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1.2 evolution of sustainability in design vezzoli 14-15 (41) (n)

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1.2 evolution of sustainability in design

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1.2 evolution of sustainability in design vezzoli 14-15 (41) (n)

  1. 1. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy course System Design for Sustainability subject 1. Sustainable development and design: the reference framework learning resource 1.2 Evolution of sustainability within design carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . DESIGN dept. . DIS . School of Design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability (EU asia-link) Learning Network on Sustainabile energy systems (EU edulink)
  2. 2. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy CONTENTS . increasing role of design (for sustainability) . evolution of sustainability within design . low environmental impact materials/energies . product life cycle design/ecodesign . Product-Service System design for eco-efficiency . design for social equity and cohesion . design for sustainability: state of the art . a “pluralism of aesthetics” for sustainability
  3. 3. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy intervening after processes’ damages intervening on processes intervening on products and services intervening consumption patterns (SCP) APPROACHES TO SUSTAINABILITY INCREASING (POTENTIAL) ROLE FOR DESIGN TIME - +
  4. 4. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy > responsibility for: the “technical” definition of the solutions the “attractiveness” of solutions INCREASING (POTENTIAL) ROLE OF DESIGN emphasis on prevention emphasis on socio-cultural dimension
  5. 5. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy WHAT DO THE DESIGN COMMUNITY (IN GENERAL) KNOWS OF DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY?
  6. 6. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy cardboard seat HOW MANY (IN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY) WOULD THINK IT IS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT?
  7. 7. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy Savonarola seat walnut-wood, so far 500 years life span MADE WITHOUT ANY CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, BUT …
  8. 8. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy = time/function ………………………………………………………………. + + + + + + + … + + + + + + + …
  9. 9. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy Chadwick , Stumpf Aeron, Herman Miller seat steel and plastics, 12 years warranty even in use commodatum DESIGNED TODAY WITH A RIGHT CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT
  10. 10. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy pen, biodegradable material (from corn starch) HOW MANY (IN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY) WOULD THINK IT IS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT?
  11. 11. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy Pen, MONTBLANC DESIGNED WITHOUT ANY CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, BUT …
  12. 12. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy = …………………………………………………………….............. time/function + + + + + + + … + + + + + + + …
  13. 13. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy “Natural” materials Asbestos (amianto) is a natural material! (and one of the most cancerogenic!) HOW MANY (IN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY) WOULD THINK THEY ARE ALWAYS WITH A LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT?
  14. 14. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy “njatural” materials “natural” materials how many persons within the design community would evalaute correctly the environmantal sustaianbility? ??HOW MANY COULD CORRECTLY DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY (AND TEACH IT)?
  15. 15. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ... TODAY FEW WHTIN THE DESIGN COMMUNITY ARE “EQUIPPED” WITH A SOLID KNOWLEDGE-BASE AND KNOW-HOW (METHODS AND TOOLS) ON DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY … TODAY THE DESIGN COMMUNITY (AS A WHOLE) IS STILL MORE PART OF THE PROBLEM THEN PART OF THE SOLUTION! THE TRUTH IS …
  16. 16. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy low impact mat./energies ~1970-… Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign ~1990-… system design for eco-efficiency ~2000-… design for social equity and cohesion ~2005-… EVOLUTION OF THE (POTENTIAL) ROLE OF DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY: (in industrially mature contexts) widening the “artefact” to be designed
  17. 17. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 1. LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MATERIALS/ENERGIES . NON-TOXIC . “NATURAL” . RECYCLABLE . RENEWABLE . BIO-DEGRADABLE … since the ’70 research has started to "produce knowledges" for the selection of low impact materials/energies:
  18. 18. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 2. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (ECODESIGN) … since the beginning of the ’90 design research has started to define a new approch (role) to product design: “the design of the product life cycle stages that, while considering all requirements, aims at minimising the environmental impact of the whole of the life cycle phases in relation to the functional unit” (Vezzoli & Manzini, Springer, London, 2008)
  19. 19. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy … in the ’90 research has developed a fundamental method for the product environmental impact assessment: LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT a quantitative method to assess the environmental effects of the life cycle of a given product/service in relation to its functional unit 1997 (>2006): ISO 14.04X Environmental management. Life cycle assessment
