Day 4
http://www.slideshare.net/ejvr527
Plant-like Protists
Phylums of protists
• Euglenophta
• Pyrrophyta
Euglenophytes
• Unicellular aquatic algae – both autotrophic
and heterotrophic
• Two flagella with different lengths
• Als...
Flagella
• Whip-like structure that acts like a cells motor
• Located on the anterior(front)
• Twirls weeeeeeee
• Reservoi...
Chloroplast
• Traps sunlight used for photosynthesis
• Rod-like structures
Eyespot
• Found at the anterior end near the re...
• Pellicle – stiff structure that help cell’s shape
• Nucleus
– center of the cell that contains the DNA
– Controls the ce...
Habitat
• Nutrient-rich freshwater system
• Some in salt waters
• Often abundant in quiet, inland waters where
they bloom ...
Nutrition
• Heterotrophic – organic compounds
– Osmotrophic – dissolved nutrients
– Phagotrophic – engulfs
• Autotroph – p...
Reproduction: Asexual
• Mitosis
– Chromosomes in the nucleus are
separated, forming two identical sets in two
separate nuc...
Euglenophyta’s ecology
• Highly eutrophic environments, rich in
minerals
• Often found in ponds and ditches near cow
pastu...
Euglena gracilis
• Eat green algae and use it to make food
• Undergoes the process of mitosis
• Reproduce better
• Preys o...
Euglena sanguinea
• Found in red tides
• Has astaxanthin
• Use the pigment to protect chloroplasts from
intense light
• Ma...
Dinoflagellates
• Habitat: organisms, fresh water, ocean
• Reproduction: asexual
• Eukaryotes without histones
• Autotroph...
flagellum
• Propels organism by spinning.
• Wraps around the organism between two
thick plates of cellulose
• Has two ____...
Ecology
• Photosynthetic -> primary producers
• Photosynthetic or heterotrophic
• Has symbiotic relationships with some co...
• Luminescene – luciferases activate luciferin
which require oxygen
• Gonyaulax & Gymnodinium – produces toxin
in red tide...
Types of pigments
• Chlorophyll – green
• Carotene – yellow
• Xanthophyll - brown
Chrysophytes and Diatoms
• Chrysophytes – golden
• Carotenoids – pigments
– Fucoxanthin: yellow-brown
• Stores food as oil...
Structure
• Cell wall
– Rigid
– Has pectin or silica
– Some have none: ameboid
• Flagella
– Some have one or two
Acquiring energy
• Facultative heterotrophs
– Can be heterotrophs when there is inadequate
amount of light
Plants
Algae
• Live near or in bodies of water
• Has no vascular tissue
• Most are multicellular, some unicellular or
colonial
• ...
Adaptation to water
• Thin leaf-life structure
• Diffusion of materials through body
• No stems
• Ease of sexual reproduct...
Divisions
• Rhodophyta(red algae)
• Phaephyta(brown algae)
• Chlorophyta(green algae)
Rhodophyta
• Pigments:
– Chl a(all)
– Phycoerythrin absorbs blue light
– Appears green, pink, red, purple, black
• Food re...
Phaeophyta
• Pigments:
– Chl a and c
– Fucoxanthin
– Dusky olive/ yellow-brown
• Lives in marine but sometimes in coastal
...
Chlorophyta
• Pigments:
– chl a and b
– Carotenoids
• Food reserve: starch
• Lives in freshwater, marine, moist
• Cell wal...
Clamydomonas
• 2 flagella
• Cup-shaped chloroplast
• 2 small contractile vacuoles
• Eyespot
• Cell wall not made of
cellul...
• Gonium
– 4-42 cells living together, funtion independently
• Volvox
– 500-50,000 – arranged in hollow spheres
• Oedogoni...
reproduction
• Diploid < -> haploid stages
• Asexual <-> sexual modes
• Asexual: spores
• Sexual: gametes
Nonvascular plants
plants
1. Photosynthetic
2. Multicellular eukaryotes
3. Cellulose cell wall
4. Presence of plastid
5. Undergo alternations...
Terrestrial life
• More sunlight
• More carbon dioxide
• More nutrients
• More minerals
• Less herbivores, pathogens, etc.
