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2. product life cycle design vezzoli 14-15 (41)

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2. product life cycle design vezzoli 14-15 (41)

  1. 1. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy course System Design for Sustainability TODAY: 2. INTRODUCTION TO PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN 3. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY 3.1 Eco-efficient system innovation 3.2 System design for eco-efficiency 3.3 System design for eco-efficiency guidelines and examples carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . DESIGN dept. . DIS . School of Design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability (EU asia-link) Learning Network on Sustainabile energy systems (EU edulink)
  2. 2. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy course System Design for Sustainability subject 2. Introduction to product Life Cycle Design learning resource 2.1 Introduction to product Life Cycle Design carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . DESIGN dept. . DIS . School of Design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability (EU asia-link) Learning Network on Sustainabile energy systems (EU edulink)
  3. 3. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy CONTENTS . Product environmental effects and requirements . Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) . Life Cycle Design approach: life cycle + functional . Introduction to Product Life Cycle Design criteria . Resources minimisation . Low impact resources selection . Product life optimisation . Material life extension . Design for disassembly
  4. 4. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy (product) LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (or eco-design, design for the environment, …) the discipline integrating ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS within the PRODUCT design process
  5. 5. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy it is to design for minimizing product’s ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS EACH ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT IS BASED ON A SUBSTANCE’S EXCHANGE (IMPACT) BETWEEN THE NATURE/ENVIRONMENT AND A (ANTHROPIC TRASFORMATION) PROCESS OF A PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION SYSTEM input: substance extraction from the environment output: substance emission in the environment (not all impacts damage with the same entity) ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS
  6. 6. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy INPUTS AND THEIR (DAMAGING) EFFECTS RESOURCES EXHAUSTION ALTERATION OF THE ECOSYSTEMS’ BALANCE (damaging outputs of extractive processes)
  7. 7. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy OUTPUTS AND THEIR (DAMAGING) EFFECTS global warming (greenhouse effect) ozone layer depletion eutrophication acidification smog toxicity wastes ...
  8. 8. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy CAN WE ASSOCIATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TO A PRODUCT? AND HOW? APPROACHES: - PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE - FUNCTIONAL UNIT EVALUATION METHOD: - LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS IN DESIGN
  9. 9. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product life cycle stages
  10. 10. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy LIFE CYCLE APPROACH manufac. assemb. finish collection resource’sachieving m ater. energy produc. package trasp. storage other product’s life cycle
  11. 11. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product life cycle stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “function” design PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH
  12. 12. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy FUNCTIONAL APPROACH IS NOT THE PRODUCT TO BE DESIGNED (ASSESSED) BUT, THE WHOLE OF THE PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH THE FULFILLMENT OF A GIVEN FUNCTION
  13. 13. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product life cycle stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “function” design the environmental design “objective” minimise the environmental impact of the whole of the phases in relation to the functional unit PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH
  14. 14. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCT LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT a quantitative method to assess the environmental effects of the life cycle of a given product/service in relation to its functional unit ISO 14040
  15. 15. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy e.g. LCA upholstered seat (8 years life span) PRE-PROD. PRODUCTION DISTRIBUT. USE DISPOSAL
  16. 16. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy e.g. LCA refrigerator (10 years life span) PRE-PROD. PRODUCTION DISTRIBUT. USE DISPOSAL
  17. 17. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy “the design of the product life cycle stages that, while considering all requirements, aims at minimising the environmental impact of the whole of the life cycle phases in relation to the functional unit” (Vezzoli & Manzini, Springer, London, 2008) PRODUCT LYFE CYCLE DESIGN: DEFINITION
  18. 18. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy LCD: ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA RESOURCES MINIMISATION LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
  19. 19. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy MATERAIL USE MINIMISATION in all life cycle phases (as a whole) ENERGY USE MINIMISATION in all life cycle phases (as a whole) RESOURCES MINIMISATION quantitative impact reduction DESIGN FOR:
  20. 20. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy Ikea Air sofa, Ikea EX. MATERIALS CONSUMPTION MINIMISATION
