Good evening all of u .today talk about one of the biggest industry the world .
The vast majority of aquatic plant products are now cultivatedas complementary to harvested from the wild (Figure 1.1). For example, in 2008, 15.8 MT wetweight of aquatic plants were cultivated, the equivalent of 93.8% oftotal production, the value of which was US$7.4 billion (FAO 2010a). In 2008, 23% ofthe quantity of all cultured organisms was seaweeds/aquatic plants (Figure 1.1). Thetotal value of all cultured organisms was valued at US$ 10billion, of which seaweedwas worth 7% of the total value (FAO 2010a) Western countries do not have a tradition of cultivatingseaweeds, and consequently, seaweed production(from cultivation) in the latest FAO publication (2010b)
We can seen that slid sea weed industry huge growth rate incresed come to 1984- 1994 biggest growth rate can be seen in rhodophyceae
This are most common sea weed culture in Asian region
42 countries in the world involved in commercial seaweed activity.• Top 10 countries contribute 95% of the world’s commercial seaweed volume (2 million tonnes).Seaweed industry annual production value of US$ 6 billion• China, Japan, Korea, Philippines and Indonesia producethe bulk, valued at US$250 million, mainly for phycocolloidproduction.• Denmark, France, Norway and the U.S. dominate themanufacturing industry.• Natural stocks of seaweeds are limited - farming istherefore a major source of seaweed resources.
Let look at how to culture the sea weed in that region sea weed farming
Temperature control- Either of the air temperature of the entire or the water of the culture onlySea water – Water quality must be at least very good, if not excellent for both small & large scale culture Work, with filtration down to 1-5µm ideal. Consider what sea water filtration & sterilization system Will be availableAir supply – The main consideration are continuity of supply & quality of supply.Drainage – Ensure discharge licenses from the hatchery have been obtained & that drainage is sufficient For large – scale culture work without being overwhelmedLight regime – The ability to manipulate both day length & light intensity is required
Location -Grows well in tropical regions on coral reefs and on the rocky and sandy bottoms of marine waters in intertidal or sub tidal zones.Water quality:Clear , constant motion for continuous nutrient flow; Salinity : 28-34 ppt, relatively salty, purely marine; Depth : at least 30cm during low tide; Temperature : 27° to 30°C;Current : 5-10m per minuteLand Quality:Substratum - Sandy/rockyFauna:Presence of natural seed stocks and other vegetation, eg, eel grass or sargassum.Climatic Factor:Reef areas to protect the farm from typhoon, strong waves, tsunami etc.
Socio-Economics & Marketing:The farm should be relatively accessible to output market and input sources. Price should be attractive and stable. High demand for the product.Farm management operations:The best agronomy for seaweed farming involves the manipulation of the plantings to attain minimal losses due to adverse effects of environmental and climatic changes. For instance, plants should be adjusted with changes in water levels such that the plant would not be muddy.Other :Free from industrial and domestic pollution. Far from freshwater sources.
Preparation of planting materialsCultivation Rope – monofilament (#110 ), poly-ethylene rope (#6-7), flat binderTying Materials – soft plastic rope (“tie-tie”), monofilament #160 test lbsSupport Materials – bamboo, mangrove post, steel bar, Poly-propylene rope (#14)Floater – Styrofoam (square or round shape), empty plastic bottles
- Select Young Branches Using Sharp Edge Knife- Tie Individual Plant Using Soft Plastic Rope- Immerse Plant in Seawater to Prevent Desiccation- “Seedlings” 100-150 Per Cutting
This are the basic seedling preperation long line method. Malaysia, japan, china, Korea
This method basically use to plastic bottle floaters pilliphins,indunisiya, fiji, india
The 15cm long, one mm diameter nylon rope is first tied into Made Loops and attached to the main farm line every 20cm by inserting and wrapping around the line as represented in Then the propagules are attached to the nylon line with the Made Loop by inserting them and using branching thalli to assure the plants will not fall out Bali, Indonesia, developed the Made Loop as part of the FMC Bio Polymer No-Tie farm system development program 1 .One sledge hammer.2. One digging bar.3. One six meter twisted/braided nylon or polyethylene line (5-7 mm diameter).4. Twenty five pieces of 15 cm long one mm braided twisted/braided nylon rope.5. Twenty five healthy, well-branched propagules around 100 gm each.Conventional long-lineImproved long-line
Rafts are used primarily in Indonesia, particularly south Asian region . Like a high density Off Bottom farm, lines should be tied 20 cm apart. It is important to weigh down the raft so that plants are submerged. In near the sub-tidal, smaller rafts are used while in long bamboo poles are used to create the roughly 64m structure and are lashed together with nylon line. One or two anchors can be used. Rafts are towed by local motorized fishing boats to and from the shore for harvesting and replanting.
