per·me·ate verb (used with object) 1. to pass into or through every part of: Bright sunshine permeated the room.
Ancient china emerged in the fertile valleys of two great waterways: The Yellow and Yangzi rivers.
Warrior tribe that developed first urban culture and calligraphic script; ruled by divine right Shang diviners heated inscribed bones to produce cracks the priest might then read to forecast the future. Put into practice world’s first administration system based on the ideas of advancement based on achievement Famous for their bureaucracies and intricate testing systems for bureaucrats. The occupants of the “dragon throne” who represented China’s earliest kings were the Shang dynasty.
China’s royal tombs were filled with treasures, most of which took the form of carved jade and worked bronze objects.
Zhou dynasty was a feudal society (took over warrior society of Shang) Artist: n/a Title: Set of sixty-five bells Medium: Bronze, with bronze and timber frame Size: frame height 9' (2.74 m), length 25' (7.62 m) Date: Zhou dynasty, 433 BCE Source/Museum: Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, Suixian, Hubei. / Hubei Provincial Museum, Wuhan
Confucius – compiler and editor The book of changes - A guide for interpreting the working of the universe, consists of cosmological diagrams on which diviners were able to predict the future and advise others on the inevitability of change. The book of changes - is one of the oldest of the Chinese classic texts .  The book contains a divination system comparable to Western geomancy or the West African Ifá system; in Western cultures and modern East Asia, it is still widely used for this purpose. the text was re-interpreted as a system of cosmology and philosophy that subsequently became intrinsic to Chinese culture. It centred on the ideas of the dynamic balance of opposites, the evolution of events as a process, and acceptance of the inevitability of change. The most powerful personified spirits in the ancient Chinese world view were those of departed ancestors.
LITERARY LANDMARKS THE FIVE CHINESE CLASSICS (CA. 1000-500 B.C.E.)* 1. The Book of Changes ( I jing)—a text for divination 2. The Book of History ( Shu jing)—government records: speeches, reports, and announcements by rulers and ministers of ancient China 3. The Book of Songs ( Shi jing)—an anthology of some three hundred poems: folk songs, ceremonial and secular poems 4. The Book of Rites ( Li chi)—a collection of texts centering on rules of conduct for everyday life 5. The Spring and Autumn Annals ( Chun-chiu)—commentaries that chronicle events up to the fifth century B.C.E. *A sixth classic, on music, is no longer in existence
Better known in China as “Master Kong” (Chinese: Kongzi ), Confucius was a fifth-century BCE Chinese thinker whose influence upon East Asian intellectual and social history is immeasurable. As a culturally symbolic figure, he has been alternately idealized, deified, dismissed, vilified, and rehabilitated over the millennia by both Asian and non-Asian thinkers and regimes. Given his extraordinary impact on Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese thought, it is ironic that so little can be known about Confucius. The tradition that bears his name – “ Confucianism ” (Chinese: Rujia ) – ultimately traces itself to the sayings and biographical fragments recorded in the text known as the Analects (Chinese: Lunyu ). As with the person of Confucius himself, scholars disagree about the origins and character of the Analects, but it remains the traditional source for information about Confucius’ life and teaching. Most scholars remain confident that it is possible to extract from the Analects several philosophical themes and views that may be safely attributed to this ancient Chinese sage. These are primarily ethical, rather than analytical-logical or metaphysical in nature, and include Confucius’ claim that Tian (“Heaven”) is aligned with moral order but dependent upon human agents to actualize its will; his concern for li (ritual propriety) as the instrument through which the family, the state, and the world may be aligned with Tian’s moral order; and his belief in the “contagious” nature of moral force ( de ), by which moral rulers diffuse morality to their subjects, moral parents raise moral children, and so forth.
China is the only country in the world with a literature written in one language for more than 3,000 consecutive years. Chinese prose literature Prose: historical narrative, Chinese poetry, Han poetic expression , Meditation on human experience Han Literature Imperial China left a body of landmark writings that continued to influence Chinese culture into modern times. The Han restored Confucianism, rejuvenating the five Chinese classics -- works in which many of ancient China's oldest moral and religious precepts are preserved. Han rulers also revived the ancient practice of appointing government officials based on merit and education (see page 25). The Chinese placed a high value on record keeping, and the tradition of writing chronicles, already evident in the commentaries on the classics, took on even greater emphasis in imperial China. Although some of the chronicles kept by court historians were lost in the wars and notorious &quot;book-burnings&quot; of the Qin era, Han historians kept a continuous record of rulership. The landmark work in this genre is the Shiji (Records of the Grand Historian), a prose narrative by Sima Qian (145-90 B.C.E.), which rivals those of Livy in scope and sharp detail. The Chinese left neither epics nor heroic poems comparable to those of Greece and Rome. However, imperial China produced a long and rich history of poetry, especially lyric poetry, much of which was written by women. Rather than glorify individual prowess and valorous achievement, Han poetry reflects gently on the human experience. In its emphasis on the personal and the contemplative, Han poetry rivals that of Sappho, Catullus, and Horace.