Similarities w/ algae
• Alternation of generation
• Needs H2O for reproduction
Lack water conducting tubules
• Osmosis, surface tension
– Only works for short distances
Lack waxy cuticle
• Waxy cuticle -> prevents _____
– Loses H2) easily
Lack true roots
• Rhizoids – root-like structures
– For anchorage
– Does not mainly function as a collector of
nutrients
Limited reproduction in a dry
environment
• Reproduce when water is available
• Can survive drying periods but it may stop...
Similar to modern mosses
• Simple structure
• Stay close to the
ground
• Cooksonia
– Simple branched
– Reproductive
– stru...
Mosses
• Phylum Bryophyta
– Adapted to wet, low nutrients, low temp
– Habitats: polar regions, tropical
• Gametophyte:
– S...
• Sporophyte
– Stalk: holds up capsule
– Capsule: produces
spores
– Fully dependent on
gametophyte
• w/ rhizoids
Liverworts
• Phylum Hepaticophyta
– Live in constantly wet plaes
Sexual:
• Gametophyte: like flat green leaves on the
grou...
Asexual reproduction
• Gemmae:
– Multicellular spheres w/ many haploid cells
– Divided by mitosis
• Gemma cups
– Cup-like ...
Hornworts
• Gametophyte: like liverworts’
• Sporophyte: tiny horn like structures
Vascular Plants: Tracheophytes
• Tracheo  “wind pipe” or “vascular”
• Xylem(water and minerals)
• Phloem(sugars from leav...
Primitive vascular plants
Fern Allies
Division Lycophyta: Club mosses
• Oldest extant group
• Sporangia organized into
strobili
• Homosporous /
heterosporous
• ...
Division Sphenophyta: Scouring rushes
• Whorls – leaves produced at nodes
• Isospores
• Spores being elaters
– Gametophyte...
Division Psilophyta
• Oldest living lineage of vascular plants
• Lack roots
• Stem is photosynthetic
• No leaves but enati...
Ferns
Whisk ferns
Lycopods
Horsetails
Ferns
Seed plants
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Gymnosperms
Gingkoes
Gnetophytes
Conifers
Cycads
Angiosperms
Monocots
Dicots
Day 4
Day 4
Day 4
Day 4
Day 4
Day 4
Day 4
Day 4
Day 4
Day 4
Day 4
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Day 4

524 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
524
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
16
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Day 4

  1. 1. Day 4 http://www.slideshare.net/ejvr527
  2. 2. Plant-like Protists
  3. 3. Phylums of protists • Euglenophta • Pyrrophyta
  4. 4. Euglenophytes • Unicellular aquatic algae – both autotrophic and heterotrophic • Two flagella with different lengths • Also called Euglenozoa, Euglenoids, and Euglenophyta • Heterotrophic • Charasteristics genus is Euglena • Swimmers but can change shape • Can live as saprophytes, organisms that absorb nutrients available in decayed material
  5. 5. Flagella • Whip-like structure that acts like a cells motor • Located on the anterior(front) • Twirls weeeeeeee • Reservoir – Inward pocket where flagellum is attached
  6. 6. Chloroplast • Traps sunlight used for photosynthesis • Rod-like structures Eyespot • Found at the anterior end near the resevoir • Helps find bright areas to gather sunlight for photosynthesis
  7. 7. • Pellicle – stiff structure that help cell’s shape • Nucleus – center of the cell that contains the DNA – Controls the cell’s activities • Nuleolus – Structure found within the nucleus • Cytoplasm – jelly-like fluid found in the interior • Contractile vacuole – star-like structure helps remove excess water to prevent it from exploding
  8. 8. Habitat • Nutrient-rich freshwater system • Some in salt waters • Often abundant in quiet, inland waters where they bloom and color the surface of ponds and ditches green or red
  9. 9. Nutrition • Heterotrophic – organic compounds – Osmotrophic – dissolved nutrients – Phagotrophic – engulfs • Autotroph – produce own food – Phototrophic – obtain energy
  10. 10. Reproduction: Asexual • Mitosis – Chromosomes in the nucleus are separated, forming two identical sets in two separate nuclei • Cytokinesis – Cytoplasm is divided to form two cells
