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sea weed farming south east asia


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sea weed farming south east asia

  1. 1. Culture and harvesting methods of seaweeds in south east Asian countries AQS:428.1.0 Culture of Aquatic Plant Department of Zoology Faculty of Applied Science University of Sri Jayewardenepura R.R.Zoysa /As2009029 /Aquatic Science
  2. 2. Outline 1. Status of seaweed industry 2. Before sea weed culture what should do you know? 3. Most common sea weed culture in Asian region 4. Sea weed farming steps 5. General Environmental Conditions 6. Preparation of Materials & Seaweed Plot 7. Preparation of “Seedlings” 8. Sea weed Culture methods 9. Harvesting & Post-handling of Seaweed 10.Regional Benefit of Seaweed Culture 11.Regional Problems in Seaweed Culture 12.Discussion 13.References
  3. 3. Status of Seaweed Industry
  4. 4. Most Common Sea Weed Culture in Asian Region CHLOROPHYCEAE PHAEOPHYCEAE RHODOPHYCEAE Dictyosphaeria cavernosa Valonia sp. Caulerpa racemosa C. serrulata Halimeda opuntia Ulva sp. Enteromorpha sp. Intestinalis sp. Halicoryne wrightii Acetabularia sp. Neomeris annulata sp. Chaetomorpha sp. Sargassum spp. (7) Padina crassa P. japonica Colpomenia sinuosa Turbinaria spp. (2) Hydroclathrus tenuis Dictyopteris sp. Laminariam sp Eucheuma sp. Gelidiella acerosa Digenia simple Desmia sp. Gracilaria eucheumoides G. salicornia G. firma Laurencia spp. (4) Actinotrichia fragilis Halymenia sp. Grateloipia filicina* Jania sp. Mastophora rosea Galaxaura spp. (2) Acantophora specifera
  5. 5. Before Sea Weed Culture What Should do You Know? Physical Biological Chemical 1. Temperature 2. Salinity 3. Water Flow 4. Light 5. Wind Vector 1. Herbivores 2. Competition for Space with other Seaweeds 3. Epiphytes 1. Nutritions 2. Polluants 3. Phyco-chemicals
  6. 6. General Environmental Conditions  Location Grows well in tropical regions on coral reefs and on the rocky and sandy bottoms of marine waters in intertidal or sub tidal zones.  Water quality: Clear , constant motion for continuous nutrient flow; Salinity : 28-34 ppt, relatively salty, purely marine; Depth : at least 30cm during low tide; Temperature : 27° to 30°C; Current : 5-10m per minute  Land Quality: Substratum - Sandy/rocky  Fauna Presence of natural seed stocks and other vegetation, eg, eel grass or sargassum.  Climatic Factor: Reef areas to protect the farm from typhoon, strong waves, tsunami etc.
  7. 7. Free from fresh water run-off Seaweed planted in shallow water near the surface
  8. 8. Sandy or rocky bottom to corally substrates Should not be exposed during low tide
  9. 9. Clear and clean water >30 ppt salinity Moderate water movement/current
  10. 10. General environmental condition (cont…..)  Socio-Economics & Marketing: The farm should be relatively accessible to output market and input sources. Price should be attractive and stable. High demand for the product.  Farm management operations: The best agronomy for seaweed farming involves the manipulation of the plantings to attain minimal losses due to adverse effects of environmental and climatic changes. For instance, plants should be adjusted with changes in water levels such that the plant would not be muddy.  Other : Free from industrial and domestic pollution. Far from freshwater sources.
  11. 11. Preparation of Materials & Seaweed Plot Preparation of planting materials 1.) Cultivation Rope – monofilament (#110 ), poly-ethylene rope (#6-7), flat binder 2.) Tying Materials – soft plastic rope (“tie-tie”), monofilament #160 test lbs 3.) Support Materials – bamboo, mangrove post, steel bar, Poly-propylene rope (#14) 4.) Floater – Styrofoam (square or round shape), empty plastic bottles
  12. 12. Preparation of “Seedlings” - Select Young Branches Using Sharp Edge Knife - Tie Individual Plant Using Soft Plastic Rope - Immerse Plant in Seawater to Prevent Desiccation - “Seedlings” 100-150 Per Cutting
  13. 13. Sea weed Culture methods Culture method Submerged Systems Rock or Stone Method Wood / Bamboo Stakes Method Netmethod Cagemethod Monolinemethod & off - bottom Monolinesystem Raft / Planting Frame Method Floating systems Modified Floating Raft System Long Line Floating System Basket method Species Cultured Species Cultured: Broadcast method Tubular method Spider Web method “Lantay” method (for nursery) Triangle
  14. 14. Off - Bottom Method
  15. 15. Off - Bottom Method Merits 1) Simple to construct 2) Easy to manage 3) You can prepare your lines on shore 4) Do not require much money to start 5) You can use local wood to prepare the stakes 6) The farm is easy to reach at low tide Demerits 1. Difficult to locate a good area 2. You might lose your crop during rough weather 3. You cannot move your farm if needed 4. You might find more grazer fish around your seaweed 5. You need to construct a drying rack
  16. 16. Raft method
  17. 17. Raft method Merit Demerit 1.Can be utilized in shallow or deep waters 2.You do not need a sandy sea bottom bed 3.You can move your floating rafts if you need to 4.Most of the planting can be done on shore 5.You do not need to construct a drying rack 6.You can use local wood to construct your frame 7.The seaweed seems to grow faster 1.You might have difficulty finding bamboo 2.You need to find float materials 3.The frame might break or sink during rough weather 4.The frame can be damaged by motordriven boats 5.You might need somebody to help you to handle the frame