son of an official historian called Sima Tan. On his deathbed the father asked the son to do what he had desired but failed to do - writing a history of the past events of the nation. Sima Qian promised to take up the task. Sima Qian (about 145- 90 BCE), or Ssi-ma Ch’ien, inherited from his father the position of grand historian to the Emperor, which had been a position largely concerned with keeping astronomical records. However, Sima Qian also took on an ambitious project started by his father—production of the first full history of China. This broad ranging work extending over 130 chapters is not in historical sequence but divided into particular subjects, including annals, chronicles, treatises—on music, ceremonies, calendars, religion, economics—and extended biographies. In this way, the Shih chi , or Records of the Historian , covers the period from the Five Sages of prehistoric times, through the Xia, Shang, Zhou, and Qin dynasties to the Han dynasty of Sima Qian’s own time. The Zhou dynasty, probably founded just before 1,000 BCE, represents the beginning of the historic period and has provided archeological evidence that confirms some of Sima Qian’s history.
One of China’s major religions indigenous to the country. The primary belief is in learning and practicing “The Way” (Dao) which is the ultimate truth to the universe.
Daoism as a religion didn’t really flourish until hundreds of years later around 100 AD, when Taoist hermit Zhang Daoling founded a sect of Daoism known as the Way of the Celestial Matters. Through his teachings, Zhang and his successors codified many aspects of Daoism. Unlike Buddhism, Daoists do not believe that life is suffering. Daoism believes that life is generally happy but that it should be lived with balance and virtue. The two religions often butted heads when both vied to become the official religion of the Imperial Court. Daoism did become the official religion of the Tang Dynasty (618-906 AD), but in later dynasties it was supplanted by Buddhism. In the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) Daoists attempted to gain favor with the Yuan court but lost several debates against Buddhists in 1281. As a result, many Daoists texts were burned.
Chinese found harmony and order in the regularity of the seasons and the everyday workings of nature. Yin/Yang, this principle which ancient Chinese emperors called “the foundation of the entire universe,” interprets all nature as the dynamic product of two interacting cosmic forces, or modes of energy, commonly configured as twin interpenetrating shapes enclosed with in a circle
Yin/Yang, “the foundation of the entire universe,” interprets all nature as the dynamic product of two interacting cosmic forces, or modes of energy. Chinese found harmony and order in the regularity of the seasons and the everyday workings of nature. Yin/Yang, this principle which ancient Chinese emperors called “the foundation of the entire universe,” interprets all nature as the dynamic product of two interacting cosmic forces, or modes of energy, commonly configured as twin interpenetrating shapes enclosed with in a circle
But they had many things in common. Qin created an empire by defeating all rival states and assuming absolute responsibility for maintaining order. Both brought political stability and cultural unity to vast reaches of territory. Both were profoundly secular in their approach to the world and to the conduct of human beings. Each inherited age-old practices in religion , law, literature, and the arts, which they self-consciously preserved and transmitted to future generations. WHILE the Roman Empire dominated the West, a comparable empire arose on the eastern end of the Asian landmass. Rome and China traded overland, by way of Asian intermediaries, but neither reflects the direct influence of the other. Nevertheless, the two empires have much in common. Both brought political stability and cultural unity to vast reaches of territory. Both were profoundly secular in their approach to the world and to the conduct of human beings. Han China and imperial Rome each inherited age-old practices in religion, law, literature, and the arts, which they self-consciously preserved and transmitted to future generations.
The first great period of unity in China came about under the Qin (pronounced &quot;chin&quot;), the dynasty from which the English name &quot;China&quot; derives. Like the Roman rulers, the militant Qin created an empire by defeating all rival states and assuming absolute responsibility for maintaining order. The self-titled &quot;First Emperor,&quot; Shih Huang Di (ca. 259-210 B.C.E.) appointed a large, salaried bureaucracy, ordered a census of China's population (the first of its kind in world history), oversaw the standardization of written Chinese, and divided China into the provinces that exist to this day. He created a uniform coinage, a system of weights and measures, and, in a move whose practicality rivaled that of the ancient Romans, he standardized the width of all axles so that Chinese wagons would fit the existing ruts in Chinese roads (thus speeding travel and trade).
