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Sustainable energy for all

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Sustainable energy for all

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Sustainable energy for all

  1. 1. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy course System Design for Sustainability (SDS) learning resource 5.1 Sustainable energy for all carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . DESIGN dept. . DIS . School of Design . Italy LeNS - Learning Network on Sustainability LeNSes - Learning Network on Sustainabile energy systems (EU edulink II) LeNSin - international Learning Network of networks on Sustainability (EU erasmus+)
  2. 2. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy . sustainable development is not possible without a sustainable energy for all . Distributed Renewable Energy (DRE): key leverage for a sustainable development . Sustainable Product-Service System (S.PSS): a promising model for Distributed Renewable Energy (DRE) CONTENTS
  3. 3. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IS NOT POSSIBLE WITHOUT SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR ALL
  4. 4. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ENERGY IS AN ESSENTIAL INPUT TO ALMOST EVERY GOOD AND SERVICE energy services have a profound effect on: . health . food and water security . education . communication services . productivity …. ENERGY IS THE WORLD’S LARGEST INDUSTRIAL SECTOR (~ 70% OF WORLD GDP)
  5. 5. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy WHAT ABOUT THE ACCESS TO ENERGY?
  6. 6. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ENERGY ACCESS 1.2 billion people worldwide lack access to electricity 1 further billion do not have reliable access to electricity who are those living without electricity? . more than 95% are in the sub-Saharan Africa and developing Asia countries . 80% of the world total are in rural areas (World Energy Outlook 2015, International Energy Agency)
  7. 7. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy source: http://www.un.org/en/events/sustainableenergyforall/index.shtml
  8. 8. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ELECTRICITY ENABLES: . children to study after dark . water to be pumped for crops . foods and medicines to be refrigerated . modern fuels for cooking and heating . … LACK OF ACCESS HAMPERS THE PROVISION OF BASIC SERVICES SUCH AS HEALTH CARE AND EDUCATION (World Energy Outlook 2015, International Energy Agency)
  9. 9. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ACCESS TO MODERN FUELS/ENERGY FOR COOKING: 2.7 billion people access energy through traditional biomass 4.000 premature deaths everyday are due to biomass fumes (1,5 millions a year) (World Energy Outlook 2015, International Energy Agency)
  10. 10. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy ACCESS TO ENERGY STRONGLY CONTRIBUTE TO REDUCE INEQUALITY AND POVERTY “SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IS NOT POSSIBLE WITHOUT SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR ALL”
  11. 11. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY (resolution 65/151) … … has designated “2012 INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR ALL” … and unanimously declared "2014-2024 THE DECADE OF SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR ALL"
  12. 12. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy THREE INTER-LINKED OBJECTIVES: to be achieved by 2030 necessary for long-term sustainable development . ENSURE universal ACCESS to modern energy services . DOUBLE the rate of improvement in energy EFFICIENCY . DOUBLE the share of RENEWABLE energy in the global energy mix SUSTAINABILITY ENERGY FOR ALL: UN AGENDA
  13. 13. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy IS THE EXISTING ENERGY SYSTEM SUSTAINABLE? IT IS DEFINITELY UNSUSTAINABLE! SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR ALL REQUIRE A PARADIGM SHIFT IN ENERGY SECTOR WHAT ARE THE PROMISING ALTERNATIVE MODELS?
