Organisational development techniques & applications


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Organisational development techniques & applications

  2. 2. What is organization ?
  3. 3. What is organization ? . A setup which brings individuals together from different backgrounds,varied interests & specializations on a common platform for them to work as a single unit & achieve certain predefined goals is known as organization.
  4. 4. Organizational Development  A planned, organization wide,continuous process designed to improve communication,problem solving & learning through the application of behavioral science knowledge..
  5. 5.  Organizational Development refers to the various ways & procedures to increase the productivity & effectiveness of an organization. Organizational Development includes various techniques which help the employees as well as organization adjust to changing circumstances in a better way.
  6. 6. Organizational Development Techniques It includes : 1.Diagonostic Activities 2.Team Building 3.Survey FeedBack 4.Education 5.Techno Structural Activities 6.Coaching & Counseling
  7. 7. Diagnostic Activities 1. An organization development diagnosis analyses the current condition of an organization. 2. To carry out this diagnosis,managers use questionnaires,opinion or attitude surveys,interviews & meetings to assess various characteristics of the organization. 3. The results of this diagnosis may generate profiles of the organization activities,which can then be used to identify problem areas in need of correction.
  8. 8. Team Building  Team Building activities are intended to enhance the effectiveness & satisfaction of individuals who work in groups or teams to promote overall group effectiveness Given the wide spread use of teams today,these activities have taken on increased importance.  An Organizational Development consultant might interview team members to determine how they feel about the group; then an off side meeting could be held to discuss the issues that surfaced & iron out any problem areas or member concerns  Many companies use team Building as one method for changing the working relationships between workers & supervisors from confrontational to cooperative.
  9. 9. Survey FeedBack i. In Survey feedback each employee responds to a questionnaire intended to measure perceptions & attitudes(for ex.satisfaction & supervisory style) ii. Everyone involved,including the supervisor,receives the result of the survey. iii. The aim of this approach is usually to change the behaviour of supervisors by showing them how their subordinates view them. iv. After the feedback has been provided,workshops may be conducted to evaluate results & suggest constructive changes.
  10. 10. Education  Educational activities focus on class room training.  Although such activities can be used for technical or skill replaced purposes,an organisational development educational activity typically focuses on sensitivity skills that is,it teaches people to be more considerate & understanding of the people they work with.  Participants often go through a series of role playing excercises to learn better how others in the organization feel.
  11. 11. Techno structural activities  It is concerned with the inter relationship of design & technology of the organization.  A structural change can increase in decentralization job design change such as increase in the use of automation & a technological change involving a modification in work flow.
  12. 12. Coaching & Counseling  Coaching & Counseling provides non evaluative feed back to individuals  The purpose is to help people develop a better sense of how others see them & learn behaviors that will assist others in achieving their work related goals .  The focus is not on how the individual is performing today; instead it is on how the person can perform better in the future.
  13. 13. When is the organization ready for the development ? 1st step : Dissatisfied with the current scenario: The employees are not happy with the current scenario & feel the need for a change in the processes of the organization.
  14. 14. 2nd step : Suggesting changes : In this employees discuss among themselves the various options which would help the organization do better in the near future. 3rd step : Applying the processes : Various policies & procedures are applied to help the organization respond to external as well as internal changes more effectively.
  15. 15. Applications of Organizational Development • The purpose of OD is to address perennial evolving needs of successful organizations. • The objective of OD is to improve the organization's capacity to handle its internal & external functioning & relationships.This includes improved inter personal & group processes,more effective communication,enhanced ability to cope with organisational problems of all kinds,more effective decision processes,more appropriate leadership style,improved skill in dealing with destructive conflict & higher levels of trust & cooperation among organisational members.
  16. 16. Weisbord presents a six box model for understanding,thereby changing & improving,the organization:
  17. 17. 1.Purposes : Are employees clear about the organizations mission, purpose & goals? Do they support the organizations purpose? 2.Structure : How is the organizations work divided ? Is there an adequate fit between the purpose & the internal structure ?
  18. 18. 3.Relationship :What are the relationships between individuals, units or departments that perform different tasks & between the people & requirements of their jobs ? 4.Rewards : For what actions does the organization formally reward or punish members ?
  19. 19. 5.Leadership : Does leadership watch for ‘blips’ among the other areas & maintain balance among them? 6.Helpful Mechanism : Do planning,control,budgeting & other information sysyems help organization members accomplish their goals ?