  11. 11. Euglenophyta’s ecology • Highly eutrophic environments, rich in minerals • Often found in ponds and ditches near cow pasture, hog lots, chicken farms, etc. • Thick green or red scum on the surface of the algae bloom • Often found in water • Can be used as indicators of polluted areas
  12. 12. Euglena gracilis • Eat green algae and use it to make food • Undergoes the process of mitosis • Reproduce better • Preys on tiny organisms like amoeba and paramecium • Harmless to humans, often signs of polluted water
  13. 13. Euglena sanguinea • Found in red tides • Has astaxanthin • Use the pigment to protect chloroplasts from intense light • May change to green pigment as red pigments move to the center
  14. 14. Dinoflagellates • Habitat: organisms, fresh water, ocean • Reproduction: asexual • Eukaryotes without histones • Autotrophs, phagotrophs, symbionts, parasite s
  15. 15. flagellum • Propels organism by spinning. • Wraps around the organism between two thick plates of cellulose • Has two ______ • Traverse flagellum • Longitudinal flagellum
  16. 16. Ecology • Photosynthetic -> primary producers • Photosynthetic or heterotrophic • Has symbiotic relationships with some corals • Eats waste of animals • Can cause red tide • Some can produce neurotoxins • Limiting nutrient number
  17. 17. • Luminescene – luciferases activate luciferin which require oxygen • Gonyaulax & Gymnodinium – produces toxin in red tides • Notiluce scintillans – phagotrophic dinoflagellate • Some have endosymbionts
  18. 18. Types of pigments • Chlorophyll – green • Carotene – yellow • Xanthophyll - brown
  19. 19. Chrysophytes and Diatoms • Chrysophytes – golden • Carotenoids – pigments – Fucoxanthin: yellow-brown • Stores food as oil • Very diverse • Reproductions varies: – Asexual and sexual • Movement: gliding motion – Has a mucin – Some travel in colonies
  20. 20. Structure • Cell wall – Rigid – Has pectin or silica – Some have none: ameboid • Flagella – Some have one or two
  21. 21. Acquiring energy • Facultative heterotrophs – Can be heterotrophs when there is inadequate amount of light
  22. 22. Plants
  23. 23. Algae • Live near or in bodies of water • Has no vascular tissue • Most are multicellular, some unicellular or colonial • Reproductive cycles involve alternating sexual and asexual stages • Well adapted to life in water and intertidal zone
  24. 24. Adaptation to water • Thin leaf-life structure • Diffusion of materials through body • No stems • Ease of sexual reproduction
  25. 25. Divisions • Rhodophyta(red algae) • Phaephyta(brown algae) • Chlorophyta(green algae)
  26. 26. Rhodophyta • Pigments: – Chl a(all) – Phycoerythrin absorbs blue light – Appears green, pink, red, purple, black • Food reserve: Floridean starch • No flagella and centrioles • Lives in marine but some in freshwater or polar regions • Mostly multicellular
  27. 27. Phaeophyta • Pigments: – Chl a and c – Fucoxanthin – Dusky olive/ yellow-brown • Lives in marine but sometimes in coastal waters • Food reserve: laminarin • All multicellular
  28. 28. Chlorophyta • Pigments: – chl a and b – Carotenoids • Food reserve: starch • Lives in freshwater, marine, moist • Cell wall – cellulose • Uni-, multi-, celullar or colonial • Ancestors of modern plants
  29. 29. Clamydomonas • 2 flagella • Cup-shaped chloroplast • 2 small contractile vacuoles • Eyespot • Cell wall not made of cellulose • Found in ditches
  30. 30. • Gonium – 4-42 cells living together, funtion independently • Volvox – 500-50,000 – arranged in hollow spheres • Oedogonium – Thread like colonies – holdfast cell attached to bottom – Asexual: broken filaments divide and grow – Sexual: formation of gametes
  31. 31. reproduction • Diploid < -> haploid stages • Asexual <-> sexual modes • Asexual: spores • Sexual: gametes
  32. 32. Nonvascular plants
  33. 33. plants 1. Photosynthetic 2. Multicellular eukaryotes 3. Cellulose cell wall 4. Presence of plastid 5. Undergo alternations of generations – Multicellular diploid and haploid
  34. 34. Terrestrial life • More sunlight • More carbon dioxide • More nutrients • More minerals • Less herbivores, pathogens, etc.