  14. 14. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY: KEY LEVERAGE FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  15. 15. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY (DRE) A (THE) PROMISING MODEL AIMING AT SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR ALL a paradigm shift alternative to traditional centralised and non-renewable (e.g. fossil fuels) system of energy generation and distribution
  16. 16. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 2 CHARACTERISING ELEMENTS . SYSTEM STRUCTURE: from centralised to decentralised and distributed energy systems . TYPE OF ENERGY SOURCES: from non-renewable (fossil fuel-based) to renewable energy sources DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY
  17. 17. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SYSTEM STRUCTURE: from centralised to decentralised and distributed energy systems large power plant that deliver energy via great transmission and distribution networks CENTRALISED ENERGY SYSTEM DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY
  18. 18. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SYSTEM STRUCTURE: from centralised to decentralised and distributed energy systems small scale generation plants, that deliver energy to local consumer (eventually connected with others) DECENTRALISED ENERGY SYSTEM DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY
  19. 19. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SYSTEM STRUCTURE: from centralised to decentralised and distributed energy systems small scale generation plants at the point of use (eventually connected with others) DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEM DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY
  20. 20. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SYSTEM STRUCTURE to decentralised and distributedfrom centralised SYSTEM STRUCTURE: from centralised to decentralised and distributed energy systems DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY
  21. 21. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy WAVE TIDAL TYPE OF ENERGY SOURCES DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY BIOMASSWIND HYDRO SOLAR GEOTHERMAL
  22. 22. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SYSTEM STRUCTURE from centralised to decentralised and distributed DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES from non-renewable to renewable a paradigm shift alternative to traditional centralised and non-renewable (e.g. fossil fuels) system of energy generation and distribution
  23. 23. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY: CHARACTERISTICS . renewable resources: solar, wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal energy . small-scale generation plants . generation at or near the point of use . end-users are the producers: individuals, small businesses and/or communities . can be connected with each other and/or to the main grid to share energy surplus
  24. 24. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy standalone (off-grid) mini-grid grid of mini-grids distributed main-grid connected distributed decentralized decentralized main-grid connected DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY: CONFIGURATIONS
  25. 25. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy standalone (off-grid) mini-grid grid of mini-grids distributed main-grid connected distributed decentralized decentralized main-grid connected DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY: CONFIGURATIONS
  26. 26. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy standalone (off-grid) mini-grid grid of mini-grids distributed main-grid connected distributed decentralized decentralized main-grid connected DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY: CONFIGURATIONS
  27. 27. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy standalone (off-grid) mini-grid grid of mini-grids distributed main-grid connected distributed decentralized decentralized main-grid connected DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY: CONFIGURATIONS
  28. 28. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy “A small-scale generation plant sourced by renewable energy resources (such as solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal energy), at or near the point of use, where the user is the producer, whether an individual, a small business and/or a local community. Nearby generation plants can be connected with each others in local mini-grid to share the energy surplus; which may in turn be connected with nearby similar networks and/or to the main grid”. [LeNSes proposal, EU Edulink project, 2013-2016] DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY: DEFINITION
  29. 29. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy WHY ARE DRE ENVIRONMENTALLY AND SOCIOETHICALLY SUSTAINABLE? LET’S COMPARE DRE WITH NON-RENEWABLE CENTRALISED ENERGY SYSTEMS
  30. 30. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy NON-RENEWABLE + CENTRALISED RENEWABLE + DISTRIBUTED • based on exhausting resources • high greenhouse gases emission (global warming) • environmental impact of extraction and refinement processes • (high energy transmission losses) • based on non-exhaustable resources • low greenhouse gases emission • lower environmental impact for extraction, transformation, distribution • (low energy transmission losses) ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
  31. 31. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy NON-RENEWABLE + CENTRALISED RENEWABLE + DISTRIBUTED SOCIO-ETHICAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY big-scale generation plants complex to be realised and managed > require high economic investment low direct access to resources > low power to individual over their own destiny > widening rich AND poor gap small generation scale plants easy to be installed, maintain, managed > require low economic investment allow individuals and local communities install/manage plants > democratisation of access to resources > enhance local employment and dissemination of competences
  32. 32. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy MORE FLEXIBLE AND RESILIENT NON-RENEWABLE + CENTRALISED RENEWABLE + DISTRIBUTED TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
