What is organization ?
. A setup which brings
individuals together from
interests & specializations
on a common platform for
them to work as a single
unit & achieve certain
predefined goals is known
A planned, organization wide,continuous
process designed to improve
communication,problem solving & learning
through the application of behavioral science
Organizational Development refers to
the various ways & procedures to
increase the productivity &
effectiveness of an organization.
Organizational Development includes
various techniques which help the
employees as well as organization adjust
to changing circumstances in a better
Organizational Development Techniques
It includes :
5.Techno Structural Activities
6.Coaching & Counseling
1. An organization development diagnosis
analyses the current condition of an
2. To carry out this diagnosis,managers use
questionnaires,opinion or attitude
surveys,interviews & meetings to assess various
characteristics of the organization.
3. The results of this diagnosis may generate
profiles of the organization activities,which can
then be used to identify problem areas in need
Team Building activities are intended to enhance the
effectiveness & satisfaction of individuals who work in
groups or teams to promote overall group effectiveness
Given the wide spread use of teams today,these activities
have taken on increased importance.
An Organizational Development consultant might
interview team members to determine how they feel
about the group; then an off side meeting could be held
to discuss the issues that surfaced & iron out any
problem areas or member concerns
Many companies use team Building as one method for
changing the working relationships between workers &
supervisors from confrontational to cooperative.
In Survey feedback each employee responds to a
questionnaire intended to measure perceptions &
attitudes(for ex.satisfaction & supervisory style)
ii. Everyone involved,including the supervisor,receives
the result of the survey.
iii. The aim of this approach is usually to change the
behaviour of supervisors by showing them how their
subordinates view them.
iv. After the feedback has been provided,workshops
may be conducted to evaluate results & suggest
Educational activities focus on class room
Although such activities can be used for
technical or skill replaced purposes,an
organisational development educational activity
typically focuses on sensitivity skills that is,it
teaches people to be more considerate &
understanding of the people they work with.
Participants often go through a series of role
playing excercises to learn better how others in
the organization feel.
Techno structural activities
It is concerned with the inter relationship of design &
technology of the organization.
A structural change can increase in decentralization
job design change such as increase in the use of
automation & a technological change involving a
modification in work flow.
Coaching & Counseling
Coaching & Counseling provides non evaluative
feed back to individuals
The purpose is to help people develop a better
sense of how others see them & learn behaviors
that will assist others in achieving their work
related goals .
The focus is not on how the individual is
performing today; instead it is on how the person
can perform better in the future.
When is the organization ready for
the development ?
1st step : Dissatisfied with the current
The employees are not happy with the
current scenario & feel the need for a
change in the processes of the
2nd step : Suggesting changes :
In this employees discuss among
themselves the various options which
would help the organization do better
in the near future.
3rd step : Applying the processes :
Various policies & procedures are
applied to help the organization
respond to external as well as
internal changes more effectively.
Applications of Organizational
The purpose of OD is to address perennial evolving
needs of successful organizations.
The objective of OD is to improve the organization's
capacity to handle its internal & external functioning &
relationships.This includes improved inter personal & group
processes,more effective communication,enhanced ability to
cope with organisational problems of all kinds,more effective
decision processes,more appropriate leadership
style,improved skill in dealing with destructive conflict &
higher levels of trust & cooperation among organisational
Weisbord presents a six box
changing & improving,the
1.Purposes : Are employees clear
about the organizations mission,
purpose & goals? Do they support
the organizations purpose?
2.Structure : How is the
organizations work divided ? Is
there an adequate fit between the
purpose & the internal structure ?
3.Relationship :What are the
relationships between individuals,
units or departments that perform
different tasks & between the
people & requirements of their jobs
4.Rewards : For what actions does
the organization formally reward or
punish members ?
5.Leadership : Does leadership watch
for ‘blips’ among the other areas &
maintain balance among them?
6.Helpful Mechanism : Do
planning,control,budgeting & other
information sysyems help
organization members accomplish
their goals ?