  35. 35. Similarities w/ algae • Alternation of generation • Needs H2O for reproduction
  36. 36. Lack water conducting tubules • Osmosis, surface tension – Only works for short distances
  37. 37. Lack waxy cuticle • Waxy cuticle -> prevents _____ – Loses H2) easily
  38. 38. Lack true roots • Rhizoids – root-like structures – For anchorage – Does not mainly function as a collector of nutrients
  39. 39. Limited reproduction in a dry environment • Reproduce when water is available • Can survive drying periods but it may stop growing.
  40. 40. Similar to modern mosses • Simple structure • Stay close to the ground • Cooksonia – Simple branched – Reproductive – structures
  41. 41. Mosses • Phylum Bryophyta – Adapted to wet, low nutrients, low temp – Habitats: polar regions, tropical • Gametophyte: – Stem-like structure: thin upright shoot – Leaf-like structure:____ cell thick – No vascular tissues – No true leaves/ stems
  42. 42. • Sporophyte – Stalk: holds up capsule – Capsule: produces spores – Fully dependent on gametophyte • w/ rhizoids
  43. 43. Liverworts • Phylum Hepaticophyta – Live in constantly wet plaes Sexual: • Gametophyte: like flat green leaves on the ground or lobed shaped like a liver • Sporophyte: tiny umbrella structure
  44. 44. Asexual reproduction • Gemmae: – Multicellular spheres w/ many haploid cells – Divided by mitosis • Gemma cups – Cup-like structures that produce gemmae
  45. 45. Hornworts • Gametophyte: like liverworts’ • Sporophyte: tiny horn like structures
  46. 46. Vascular Plants: Tracheophytes • Tracheo  “wind pipe” or “vascular” • Xylem(water and minerals) • Phloem(sugars from leaves) • Larger and more complex • Sporophyte is more prominent • Demonstrate increase levels of ogranization
  47. 47. Primitive vascular plants Fern Allies
  48. 48. Division Lycophyta: Club mosses • Oldest extant group • Sporangia organized into strobili • Homosporous / heterosporous • Contained vascular tissue Example genera: • Lycopodium: bisexual – Isospores: gametophytes • Selaginella: – Small – microspore – male – Larger – megaspore - female
  49. 49. Division Sphenophyta: Scouring rushes • Whorls – leaves produced at nodes • Isospores • Spores being elaters – Gametophyte – small, photosynthetic, free living • Silica concentrated • Jointed stems
  50. 50. Division Psilophyta • Oldest living lineage of vascular plants • Lack roots • Stem is photosynthetic • No leaves but enations  not vascular • Resembles cooksonia
  51. 51. Ferns
  52. 52. Whisk ferns
  53. 53. Lycopods
  54. 54. Horsetails
  55. 55. Ferns
  56. 56. Seed plants
  57. 57. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
  58. 58. Gymnosperms
  59. 59. Gingkoes
  60. 60. Gnetophytes
  61. 61. Conifers
  62. 62. Cycads
  63. 63. Angiosperms
  64. 64. Monocots
  65. 65. Dicots

×