Begins when large whale dies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinks to barren ocean floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scavengers and decomposers flock to carcass , our first community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amphipods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hagfish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sharks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>After a year, most tissues have been eaten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now, second small community of organisms live here </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body is decomposing, releasing nutrients into the water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small fishes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crabs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Snails </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>worms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Only skeleton remains… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third community moves in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decompose oil in bones  release of chemical compounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who uses these chemical compounds? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemoosynthetic autotrophs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In come the crabs, clams, and worms that feed on this bacteria </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 47. Human Activity and Species Diversity <ul><li>Land clearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse forest replaced with single crop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases species diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduced species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans move a species from its native land to a new location, intentionally or accidentally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you remember an example of this from the field trip? </li></ul></ul>