Long lines are primarily used in southern Philippines and Sabah, Malaysia, though they are growing in popularity throughout the countries. Sand bags, rocks or wooden stake anchors are used and little 0.3 to 1 kg rocks are attached to keep tension in the anchor line. Floats are situated so that the lines are 20 to 40 cm below the surface. based line attach to the sea weed seedlings.
This method most time use in china, japan, Korea like country huge difference between low tide and high tide country. basically use in normal nylone net 1 feet mesh size.
The vertical culture makes good use of water space and is a simple, easily managed procedure. Spacing between the kelp ropes allows currents to pass through them, thus stimulating sporophyte growth. As the plants hang downwards on the kelp ropes they shade each other from excess exposure to sunlight. However, because illumination decreases with water depth, the plants at the lower ends of the ropes may not get enough light to meet their requirements for good growth. This is a disadvantage of this system.
The horizontal culture method can be used in shallow sea areas where turbidity is high. In these, which are typical of conditions found along the coastlines of southern China, horizontally positioned culture ropes give greater and more evenly distributed illumination to all of the attached plants than the hanging kelp rope raft culture method. In inshore areas with slower currents, the use of this method allows the spreading of the plants more evenly in the water, so that light intensity and nutrient exchange are optimized. The disadvantage of this model is that when floating raft lines are positioned at cross-currents, plants suspended from horizontal ropes have a tendency to twist, intertwine and bunch together. This usually happens during stormy weather, when current forces are stronger.
The mixed culture method combines vertical and horizontal systems. The ropes are first suspended vertically and then lifted into a horizontal position. The mixed method has now been widely adopted by Laminariaseafarming enterprises in China. The mixed vertical-horizontal method overcomes the disadvantages encountered when using either of the other systems. All plants receive well-balanced light, and thus variations in growth and weight are reduced. Furthermore, the vertical-horizontal method is less labour-intensive than the hanging kelp rope raft method because it does not require periodic reversals of the kelp ropes. In this system, adjustments of the connecting ropes usually need to be done only once a month.
Philippine use to eukimiya culture in bay and lagoon in this method.
This method has been used in Japan and has recently been widely adopted by Chinese farmers. The nets are attached to buoys floating on the surface of the sea. With this method it is possible to cultivate the thalli even in areas outside shallow bays, in depths of 10-20 m.
This method is a mixture of the floating and fixed net systems. At high tide the nets float on the surface, in the low tides, the system stands on the land. This combines the advantages of fixed net and floating systems, so it has been widely adopted in China.
In this system, also known as the "pole system", the nori nets are hung between poles. During ebb tides, the nets are exposed to air and become dry. Intertidal pole cultivation is often preferred over floating or semi-floating cultivation in deep water, because it ensures periodic exposure of the proper duration, which helps to reduce the incidence of disease and the growth of competitive (weed) species, especially epiphytic diatoms. However, this type of cultivation is restricted to the inner portions of bays, with shallow, sandy bottoms
This method has two advantages: preventing diseased nori, and improving the quality of the final product. The procedure for processing freezing nets is as follows:When the young thalli reach 1 to 3 cm long, they are brought back from the culture area, together with the nets.The nets are dried in the air until the moisture content of the thalli decreases by 20-40 percent, which usually requires 2 to 3 hours.Dried nets are put into vinyl bags.Dried nets are stored in a freezer at -20 ºC.When required, the nets are taken brought back to the nori fields for rearing.
This figure show us to according to seaweed type culture system changing. Water column position changing change and different condition also needed. According to this reason culture system also vary. place to place
Seaweeds are harvested for drying after 40-60 days of culture3 ways of harvesting:1.) Individual plant is untied/cut 2.) Both ends of cultivation rope is untied 3.) Whole single bamboo raft is brought to shoreline
Post-Harvest*Cleaning – clean thoroughly from foreign materials the newly harvested seaweeds*Drying – ground solar drying & hanging method*7:1 (kilos) – wet to dry ratioDO’s in drying- dry immediately after harvest- keep seaweed always clean- sun-dry for 2-3 days- maintain moisture content at 35-39%DONT’s in initial drying- avoid contact w/sand, dust and dirt- avoid steaming-avoid contact w/freshwaterStorage- stored in shortest time possible in clean, cool, dry & well-ventilated place
Increasing income of the fisherman in the coastal area.Empower the fisherman, involve many workers in varies culture activities (Seed production, tight the seed in the rope, setting the seed, maintain during growth-out), increasing their activities to be more productive. Relatively easy to grow.Using simple technologyRelatively small InvestmentRelatively short Harvesting time (45 days).High demand for local industries and export commodity.