  18. 18. Long Line method
  19. 19. Long Line method Merit Demerit 1.You can set your long line almost anywhere 2.The seaweed seems to grow faster 3.You can move the long line to another area 1. The ropes are costly 2. Planting and harvesting cannot be easily done on shore 3. You need to buy expensive floaters
  20. 20. Net method
  21. 21. Vertical culture method 2. buoy 1. main rope 5. Connecting rope 3. anchor rope 6. culture rope with kelp 7. weight 4. main anchor
  22. 22. Horizontal culture method a. 6m section of raft, showing three parallel raft lines and twelve pairs of horizontally suspended ropes. b. connecting loops with bamboo rod shackle used to join pairs of culture ropes together. 5. connecting rope 6. culture rope with sea weed 1. main rope 2. buoy 3. anchor rope; 7. weight 4. main anchor
  23. 23. Mixed culture method 6. culture rope with sea weed 7. weight. 5. connecting rope 3. anchor rope 2. buoy 1. main rope 8. weight. 4. main anchor
  24. 24. Basket method
  25. 25. Floating system
  26. 26. Semi-floating system
  27. 27. Fixed nets
  28. 28. Freezing nets
  29. 29. Harvesting & Post-handling of Seaweed - Seaweeds are harvested for drying after 40-60 days of culture - 3 ways of harvesting: 1.) Individual plant is untied/cut 2.) Both ends of cultivation rope is untied 3.) Whole single bamboo raft is brought to shoreline
  30. 30. Harvesting & Post-handling of Seaweed (Cont….) Post-Harvest *Cleaning – clean thoroughly from foreign materials the newly harvested seaweeds *Drying – ground solar drying & hanging method *7:1 (kilos) – wet to dry ratio DO’s in drying - dry immediately after harvest - keep seaweed always clean - sun-dry for 2-3 days - maintain moisture content at 35-39% DONT’s in initial drying - avoid contact w/sand, dust and dirt - avoid steaming -avoid contact w/freshwater Storage - stored in shortest time possible in clean, cool, dry & well-ventilated place
  31. 31. Regional Benefit of Seaweed culture  Increasing income of the fisherman in the coastal area.  Empower the fisherman, involve many workers in varies culture activities (Seed production, tight the seed in the rope, setting the seed, maintain during growthout), increasing their activities to be more productive.  Relatively easy to grow.  Using simple technology  Relatively small Investment  Relatively short Harvesting time (45 days).  High demand for local industries and export commodity.
  32. 32. Regional Problems in Seaweed Culture  Low production and low product quality  Low culture technique.  Poor quality of seaweed seeds, the production tend to decrease year to year.  Unsuitable culture site.  Difficult to get the seed in certain period of time.  Variation of growth and production among season.  Diseases of seaweed: ice-ice and parasite.  Low quality due to post harvest handling, i.e : drying system and premature harvesting  Heavy metal contaminated issues
  33. 33. Discussion • Established culture techniques for seaweed farming; • Low operation cost technique should be develop • Government support and policies • Huge economic potential Capacity and capability building in research and development. • Application of modern biotechnology in high quality seedling production. • Explore new seaweed cultivation methods, expand seaweed varieties for production, and discover more ways to utilize seaweed and its products. • Development of human resource at technical and nontechnical levels has to be further enhanced through providing seaweed training, special forum and seminars on business opportunities.
  34. 34. •Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture
  35. 35. References 1) FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 159 2) Basa, S.S. 1987. Eucheuma Farming: An Income Generating Project. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Quezon City. 3) Doty, M.S. 1986. Estimating Farmer Returns from Producing Gracilaria and Eucheuma on Line Farms. Monografias Biologicas 4:45-62 Simposio Internacional. Usos y Funciones 4) Ecologicas de las Algas Marinas Bentonicas. Bernabe Sentelices, editor. 5) Mongaya, E. Local seaweeds industry threatened. Manila Standard. April 18, 1990. Padilla, J. and H. Lampe. 1989. 6) Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. 1986. Seaweed Culture in the Asia Pacific Region. FAO-UN. Bangkok.
  36. 36. References 6). Seaweed products and markets. 1983. Infofish Marketing Digest No. 4/83. 7). Seaweed/Seagrass/Mangrove Fishery Resource Section-BFAR-DA. May 1989. Travel Report for the Project Titled: Biological and Oceanographic Studies of Eastern Sorsogon with Emphasis on Seaweeds and Associated Invertebrate Resources. 8). Smith, A. 1986. A Guide to Seamoss Cultivation in the West Indies. Carbbean Conservation Association. 9).Smith, I.R. and R.P Smith. 1980. A Fishing Community's Response to Seaweed Farming.. 10). Smith, I.R. 1987. The Economics of Small-Scale Seaweed Production in the South China Sea Region. FAO Fisheries Circular no. 806. FAO-UN. Rome.