  20. 20. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy METHODS/TOOLS … since the end of the ‘90 methods and tools have been developed to support product life cycle design 2002: ISO/TR 14062:2002 Environmental management - Integrating environmental aspects into product design and development UNEP-TUD (PROMISE, 1997) POLIMI-DIS (MPDS, 2009) …
  21. 21. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 3. (PRDUCT-SERVICE) SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICENCY … since the end of the ‘90 some business cases offering as a full package a mix of product (not owned by the customer) and services shows to be capable of creating (new) value decoupling it from the resources consumption has been studied
  22. 22. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy XEROX photocopiers > COPIED PAPER Xerox offers a package deal and installs and maintain photocopiers (not owned by the customer) and may even makes and delivers copies. The customer pays for the package. the innovative interaction between the company and the client, make the companies’ economic interest to provide (and design) long lasting, reusable and recyclable photocopiers. … in the ‘90 one of the first cases started to be studied …
  23. 23. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy autors (country) year S.PSS definition Goedkoop, van Halen, te Riele, Rommens (The Netherland) 1999 a Product Service System (or combination of products and services) is a set of marketable products and services jointly capable of fulfilling a need for a client. [...] The PSS may lead to a benefit for environmment in connection with the creation of a (new) business Mont (Sweeden) 2001 PSS is a system of products, services, networks of actors and supporting infrastructure that continuously seeks to be competitive, satisfy customer needs and have a lower impact of traditional business models UNEP- Manzini, Vezzoli (world- wide) 2002 result of an innovative strategy that shifts the center of the business design and sale of products only (physical) systems offer products and services that are jointly capable of satisfying a given application Brandsotter (Austria) 2003 PSS is a product of material and intangible services designed and combined so that both jointly are able to satisfy a specific need of a user. In addition a PSS may reach sustainability targets UE, MEPPS (AA. VV.) 2005 result of an innovation strategy focused on the design and sale of a system of products and services that are jointly capable of fulfilling a specific customer demand (Cranfield) Evans et al. (UK) 2007 PSS is an integrated offering of a product and a service that provides a value. When using a PSS offers the opportunity to decouple economic success from material consumption and thus reduce the environmental impact of economic activity UNEP-Tischner, Vezzoli (world- wide) 2009 system of products and services (and infrastructure), jointly cope with the needs and demands of customers in a more efficient and better value for both businesses and customers, compared to only offer products [...]. PSS can decouple the creation of value from the consumption of materials and energy and thus significantly reduce the environmental impact in the life cycle of traditional systems of product EU-asia link, LeNS (AA. VV.) 2014 an offer model providing an integrated mix of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular customer demand (to deliver a “unit of satisfaction”), based on innovative interactions between the stakeholders of the value production system (satisfaction system), where the economic and competitive interest of the providers continuously seeks environmentally beneficial new solutions … since the end of the ‘90 definition have been given …
  24. 24. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: A DEFINITION “the design of the system of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular customer demand (deliver a “unit of satisfaction”) based on the design of innovative interactions of the stakeholders (directly and indirectly linked to that “satisfaction” system) where the economic and competitive interest of the providers continuously seeks environmentally beneficial new solutions” … since ~2005 a new design role has been defined to develop eco-efficient PSS: [Vezzoli, 2007]
  25. 25. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy NEW METHODS/TOOLS SusProNet, Network on sustainable PSS development [see Tukker &Tischner, 2006] Design4Sustainability Step by step approach [see Tischner & Vezzoli, 2009] HiCS, Highly Customerised Solutions [see Manzini et al. 2004] MEPSS, MEthodology for Product Service System development [see van Halen et al. 2005] Product-Service System Design for Sustainability [see Vezzoli et al., 2014] METHODS Story board Offering diagram Interac tion table SDO toolkit System assessmen t Solution elements B l u portfoli o diagram TOOLS DESIGN Offering diagram SDO toolkitStory board Interac tion table … since ~2005 methods/tools have been developed (EU and UNEP researches) to support the development of eco-efficient PSS
  26. 26. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy where various forms of social inequality are directly addressed in the design process 4. DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY
  27. 27. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy … at the end of ‘60 Radical Design: Gaetano Pesce; Dalisi; 9999: contestation/denouncements critics of consumer society … at the beginning of the ’70 Maldonado: new “design hope” for a social responsibility (1972) Papanek: “design can and must become a means for young people to take part in the transformation of society” (design for a real world, 1973) DESIGN, CONSUMPTION AND ETHIC: PAST TIMES
  28. 28. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy … todays’ main approaches to design for social equity and cohesion . product design for low-income contexts and basics needs (i.e. design for the BOP) . PSS (stakeholder interaction) design joining eco- efficiency with social equity and cohesion