Low production and low product quality Low culture technique. Poor quality of seaweed seeds, the production tend to decrease year to year.Unsuitable culture site. Difficult to get the seed in certain period of time.Variation of growth and production among season.Diseases of seaweed: ice-ice and parasite.Low quality due to post harvest handling, i.e : drying system and premature harvestingHeavy metal contaminated issues
• Established culture techniques for seaweed farming;• Low operation cost technique should be develop • Government support and policies• Huge economic potential Capacity and capability building in research and development.• Application of modern biotechnology in high quality seedling production.• Explore new seaweed cultivation methods, expand seaweed varieties for production, and discover more ways to utilize seaweed and its products.• Development of human resource at technical and nontechnical levels has to be further enhanced through providing seaweed training, special forum and seminars on business opportunities.
sea weed farming south east asia
Culture and harvesting methods of
seaweeds in south east Asian countries
AQS:428.1.0 Culture of Aquatic Plant
Department of Zoology
Faculty of Applied Science
University of Sri Jayewardenepura
R.R.Zoysa /As2009029 /Aquatic Science
1. Status of seaweed industry
2. Before sea weed culture what should do you know?
3. Most common sea weed culture in Asian region
4. Sea weed farming steps
5. General Environmental Conditions
6. Preparation of Materials & Seaweed Plot
7. Preparation of “Seedlings”
8. Sea weed Culture methods
9. Harvesting & Post-handling of Seaweed
10.Regional Benefit of Seaweed Culture
11.Regional Problems in Seaweed Culture
Most Common Sea Weed Culture in
Neomeris annulata sp.
Sargassum spp. (7)
Turbinaria spp. (2)
Laurencia spp. (4)
Galaxaura spp. (2)
Before Sea Weed Culture
What Should do You Know?
3. Water Flow
5. Wind Vector
2. Competition for
Space with other
General Environmental Conditions
Grows well in tropical regions on coral reefs and on the rocky and sandy bottoms of
marine waters in intertidal or sub tidal zones.
Clear , constant motion for continuous nutrient flow; Salinity : 28-34 ppt, relatively
salty, purely marine; Depth : at least 30cm during low tide; Temperature : 27° to 30°C;
Current : 5-10m per minute
Substratum - Sandy/rocky
Presence of natural seed stocks and other vegetation, eg, eel grass or sargassum.
Reef areas to protect the farm from typhoon, strong waves, tsunami etc.
Free from fresh water run-off
Seaweed planted in shallow water near the surface
Sandy or rocky bottom to corally substrates
Should not be exposed during low tide
Clear and clean water
>30 ppt salinity
Moderate water movement/current
General environmental condition
Socio-Economics & Marketing:
The farm should be relatively accessible to output market and input sources.
Price should be attractive and stable. High demand for the product.
Farm management operations:
The best agronomy for seaweed farming involves the manipulation of the
plantings to attain minimal losses due to adverse effects of environmental and
climatic changes. For instance, plants should be adjusted with changes in water
levels such that the plant would not be muddy.
Free from industrial and domestic pollution. Far from freshwater sources.
