Design And Sustainability by Carlo Vezzoli 09.09.09

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Design And Sustainability by Carlo Vezzoli 09.09.09

  1. 1. carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability Cape Penisula University of Technology Cape Town / South Africa / 9.2009 DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY: AN INTRODUCTION Carlo Vezzoli Cape Penisula University of Technology / Cape Town / South Africa
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. Sustainable development 2. Increasing role of design (for sustainability) 3. Product Life Cycle Design (Ecodesign) 4. System design for eco-efficiency 5. (system) design for social equity and cohesion
  3. 3. 1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: A SOCIAL AND PRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT that takes place within the limits set by the “nature” and meets the needs of the present without compromising those of the future generation within a world-wide equitable distribution of resources 1987, UN “our common future”; 1992 UN conf. Rio; 2002 UN conf. Johannesburg; 2006 UE Sustainable Development Strategy
  4. 4. IN 50 YEARS A WORLD-WIDE EQUITABLE SYSTEMS OF PRODUCTION AND CONSU M PTION SHOULD USE ~ 90% LESS RESOURCES THAN THE INDUSTRIALISED CONTEXTS ARE DOING TODAY SUSTAINABILITY: THE DIMENSION OF CHANGE
  5. 5. SUSTAINABILITY: THE QUALITY OF CHANGE PROMOTE (EVEN) SYSTEM INNOVATIONS RADICAL CHANGE (“DISCONTINUITY”) DIFFUSED INNOVATION PROMOTE PLAUSIBLE AND “ATTRACTIVE” (SYSTEM) INNOVATIONS
  6. 6. interven ing after processes ’ damages interven ing on processes interven ing on products and services interven ing c onsumption patterns 2. APPROACHES TO SUSTAINABILITY INCREASING ROLE FOR DESIGN TIME - +
  7. 7. WHAT DO WE KNOW AND MEAN TODAY BY DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY?
  8. 8. DESIGN WITH LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT? cardboard seat
  9. 9. Savonarola seat walnut-wood, so far 500 years life span MADE WITHOUT ANY CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, BUT …
  10. 10. = …………………………………………………………… ........ time + + + + + + + … + + + + + + + …
  11. 11. Chadwick , Stumpf Aeron, Herman Miller seat steel and plastics, 12 years warranty even in use commodatum DESIGNED TODAY WITH A RIGHT CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT
  12. 12. pen, biodegradable material DESIGN WITH LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT?
  13. 13. Pen, MONTBLANC DESIGNED WITHOUT ANY CONCERN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, BUT …
  14. 14. = …………………………………………………………… ....... time + + + + + + + … + + + + + + + …
  15. 15. “ Natural” materials Always with a low envoronmental impact? Asbestos is a natural material!
  16. 16. “ artificial” materials always with a high environmental impact? means of transportation: fiber reinforced polimer has a low environmental impact (‘cause of its lighteness reduce fuel consumption)
  17. 17. DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY: IS A DESIGN PRACTICE, EDUCATION AND RESEARCH THAT, IN ONE WAY OR ANOTHER, CONTRIBUTES TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  18. 18. low impact mat./energies design for social equity and cohesion system design for eco-efficiency Product Life Cycle Design ecodesign SUSTAINABILITY IN DESIGN : EVOLUTION (EUROPE) widening the “object” to be designed
  19. 19. <ul><li>“ the design of the product life cycle stages that, while considering all requirements, aims at minimising the environmental impact of the whole of the life cycle phases in relation to the functional unit” </li></ul><ul><li>(VEZZOLI, springer , London, 2008) </li></ul>3. PRODUCT LYFE CYCLE DESIGN: DEFINITION
  20. 20. <ul><li>PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH </li></ul>an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product life cycle stages
  21. 21. LIFE CYCLE APPROACH use service manufac . assemb . finish collection resource’s achieving mater. energy produc. package trasp. storage USE PRODUCTION DISPOSING PREPRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION landfill incineration composting recycling reuse comp. reuse remanufactoring biosphere geosphere other product’s life cycle
  22. 22. an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product life cycle stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “ function ” design PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH
  23. 23. <ul><li>FUNCTIONAL APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>IS NOT THE PRODUCT TO BE DESIGNED ( ASSESSED ) BUT, THE WHOLE OF THE PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH THE FULFILLMENT OF A GIVEN FUNCTION </li></ul>
