2.1 product life cycle design vezzoli 09-10 (37)

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2.1 product life cycle design vezzoli 09-10 (37)

  1. 1. course System Design for Sustainability subject 2. Introduction to product Life Cicle Design (LCD) learning resource 2.1 Product Life Cycle Design carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  2. 2. CONTENTS . Product design environmental requirements . Damaging environmental effects . Life cycle assessment (LCA) . Life Cycle Design approach: life cycle + functional . Product Life Cycle Design criteria . Resources minimisation . Low impact resources selection . Product life optimisation . Material life extension . Design for disassembly Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  3. 3. (product) LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (or eco-design, design for the environment, …) the discipline integrating ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS within the PRODUCT design process Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  4. 4. PRODUCT DESIGN ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS - RELATED TO: (DAMAGING) ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS - ASSOCIATED HOW (TO A PRODUCT): > LIFE CYCLE AND FUNCTIONAL UNIT Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  5. 5. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS EACH ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT IS BASED ON A SUBSTANCE’S EXCHANGE (IMPACT) BETWEEN THE NATURE/ENVIRONMENT AND A (ANTHROPIC TRASFORMATION) PROCESS OF A PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION SYSTEM input: substance extraction from the environment output: substance emission in the environment (not all impacts damage with the same entity) Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  6. 6. INPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS RESOURCES EXHAUSTION ALTERATION OF THE ECOSYSTEMS’ BALANCE (damaging outputs of extractive processes) Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  7. 7. OUTPUT AND ITS (DAMAGING) EFFECTS global warming (greenhouse effect) ozone layer depletion eutrophication acidification smog toxicity wastes ... Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  8. 8. serra greenhouse effect Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  9. 9. ozono ozone layer deplation Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  10. 10. eutrhophication Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  11. 11. acidification Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  12. 12. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  13. 13. t o x i c i t Carlo Vezzoli y Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  14. 14. wastes rifiuti Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  15. 15. DESIGN ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS CAN WE ASSOCIATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS TO A PRODUCT? AND HOW? CRITERIA: - PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE - FUNCTIONAL UNIT EVALUATION METHOD: - LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  16. 16. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE APPROACH other product’s life cycle Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  17. 17. FUNCTIONAL UNIT (APPROACH) IS NOT THE PRODUCT TO BE ASSESSED (DESIGNED) BUT, THE WHOLE OF THE PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH THE FULFILLMENT OF A GIVEN FUNCTION Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  18. 18. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCT LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT a quantitative method to assess the environmental effects of the life cycle of a given product/service in relation to its functional units ISO 14040 Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  19. 19. e.g. LCA upholstered seat (8 years life span) PRE-PROD. DISTRIBUT. USE DISPOSAL PRODUCTION Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  20. 20. e.g. LCA refrigerator (10 years life span) PRE-PROD. DISTRIBUT. USE DISPOSAL PRODUCTION Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  21. 21. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product LIFE CYCLE stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “FUNCTION” design Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  22. 22. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN (LCD) ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMETS: MINIMIZE THE INPUTS AND THE OUTPUTS quantitatively qualitatively in relation to life cycle and functional unit Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  23. 23. LCD: ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA RESOURCES MINIMISATION LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  24. 24. RESOURCES MINIMISATION quantitative impact reduction (life cycle/function) DESIGN FOR: MATERAIL USE MINIMISATION in life cycle phases ENERGY USE MINIMISATION in life cycle phases Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  25. 25. LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION qualitative impact reduction (life cycle/function) DESIGN FOR: RESOURCES CONSERVATION/RENEWABILITY in all life cycle phases RESOURCES NON TOXICITY AND HARMFULNESS in all life cycle phases Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  26. 26. RESOURCES RENEWABILITY DEPENDS ON: - RE-GROWING SPECIFIC SPEED - EXTRACTION FREQUENCY a resource is renewable if: a context related anthropic consumption rate < natural re-growing rate Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  27. 27. MATERIALS’ ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT DEPENDS ON: - MATERIAL-SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS - CHARACTERISTICS GIVEN TO PRODUCT A RANKING FROM THE BEST TO THE WORST IS (USUALLY) “MISLEADING ” Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  28. 28. PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION DESIGN FOR: EXTENDING PRODUCT (COMPONENT) LIFE SPAN INTENSIFYING PRODUCT (COMPONENT) USE Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  29. 29. AVOIDED IMPACTS LIGHTER IMPACTS short product/component life PRE-PRODUCTION PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION PRODUCTION NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES WITH LOWER DISTRIBUTION DISTRIBUTION USE CONSUMPTION USE USE DISPOSAL same function in time DISP. USE USE DISTRIBUTION DISTRIB. UPDATING OF THE COMPONENTS PROD. CAUSING CONSUMPTION PRODUCTION PRE-PRODUCTION P-PROD. extended product/component life Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  30. 30. AVOIDED IMPACTS product/component intense life PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. A1 B1 C1 B2 A2 C2 B3 A3 C3 LIFE INDIPENDENT FROM LENGHT OF USE use (function) during time PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. A1 A2 A3 PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. B1 B2 B3 PRE-PROD. PROD. DISTR. DISPOS. C1 C2 C3 products/components not intense life Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  31. 31. LIGHTER IMPACTS LIGHTER IMPACTS intense life products/components PP P Dt Ds NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND TECHNIQUES WITH LOWER USE CONSMPTION LIFE FUNCTION OF LENGHT OF USE PP P Dt Ds NEW PRE AND POST CONSUMPTION TECHNOLOGIES WITH LOWER IMPACT PP P Dt Ds use (function) during of time PP P Dt Ds PP P Dt Ds PP P Dt Ds not intense life products/components Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  32. 32. MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION DESIGN FOR: RECYCLING ENERGY RECOVERY COMPOSTING Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  33. 33. AVOIDED IMPACTS ADDITIONAL IMPACTS material non-extended life LANDFILL PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE PRE-PRODUCTION PRE-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE RECYCLING COMBUSTION COMPOSTING PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION USE PRE-PRODUCTION material extended life Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  34. 34. POST-CONSUMPTION RECYCLING PHASES: (COMBUSTION, COMPOSTING) . collection . transportation . separation (disassembly a/o crushing) . identification . cleaning . secondary raw material’s production Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  35. 35. MATERIALS’ RECYCLABILITY (COMB., COMP.) DIPENDS ON: - SPECIFIC MATERIAL’S CHARACTERISTICS performances recovery (and process costs) - PRODUCT’S ARCHITECTURE - RECYCLING PHASES Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  36. 36. DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY > of parts/components PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION > of materials MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy
  37. 37. INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA/GUIDELINES FOR A GIVEN PRODUCT: - some have HIGHER RELEVANCE than others - can be SYNERGETIC or CONFLICTING FOR DECISION MAKING (DESIGNING) identify the (environmental) design PRIORITIES: > CRITERIA relevance (relative) per product type > most promising criteria related GUIDELINES Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / INDACO dept. / DIS / Faculty of Design / Italy

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