Preparation of Materials & Seaweed Plot
Preparation of planting materials
1.) Cultivation Rope – monofilament (#110 ), poly-ethylene rope (#6-7), flat binder
2.) Tying Materials – soft plastic rope (“tie-tie”), monofilament #160 test lbs
3.) Support Materials – bamboo, mangrove post, steel bar, Poly-propylene rope (#14)
4.) Floater – Styrofoam (square or round shape), empty plastic bottles
Preparation of “Seedlings”
- Select Young Branches Using Sharp Edge Knife
- Tie Individual Plant Using Soft Plastic Rope
- Immerse Plant in Seawater to Prevent Desiccation
- “Seedlings” 100-150 Per Cutting
Sea weed Culture methods
Rock or Stone Method
Wood / Bamboo Stakes
& off - bottom
Raft / Planting
Floating Raft System
Spider Web method
“Lantay” method (for nursery)
Off - Bottom Method
1) Simple to construct
2) Easy to manage
3) You can prepare your lines on shore
4) Do not require much money to start
5) You can use local wood to prepare
6) The farm is easy to reach at low tide
1. Difficult to locate a good area
2. You might lose your crop during rough
3. You cannot move your farm if needed
4. You might find more grazer fish around
5. You need to construct a drying rack
1.Can be utilized in shallow or deep waters
2.You do not need a sandy sea bottom bed
3.You can move your floating rafts if you
4.Most of the planting can be done on shore
5.You do not need to construct a drying rack
6.You can use local wood to construct your
7.The seaweed seems to grow faster
1.You might have difficulty finding
2.You need to find float materials
3.The frame might break or sink during
4.The frame can be damaged by motordriven boats
5.You might need somebody to help
you to handle the frame
Long Line method
1.You can set your long line almost
2.The seaweed seems to grow faster
3.You can move the long line to another
1. The ropes are costly
2. Planting and harvesting cannot be easily
done on shore
3. You need to buy expensive floaters
Vertical culture method
1. main rope
5. Connecting rope
3. anchor rope
6. culture rope
4. main anchor
Horizontal culture method
a. 6m section of raft, showing three parallel raft lines and twelve pairs of horizontally
b. connecting loops with bamboo rod shackle used to join pairs of culture ropes
5. connecting rope
6. culture rope with sea weed
1. main rope
3. anchor rope;
4. main anchor
Mixed culture method
6. culture rope with sea weed
5. connecting rope
3. anchor rope
1. main rope
4. main anchor
Harvesting & Post-handling of
- Seaweeds are harvested for drying after 40-60 days of
- 3 ways of harvesting:
1.) Individual plant is untied/cut
2.) Both ends of cultivation rope is untied
3.) Whole single bamboo raft is brought to shoreline
Harvesting & Post-handling of
*Cleaning – clean thoroughly from foreign materials the newly harvested
*Drying – ground solar drying & hanging method
*7:1 (kilos) – wet to dry ratio
DO’s in drying
- dry immediately after harvest
- keep seaweed always clean
- sun-dry for 2-3 days
- maintain moisture content at 35-39%
DONT’s in initial drying
- avoid contact w/sand, dust and dirt
- avoid steaming
-avoid contact w/freshwater
- stored in shortest time possible in clean, cool, dry & well-ventilated place
Regional Benefit of
Increasing income of the
fisherman in the coastal area.
Empower the fisherman, involve
many workers in varies culture
activities (Seed production, tight
the seed in the rope, setting the
seed, maintain during growthout), increasing their activities to
be more productive.
Relatively easy to grow.
Using simple technology
Relatively small Investment
Relatively short Harvesting time
High demand for local industries
and export commodity.
Regional Problems in Seaweed Culture
Low production and low product quality
Low culture technique.
Poor quality of seaweed seeds, the
production tend to decrease year to year.
Unsuitable culture site.
Difficult to get the seed in certain period
Variation of growth and production
Diseases of seaweed: ice-ice and parasite.
Low quality due to post harvest
handling, i.e : drying system and
Heavy metal contaminated issues
• Established culture techniques for seaweed farming;
• Low operation cost technique should be develop
• Government support and policies
• Huge economic potential Capacity and capability building in
research and development.
• Application of modern biotechnology in high quality seedling
• Explore new seaweed cultivation methods, expand seaweed
varieties for production, and discover more ways to utilize
seaweed and its products.
• Development of human resource at technical and nontechnical
levels has to be further enhanced through providing seaweed
training, special forum and seminars on business opportunities.
1) FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 159
2) Basa, S.S. 1987. Eucheuma Farming: An Income Generating Project. Bureau of Fisheries
and Aquatic Resources. Quezon City.
3) Doty, M.S. 1986. Estimating Farmer Returns from Producing Gracilaria and Eucheuma
on Line Farms. Monografias Biologicas 4:45-62 Simposio Internacional. Usos y
4) Ecologicas de las Algas Marinas Bentonicas. Bernabe Sentelices, editor.
5) Mongaya, E. Local seaweeds industry threatened. Manila Standard. April 18, 1990.
Padilla, J. and H. Lampe. 1989.
6) Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. 1986. Seaweed Culture in the Asia Pacific
Region. FAO-UN. Bangkok.
6). Seaweed products and markets. 1983. Infofish Marketing Digest No. 4/83.
7). Seaweed/Seagrass/Mangrove Fishery Resource Section-BFAR-DA. May 1989. Travel
Report for the Project Titled: Biological and Oceanographic Studies of Eastern Sorsogon
with Emphasis on Seaweeds and Associated Invertebrate Resources.
8). Smith, A. 1986. A Guide to Seamoss Cultivation in the West Indies. Carbbean
9).Smith, I.R. and R.P Smith. 1980. A Fishing Community's Response to Seaweed
10). Smith, I.R. 1987. The Economics of Small-Scale Seaweed Production in the South
China Sea Region. FAO Fisheries Circular no. 806. FAO-UN. Rome.