  24. 24. an extended design horizon from product design to the design of the product life cycle stages the design “reference” from product design to product’s “ function ” design the design “objective” minimise the environmental impact of the whole of the phases in relation to the functional unit PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN: APPROACH
  25. 25. <ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCT </li></ul><ul><li>LCA: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT </li></ul><ul><li>a quantitative method to assess the environmental effects of the life cycle of a given product/service in relation to its functional units </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 14040 </li></ul>
  26. 26. e.g. LCA upholstered seat (8 years life span) PRE-PROD. PRODUCTION DISTRIBUT . USE DISPOSAL
  27. 27. <ul><li>e.g. LCA refrigerator (10 years life span) </li></ul>PRE-PROD. PRODUCTION DISTRIBUT . USE DISPOSAL
  28. 28. <ul><li>LCD: ENVIRONMENTAL CRITERIA /GUIDELINES </li></ul> RESOURCES MINIMISATION LOW IMPACT RESOURCES SELECTION PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
  29. 29. Ikea Air sofa, Ikea EX. MATERIALS CONSUMPTION MINIMISATION
  30. 30. gardening product, celafror EX. MATERIALS CONSUMPTION MINIMISATION
  31. 31. FRIA, refrigerator, Tishner EX. ENERGIES CONSUMPTION MINIMISATION
  32. 32. rags for cleaning in micro-fiber (no need for detergent) EX. TOXICITY AND HARMFULNESS MINIMISATION
  33. 33. Solar shuttle, Kopf Umwelt EX. RESOURCES BIO-COMPATIBILITY IMPROVEMENT
  34. 34. gardening vase in mater-B bio-deg. polimer, Novamont EX. RESOURCES BIO-COMPATIBILITY IMPROVEMENT
  35. 35. CARE, changing top>kids table, writing desk, Stokke EX. PRODUCT LIFE OPTIMISATION
  36. 36. water bottle for easy recycling, EVIAN EX. MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION
  37. 37. FARE, car recycling system, FIAT EX. MATERIAL LIFE EXTENSION
  38. 38. Mirra seat, Herman Miller EX. DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
  39. 39. sahape memory polimer (SMP) screws, Brunel University (GB) EX. DESIGN FOR DISASSEMBLY
  40. 40. there are several the methods/tools for product design orientation towards low environmental impact solutions METHODS AND TOOLS FOR PRODUCT LCD
  41. 41. MPDS : M ethod for P roduct D esign for E nvironmental S ustainability (developed and adopted by DIS-Polimi) FREE TO CONSLUT AT WWW.LENS.POLIMI.IT (ITALIAN) (brief) product strategies product concept product design ingegner. PRODUCT DESIGN PHASES processes /tools to orientate processes /tools envirnomental assesm. LCA on reference product for design: es. SIMAPRO sustainability-focused ideas generation: tavole eco-idee (ICS) abrdiged LCA check: es. SIMAPRO qualitative check: cecklist (ICS) check of sustainability design priorities: sch. IPSA/radar (ICS) environmental design priorities identification: sch. IPSA/radar (ICS) most promising concept selection low environmental impact processes selection: tools to orientate specific environmental issues es. idemat abrdiged LCA on potential impact reduction: es. SIMAPRO qualitative check: cecklist (ICS) LCA of comparisonfor environmental quality communication: es. SIMAPRO
  42. 42. … SOME OF THE ICS TOOLS OF MPDS TOOLS… free download at www.sdo-lens.polimi.it Multicriteria Radar_ICS toolkit Eco-idea tables_ICS toolkit Idea 3 Idea 1 Idea 2 Checklist (guidelies related)_ICS toolkit
  43. 43. <ul><li>NOT ONLY PRODUCT INNOVATION (“ FUNCTION” ) </li></ul><ul><li>BUT EVEN SYSTEM INNOVATION ( “ SATISFACTION ” ) </li></ul>3. … BUT SUSTAINABILITY ASK FOR RADICAL INNOVATIONS
  44. 44. A DEFINITION OF (PRODUCT-SERVICE) SYSTEM INNOVATION “ the result of an innovation strategy, shifting the business focus from designing and selling physical products only, to designing and selling a system of products and services which are jointly capable of fulfilling specific client demands (satisfactions).” “ system innovation can lead, throughout innovative stakeholders’ interactions , to system eco-efficiency.” free pdf at: http://www.unep.fr/scp/publications/details.asp?id=WEB/0081/PA
  45. 45. <ul><li>SOME EXAMPLES OF </li></ul><ul><li>ECO-EFFICENT SYSTEM INNOVATIONS </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>KLUBER LUBRIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>offers lubricants + service on-site identification (movable lab) of equipment in efficiency , and the potential reduction of emissions’ impact </li></ul>the innovative interaction between the company and the client, make the companies’ economic interest to be other than only selling higher amount of lubricants
