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Zoology 2 22-12

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Zoology 2 22-12

  1. 1. Worms Flatworms, Annelids, & Polychaeates
  2. 2. Three types of worms <ul><li>Phylum Plathelminthes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsegmented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turbellaria: flatworms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cestoidea: tapeworms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Phylum nematoda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roundworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsegmented </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Phylum platyhelminthes Class turbellaria
  4. 4. Class Turbellaria: Flatworms! <ul><li>organ level of organization! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What organs did you find in the worksheet? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bilateral symmetry </li></ul><ul><li>unsegmented </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginnings of a brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Active predators </li></ul>
  5. 5. Flatworms! <ul><li>Cepha lization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can detect light, chemicals, and movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eyespot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locomotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covered with a layer of cells called the epidermis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventral surface of epidermis produces mucus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turbellaria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name comes from movement of cilia </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Flatworms <ul><li>Digestion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crustaceans, snails, annelid worms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bodies of dead animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diatoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why is it more beneficial to eat diatoms? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete gut </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respiration: exchange gasses through skin </li></ul>
  7. 7. Active predators <ul><li>Entangle prey in mucus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffocates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stab prey with a pharynx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pumps out enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sucks out body fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gastrovascular cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do the branches in the cavity do for the organism? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastrodermis </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Flatworms <ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asexually and sexually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>regeneration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reciprocal copulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hermaphrodites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange both sperm and egg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monoecious: have both male and female parts </li></ul>
  9. 9. Class Cestoidea The tape worm
  10. 10. Tapeworms <ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live in digestive tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be huge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No digestive tract or nervous tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Passed through intermediate hosts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be deadly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attach to host using a scolex </li></ul>
  11. 11. Endoparasites <ul><li>Attaches to your digestive tract </li></ul><ul><li>Worm is made up of proglottids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains one or more complete set of reproductive structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 80,000 eggs per proglottid </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Tapeworm reproduction <ul><li>The story of the tapeworm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle graze in pastures contaminated with human feces and ingest oncospheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestion of cattle releases larva </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larva travels to skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Form cystircercus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human eats meat improperly cooked </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Phylum Nematoda Roundworms
  14. 14. Roundworms <ul><li>Around 16,000 to 5000,000 species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed on almost anything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotting tissue to living tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bilateral </li></ul><ul><li>Unsegmented </li></ul><ul><li>pseudocoelomate </li></ul>
  15. 15. Roundworm systems <ul><li>Digestive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth, teeth, jaws, buccal cavity, long tubular intestine, anus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are male and some are female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can produce thousands of eggs a day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High reproductive potential </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The giant intestinal roundworm of humans <ul><li>Attaches to your small intestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature in intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exit in feces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hatched in lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swallowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Other Parasitic Worms <ul><li>The human pinworm </li></ul><ul><li>The new world hookworm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penetrate through feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The porkworm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burrow into your skeleton and encyst your bones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The filarial worms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Live in lymphatic system: block vessels </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Phylum Annelida <ul><li>Segmented worms </li></ul>
  19. 19. Annelids <ul><li>Worms whose bodies are divided internally and externally into segments </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take in nutrients from the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>help to filter nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Structure of annelids <ul><li>Bilateral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid filled: hydrostatic skeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal and circular muscles to help with locomotion </li></ul><ul><li>Setae: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bristles on skin that help movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebral ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>Gas exchange occurs across the skin </li></ul>
  21. 21. Digestion <ul><li>Food enters body through the pharynx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic nutrients are digested in the intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrients are stored in the crop </li></ul><ul><li>Help to filter nutrients in the soil </li></ul>
  22. 22. Class polychaetes
  23. 23. Tube like worms <ul><li>Live in sand mud, corals, shells </li></ul><ul><li>Bury themselves in the sand and project only their jaws or tentacles out of their tubes </li></ul>
  24. 24. Structure <ul><li>Light sensors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pull themselves back in their tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tentacles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use cilia to strain food and release wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tubes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made of calcium, carbon, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Digestion <ul><li>Digestive tract running straight through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually two openings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or turn themselves inside out to release wastes </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Reproduction <ul><li>Asexual: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regeneration, budding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epitoke: pelagic reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Release millions of sperm and eggs all in one night </li></ul></ul></ul>

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