  21. 21. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy FRIA, refrigerator, Tischner EX. ENERGIES CONSUMPTION MINIMISATION
  22. 22. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy RESOURCES CONSERVATION/RENEWABILITY in all life cycle phases (as a whole) RESOURCES NON TOXICITY AND HARMFULNESS in all life cycle phases (as a whole) LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION qualitative impact reduction DESIGN FOR:
  23. 23. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy rags for cleaning in micro-fiber (no need for detergent) EX. TOXICITY AND HARMFULNESS MINIMISATION
  24. 24. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy Solar shuttle, Kopf Umwelt EX. ENERGY RENEWABILITY IMPROVEMENT
  25. 25. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy gardening vase in mater-B, cornstarch bio-deg. polimer by Novamont EX. MATERIAL BIO-COMPATIBILITY IMPROVEMENT
  26. 26. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy RESOURCES RENEWABILITY DEPENDS ON: - RE-GROWING SPECIFIC SPEED - EXTRACTION FREQUENCY a resource is renewable if: a context related anthropic consumption rate < natural re-growing rate
  27. 27. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy MATERIALS’ ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT A RANKING FROM THE BEST TO THE WORST IS (USUALLY) “MISLEADING ” DEPENDS ON: - MATERIAL-SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS - CHARACTERISTICS GIVEN TO PRODUCT
  28. 28. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION DESIGN FOR: EXTENDING PRODUCT (COMPONENT) LIFE SPAN INTENSIFYING PRODUCT (COMPONENT) USE
  29. 29. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy CARE, changing top>kids table>writing desk, Stokke EX. PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION
  30. 30. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE PRE-PRODUCTION NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES WITH LOWER USE CONSUMPTION USE DISP. P-PROD. PROD. DISTRIB. UPDATING OF THE COMPONENTS CAUSING CONSUMPTION PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE DISPOSAL same function in time PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE USE AVOIDED IMPACTS LIGHTER IMPACTS SHORT product/component life EXTENDED product/component life
  31. 31. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. use (function) during time PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. B 1 B 2 B 3A 1 A 2 A 3C 1 C 2 C 3 A 1 A 2 A 3 B 1 B 2 B 3 C 1 C 2 C 3 LIFESPANINDIPENDENTFROMLENGHTOFUSE AVOIDED IMPACTS products/components NOT INTENSE life product/component INTENSE life
  32. 32. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION DESIGN FOR: RECYCLING ENERGY RECOVERY COMPOSTING
  33. 33. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy PRE- PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE LANDFILL PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE PRE- PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE RECYCLING COMBUSTION COMPOSTING PRE-PRODUCTION material NON-EXTENDED life material EXTENDED life AVOIDED IMPACTS ADDITIONAL IMPACTS
  34. 34. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy MATERIALS’ RECYCLABILITY (COMB., COMP.) DIPENDS ON: - SPECIFIC MATERIAL’S CHARACTERISTICS performances recovery (and costs of process) - PRODUCT’S ARCHITECTURE - RECYCLING PHASES
  35. 35. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy POST-CONSUMPTION RECYCLING PHASES: (COMBUSTION, COMPOSTING) . collection . transportation . separation (disassembly a/o crushing) . identification . cleaning . secondary raw material’s production
  36. 36. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy water bottle for easy recycling, EVIAN EX. MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION
  37. 37. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy > of parts/components PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION > of materials MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
  38. 38. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy Mirra seat, Herman Miller EX. DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
  39. 39. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy some have been developed (according to ISO/TR 14062:2002 Environmental management - Integrating environmental aspects into product design and development) PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: METHODS/TOOLS … UNEP-TUD (D4S) POLIMI-DIS (MPDS)
  40. 40. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy (brief) product strategies product concept product design ingegner. PRODUCT DESIGN PHASES processes/tools to orientate processes/tools envirnomental assesm. LCA on reference product for design: es. SIMAPRO sustainability-focused ideas generation: tavole eco-idee (ICS) abrdiged LCA check: es. SIMAPRO qualitative check: cecklist (ICS) check of sustainability design priorities: sch. IPSA/radar (ICS) environmental design priorities identification: sch. IPSA/radar (ICS) most promising concept selection low environmental impact processes selection: tools to orientate specific environmental issues es. idemat abrdiged LCA on potential impact reduction: es. SIMAPRO qualitative check: cecklist (ICS) LCA of comparisonfor environmental quality communication: es. SIMAPRO MPDS: Method for Product Design for Environmental Sustainability (developed and adopted by DIS-Polimi)
  41. 41. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy … SOME OF THE MPDS TOOLS free download at www.lens.polimi.it / tools Multicriteria Radar_ICS toolkit Eco-idea tables_ICS toolkit Idea 3 Idea 1 Idea 2 Checklist (guidelies related)_ICS toolkit
  42. 42. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy if you want to know more about: PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (LECTURER’S BIBLIOGRAPHY)

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