  29. 29. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy VIRTUAL STATION (OFFICES) Fortaleza, Brasil supply a full range of products, infrastructure (owned by virtual station) and services for a complete office. clients only pay for the periods of use; spaces are equipped with computers, printers, scanners, access to internet, TV, copiers etc; reception, personalised phone answer, answering and remittance of fax reception/transmiss. it is environmentally sustainable because infrastructure/equipment are shared (less needed) and most efficient are used + it is socio- economically sustainable because of no need for initial investiment facilitate the set-up of small company. … since 2002 some S.PSS cases were studied coupling environmental and socio-ethical sustainability
  30. 30. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy A PSS may act as a business opportunity to facilitate the process of social-economic development in an low and middle-income contexts – by jumping over or by-passing the stage of individual consumption/ownership of mass-produced goods – towards a more ‘satisfaction-based’ and low resource intensity advanced service-economy, characterized by locally-based and network- structured small scale enterprises and initiatives, for a sustainable re-globalization process aiming to democratize access to resources, goods and services. … in 2002 a research hypothesis has been proposed promoting PSS as capable of joining eco-efficiency with social equity and cohesion [UNEP, 2002] free pdf at: http://www.unep.fr/scp/publications/details.asp?id=WEB/0081/PA
  31. 31. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy NEW METHODS/TOOLS SusProNet, Network on sustainable PSS development [see Tukker &Tischner, 2006] Design4Sustainability Step by step approach [see Tischner & Vezzoli, 2009] MEPSS, MEthodology for Product Service System development [see van Halen et al. 2005] Product-Service System Design for Sustainability [see Vezzoli et al., 2014] METHODS Story board Offering diagram Interac tion table SDO toolkit B l u portfoli o diagram TOOLS DESIGN Offering diagram SDO toolkitStory board Interac tion table … since ~2005 methods/tools have been developed (EU and UNEP researches) to support the development of (even socio-ethically) sustainable PSS
  32. 32. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY: A DEFINITION “the design of the system of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular customer demand (deliver a “unit of satisfaction”), based on the design of innovative interactions of the stakeholders (directly and indirectly linked to that “satisfaction” system) where the economic and competitive interest of the providers continuously seeks both environmentally and socio-ethically beneficial new solutions” … since 2005 a new design role has been defined to develop eco- efficient and socio-ethically sustainable PSS: [Vezzoli, 2007]
  33. 33. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 100% 100% 0 new research frontier … low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion system design for eco-efficiency Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign widening the “object” to be designed … aim at SUSTAINABILITY IN DESIGN ROLE: STATE OF THE ART (in industrially mature contexts) CONSOLIDATION (research achievements on knowledge-base and know-how) (educationandpractice) DISSEMINATION
  34. 34. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SUSTAINABILITY REQUIRE RADICAL CHANGE, I.E. SYSTEM INNOVATION TO BE DIFFUSED PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE (SYSTEM) INNOVATION NOT ONLY FEASABLE AND “ATTRACTIVE”
  35. 35. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy A NEW AESTHETICS FOR SUSTAINABILITY?.
  36. 36. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy A “PLURALISM OF AESTHETICS FOR SUSTAINABILITY” arise from the sustainability’s (new) values that take the expressions in a multiplicity of forms AN AESTHETIC FOR SUSTAINABILITY? A “ICONIC-ENVIRONMENTALIST AESTHETIC”? a mass of “green-recycled-panda” products? the aesthetic has a fundamental role!
  37. 37. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy DESIGNER: A SOCIO-CULTURAL “INNOVATOR”? A DESIGNER MAY … … observe emerging/new types of demands (coherent with sustainability) and transforming them into products, services and systems … A DESIGNER MAY … … induce new quality criteria (coherent with sustainability) throughout the offer of (more) attractive products, services and systems
  38. 38. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy A NEW AESTHETIC OF S.PSS TO OVERCOME USER’S LEVEL BARRIERS: sustainable PSS offers have to be perceived as better than traditional “product-based” ones an aesthetic for sustainable PSS may play a key role in enhancing user attraction, acceptance and satisfaction!
  39. 39. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: PROMOTING A NEW AESTHETIC OF S.PSS: . as the integrated aestethics of the different elements of the PSS: products, services and interactions > not only an aestethic of products, but even an aestethic of services, more in general an aestethic of stakaholders interactions . valorising sustainable PSS inner qualities
  40. 40. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: PROMOTING A NEW AESTHETIC OF S.PSS PRLEIMINARY INSIGHTS given that: distinctive traits of sustainable PSS are non-ownership of products and related new services/stakeholder interactions the aesthetic could valorise the relational qualities between the users of a PSS, and between the users and the producers/providers + the qualities of the “freedom” from product’s ownership
  41. 41. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUST.: FINAL REMARKS WE DON’T HAVE TO HAVE CONCERN ANYMORE ON PRODUCT DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY? NO! > even designing on a system level, sustainable products need to be designed afterwards DESIGNING ON A SYSTEM LEVEL TAKE US FAR FROM THE CORE OF DESIGN? NO! > designing for the (unit of) “satisfaction” it is to go at the deeper rooth of the design, settling the innovation at the level of the behavioral patterns (more sustainable and satisfactory)

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