  33. 33. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy TOTAL SOLAR IRRADIATION OF THE SUN: 50 MILLION GW 10.000 TIMES MORE THAN WHAT IS USED BY THE WORLD POPULATION to satisfy the world energy needs would be enough a surface of 500.000 km2 of Photovoltaic panels TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
  34. 34. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 34 to meet the (country) Italian demand for energy, how wide a surface of photovoltaic plants should be? the Italian energy demand is about 340,000 GWh/year to meet such a demand: 2.890 km2 is the surface required to install a PV plant (1% of the total Italian surface) it would be enough to cover existing building of the Lombardy region TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
  35. 35. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy “the creation of a renewable energy regime, loaded by buildings, partially stored in the form of hydrogen, distributed via an energy internet—a smart intergrid—and connected to plug in zero emission transport, opens the door to a Third Industrial Revolution.” [Rifkin, 2011] THE THIRD INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  36. 36. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy 1. shifting to renewable energy (solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, ocean waves and biomass) 2. buildings as power plants 3. deploying hydrogen and other storage technologies in every building and throughout the infrastructure to store intermittent energies 4. using internet technology to transform the power grid of every continent into an energy sharing intergrid that acts just like the internet 5. transitioning the transport fleet to electric, plug in and fuel cell vehicles that can buy and sell electricity on a smart continental interactive power grid PILLARS OF THE THIRD INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION [Rifkin, 2011]
  37. 37. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM (S.PSS): A PROMISING MODEL FOR DISTRIBUTED RENEWABLE ENERGY (DRE)
  38. 38. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy … a paradigm shift from traditional product sale offer model … A WIN-WIN POTENTIAL an offer/business model capable of creating (new) value decoupling it from resources consumption and environmental impact increase, while being accessible even to low and middle- income people and increasing local employment and skills SUSTAINABLE PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM INNOVATION Product- oriented Result- oriented Use- oriented
  39. 39. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR LOW/MIDDLE INCOME CONTEXTS (ALL) [LeNSes, 2016] = SELLING PRODUCT TO “UNIT OF SATISFACTION” CUSTOM. VALUE INDIVIDUAL OWNERSHIP TO ACCESS INNOVATION TECHNOLOGICAL TO STAKEHOLDER CONFIGURATION S.PS S Product-oriented Result-oriented Use-oriented S.PSS APPLIED TO DRE: SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR ALL V TO DECENTRALISED AND DISTRIBUTED TO RENEWABLE STRUCTURE RESOURCE CENTRALISED NON-RENEWABLE DRE Off-grid Mini-gird Grid of mini-grid DRE main grid connected
  40. 40. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy S.PSS APPLIED TO DRE IN LOW-INCOME CONTEXTS: AN EXAMPLE
  41. 41. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy The M-POWER company offers to Tanzania rural people a Solar Home System (SHS) which includes: the hardware to generate solar energy (Solar panel + Storage + Wires) + Energy Using Products (EUP) (two lights + phone charger). Customers pays as a pay per period (daily fees). Off Grid Electric retains ownership of SHS and EUPs and trains a network of local dealers for installation and customer support. OFF GRID Electric M-POWER (provider) Tanzania OFF GRID Electric is environmentally sustainable because it uses the solar energy + it is socio-ethically sustainable because give to poor people access to useful services + it is economically sustainable because is a business for the M-POWER company.
  42. 42. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy WHY S.PSS APPLIED TO DRE COULD OPEN NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (EVEN) IN LOW/MIDDLE-INCOME CONTEXTS? selling the access rather than DRE hardware ownership > reduces/avoids initial investment costs of DRE hardware (frequently too high a cost for low and middle-income people to afford) making them more easily accessible selling the ‘unit of satisfaction’ including life cycle services costs rather than DRE hardware > reduces/avoids running cost for maintenance, repair, upgrade, etc. too high for low and middle-income people, leading to interruption of DRE use selling locally-based services more labour intensive, rather than DRE hardware > leads to involvement of local rather than global stakeholders, increasing local employment and skills, i.e. local empowerment
  43. 43. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: S.PSS APPLIED TO DRE IS PROMISING APPRACH TO DIFFUSE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY IN LOW/MIDDLE-INCOME CONTEXTS (FOR ALL) “A S.PSS applied to DRE is a promising approach to diffuse sustainable energy in low/middle-income contexts (for all), because it reduces/cuts both the initial (capital) cost of DRE hardware purchasing (that may be unaffordable) and the running cost for maintenance, repair, upgrade, etc. of such a DRE hardware (that may cause the interruption of use), while increasing local employment and related skills, resulting in a key leverage for a sustainable development process aiming at democratizing the access to resources, goods and services.” [LeNSes, 2016]
  44. 44. Carlo Vezzoli Politecnico di Milano / DESIGN dept. / DIS / School of Design / Italy SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FOR LOW/MIDDLE INCOME (ALL) CONTEXTS = SELLING PRODUCT TO “UNIT OF SATISFACTION” CUSTOM. VALUE INDIVIDUAL OWNERSHIP TO ACCESS INNOVATION TECHNOLOGICAL TO STAKEHOLDER CONFIGURATION S.PS S Product-oriented Result-oriented Use-oriented RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: S.PSS APPLIED TO DRE V as fare as it cut initial + running cost of DRE hardware (extending access to all) increase local employment and skills (empower local communities) TO DECENTRALISED AND DISTRIBUTED TO RENEWABLE STRUCTURE RESOURCE CENTRALISED NON-RENEWABLE DRE Off-grid Mini-gird Grid of mini-grid DRE main grid connected

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