  47. 47. <ul><li>ARISTON + ENEL : PAY-PER-USE </li></ul><ul><li>payment is based on number of washes and includes: delivery of a washing machine at home ( not owned ), electricity supply ( not directly paid ), maintenance, up-grading and end-of-life collection. </li></ul>the innovative interaction between the companies and the client, make the companies’ interest to design and provide high efficient, long lasting, reusable and recyclable washing machines
  48. 48. <ul><li>AMG: SOLAR HEAT SERVICE </li></ul><ul><li>hot water itself is sold as an entire service (payment x litre); hot water is produced by sun energy + methane; service include: methane supply ( not directly paid ), equipments and meter ( not owned ) transportation, installation and maintenance. </li></ul>the innovative interaction between the company and the user, make the companies’ interest to design equipment minimising methane consumption (maximises the income) and increase solar energy (because of higher income)
  49. 49. <ul><li>E-E PSS INNOVAT. MAIN CHARACTERITICS: </li></ul><ul><li>radical innovations, not much as technological ones, but as new interactions/partnership between the satkeholders of the particular offer-demand (satisfaction) system </li></ul><ul><li>business model potentially delinking economic interests from environmental impact increase, i.e. win-win potential </li></ul>
  50. 50. … introducing eco-efficient PSS innovation in design ... REQUIRES NEW DESIGN DEFINITION, APPROACHES, SKILLS, METHOD/TOOLS
  51. 51. <ul><li>“ the design for eco-efficiency of the system of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular demand of “satisfaction”, as well as the design of the interaction of the stakeholders taking part to this offer-demand satisfaction system ” </li></ul><ul><li>(VEZZOLI, Maggioli, Milan, 2007) </li></ul>SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: DEFINITION
  52. 52. <ul><li>. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM” APPROACH DEMAND-SATISFACTION DESIGN </li></ul>SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: APPROACHES
  53. 53. <ul><li>“ SATISFACTION-BASED” DESIGN APPROACH </li></ul><ul><li>IS NOT A SINGLE PRODUCT TO BE DESIGNED ( ASSESSED ) BUT, THE FULFILLEMENT OF A PARTICULAR DEMAND OF SATISFACTION (NEEDS AND DESIRES), AND AS A CONSEQUENCE THE WHOLE OF ALL OF THE PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ( PROCESSES) ASSOCIATED WITH </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM” APPROACH DEMAND-SATISFACTION DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>. “STAKEHOLDER INTERACTIONS” APPROACH STAKEHOLDER CONFIGURATION DESIGN </li></ul>SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: APPROACHES
  55. 55. STAKEHOLDERS’ INTERACTIONS DESIGN
  56. 56. <ul><li>. “SATISFACTION-SYSTEM” APPROACH DEMAND-SATISFACTION DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>. “STAKEHOLDER INTERACTIONS” APPROACH STAKEHOLDER CONFIGURATION DESIGN </li></ul><ul><li>. SYSTEM ECO-EFFICIENCY APPROACH ECO-EFFICIENCY -ORIENTED SYSTEM DESIGN </li></ul>SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: APPROACHES
  57. 57. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY CRITERIA . system life optimisation . transportation/distribution reduction . resources reduction . waste minimisation/valorisation . conservation/biocompatibility . toxic reduction [DEVELOPED WITHIN MEPSS EU FUNDED PROJECT WITH A RELATED SET OF GUIDELINES ]
  58. 58. <ul><li>- design an integrated system of products and services fulfilling a particular demand for “satisfaction” </li></ul><ul><li>- design new socio-economic stakeholders’ interactions </li></ul><ul><li>- promote/facilitate participated design between different stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>- ORIENTATE THE ABOVE PROCESSES TOWARDS ECO-EFFICENT SOLUTIONS </li></ul>SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: SKILLS
  59. 59. there are few methods/tools for product design orientation towards low environmental impact solutions METHODS AND TOOLS FOR PRODUCT LCD
  60. 60. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR ECO-EFFICIENCY: METHODS AND TOOLS EU RESEARCHES WITH METHOD/TOOLS OUTCOMES: van Halen, Vezzoli & Wimmer, Methodology for product service system innovation, Van Gorcum, Assen, The Netherlands, 2005 MEPSS Manzini, Collina & Evans, Highly Customerised Solutions, Cranfield University, 2006 HiCS MSDS : M ethod for S ystem D esign for S ustailability adopted by Polimi-dis: company consulting + teaching
  61. 61. MSDS : M ethod for S ystem D esign for S ustailability FREE TO CONSLUT AT WWW.LENS.POLIMI.IT
  62. 62. … SOME MSDS TOOLS… FREE ON WWW.LENS. POLIMI.IT www.sdo-lens.polimi.it Sustainability system Design-Orienting (SDO) toolkit Stakeholder System Map Interaction story board
  63. 63. 4. (SYSTEM) DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION where various forms of social equities and cohesions are directly addressed in the design process
  64. 64. A REMARK: a promising economic model to couple environmental and socio-ethical sustainability DISTRIBUTED ECONOMIES: “ selective share of production distributed to regions where activities are organized in the form of small scale, flexible units that are synergistically connected with each other ” [IIIEE, SWEEDEN, 2006]
  65. 65. <ul><li>key example of Distributed Economies </li></ul><ul><li>“ DISTRIBUTED ENERGY GENERATION” </li></ul><ul><li>(RENEWABLE RESOURCES SUN , HYDROGEN … ) </li></ul>environmental sustainability: non-ex h a u stable + greenhouse effect reduction + lower environmental impact for extraction, transformation, distribution socio-ethic sustainability: s un (and hydrogen) acquisition: local + with simple processes > micro-plants installable/manageable by small economic entity > user-producer > energetic micro network building > global network > access, self-sufficiency , power (and interdependency) local communities/households > resources democratisation > inequality reduction
  66. 66. group of 40 persons organised to a collective purchase and debating on consumption : . p reference for local, season / biological produces . p reference for small local producer / social coop . . d irect contact with suppliers + production site . c ost reduction duet to de-intermediation an other example of Distributed Economies (not energy related) SOLIDARITY PURCHASING GROUPS (GAS)
  67. 67. <ul><li>DISTRIBUTED ECONOMIES MAIN SUSTAINABLE CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul>LOCALLY-BASED: start from sustainable local resources and needs, but could become open non-local or global systems + NETWORK-STRUCTURED: gain critical mass and potential by their connections in network
  68. 68. > DISTRIBUTED ECONOMIES ARE IN FACT PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM INNOVATION WHICH ARE COMMUNITY-BASED AND COUPLING ECO-EFFICIENCY WITH SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS: THERE IS A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR THE DESIGN IN SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION, WHEN AND IF, PSS INNOVATION ARE LACALLY-BASED AND NETWORK STRUCTURED
  69. 69. <ul><li>“ the design for social equity and cohesion of eco-efficient system of products and services that are together able to fulfil a particular demand of (community) “satisfaction”, as well as the design of the locally-based and network-structured interaction of the stakeholders directly and indirectly linked to that “satisfaction” system ”” </li></ul><ul><li>(VEZZOLI, Maggioli, Milan, 2007) </li></ul>SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY (ENVIRONM. + SOCIAL EQUITY): A POTENTIAL DEFINITION
  70. 70. POLIMI DIS CO-PROMOTED SOME RESEARCH/PROJECTS ON EE PSS DESIGN POTENTIALS FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION
  71. 71. workshop 1 (1.2006) ITCP-USP, Sao Paolo method/tool development DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY TOOLS/METHODS FOR SOCIAL INCUBATOR Incubadora Tecnológica de Cooperativas Populares ITCP NETWORK University of Sao Paolo Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba Politecnico di Milano - DIS workshop 2 (8.2006) ITCP-UFPR, Curitiba
  72. 72. sustainable system design product design system innovation introd. and diffusion path United Nations Industrial Development Organization A Global UNIDO Network of University Chairs on Innovation <ul><li>- FARKA , a system for drinkable water transportation in Burkina Faso; </li></ul><ul><li>DUMBO , a system for vegetable’s transportation in Zambia </li></ul><ul><li>– NIGO , a system for disabled students transportation in South Africa. </li></ul>SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABLE PILOT PROJECT AIMING AT AN INTRODUCTION OF LOCALLY-BASED AND LONG LASTING MOBILITY SYSTEM FOR LOW INCOME CONTEXTS IN AFRICA Politecnico di Milano Cape Peninsula University of Technology
  73. 73. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR SOCIAL EQUITY AND COHESION CRITERIA . improve employment/working conditions . increase equity and justice in relation to stakeholders . enable a responsible/sustainable consumption . favor/integrate the weak and marginalized . improve social cohesion . empower/enhance local resources [DEVELOPED BASED ON EXPERIENCES MATURED IN UNIDO, ITCP AND INFORMAL LENS (2003 IIT) AND INTEGRATED INTO THE SDO TOOLKIT AND THE MSDS METHOD]
  74. 74. SUSTAINABILITY DESIGN-ORIENTING (SDO)/IDEA TABLE the 6 environmental criteria ... a set of stakeholders'’ interactions promising guidelines (criteria-related) type stakeholders’ interactions idea for each criteria …

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