It took 700,000 workers to build. 8,000 life-size terra-cotta armed soldiers, with horse drawn chariots. The landmark expression of Qin power is Emperor Shi Huang Di's tomb built by some 700,000 workers over a period of eleven years. The entranceway, part of a 21-square-mile burial site, provides an immortal record of the Qin military machine: It contains almost eight thousand life-sized terra-cotta armed soldiers, accompanied by horse-drawn chariots (Figure 3.22). Standing at strict attention, foot soldiers and cavalry guard the emperor's tomb, which archaeologists have not yet opened. The figures, mass-produced but individually carved and painted, probably replaced the living sacrifices that went to the grave with earlier Chinese rulers. In their lifelike intensity, these sculptures (Figure 3.23) resemble Roman portrait busts. However, the Roman images were created for the living, while the Chinese images, like those of ancient Egypt, were designed to protect the dead. Nevertheless, the subterranean legions of the First Emperor glorify a military force that the Romans might have envied.
Daoism shown in individuality of shoulders despite numbers Chinese army marching into the next world. Artist: n/a Title: Soldiers Medium: Earthenware Size: life-size Date: Qin dynasty, c. 210 BCE Source/Museum: From the mausoleum of Emperor Shihuangdi, Lintong, Shaanxi
Artist: n/a Title: Soldiers Medium: Earthenware Size: life-size Date: Qin dynasty, c. 210 BCE Source/Museum: From the mausoleum of Emperor Shihuangdi, Lintong, Shaanxi
Large salaried bureaucracy. Ordered the first census. Standardized written Chinese. Divided china into provinces. Created a uniform coinage. Created a system of weights and measures. Standardized all axles on Chinese wagons so they would fit into excisting ruts. The silk industry brought wealth But the peasants were heavily taxed
Royal promotion of the silk industry attracted long-distance merchants and brought increasing wealth to China. While imperial policies fostered the private ownership of land by peasant farmers, the new system permitted the governors to tax those farmers, which they did mercilessly. Peasant protest was a constant threat to imperial power, but the most serious challenge to Qin safety came from the repeated invasions by the nomadic Central Asian Huns along China's northern borders. Chinese Silk is almost synonymous with China and dates back to about 2640 BC. The Chinese Empress Hsi Ling Shi (venerated as the Goddess of Silk) gave her royal patronage to the silk industry. She invented the loom and applied it to the production of highly prized silk fabrics.
Could not stop foot soldiers, but slowed down horse drawn wagons and men on horse back. repeated invasions by the nomadic Central Asian Huns along China's northern borders. To discourage invasion, the Qin commissioned the construction (and in some stretches the reconstruction) of the 1500-mile-long Great Wall of China (Figure 3.21). This spectacular engineering feat may be compared with the wall built by the Roman emperor Hadrian: Hadrian's Wall, only 73 miles long, would be raised in the early second century in an effort to deter barbarian attacks on Roman Britain's northernmost border. Like Hadrian's Wall, the Great Wall of China could not stop an army on foot; rather, it discouraged mounted men, wagons, and the like from making raids across the borders.
The sleeve and arm of the kneeling servant cleverly become the chimney of the elegant lamp. Which was found in the tomb of a Han princess. Han rulers tripled the size of the empire they inherited from the Qin. At its height, the Han Empire was roughly equivalent to that of Rome in power and prestige, but larger in actual population—a total of fifty-seven million people, according to the census of 2 C.E. (Map 3.2). Improvements in farming and advances in technology ensured economic prosperity, which in turn stimulated vigorous long-distance trade. Camel caravans traveled the 5000- mile-long &quot;Silk Road&quot; that stretched from the Mediterranean Sea to the Pacific Ocean. While the Chinese imported from the West glassware, wool, linen, jade, and silver, the Romans eagerly sought gems, spices, and the luxurious fabrics produced by those they called Seres, the &quot;Silk People.&quot;
The top register of the lintel depicts a lively procession of chariots and horses. Beneath are scenes of hunting, while on each side of the portal, figures with weapons and winged ancestral spirits protect the chamber, on the doors appear (top to bottom) phoenixes, (symbols of resurrection) beast masks, and raging unicorns
Jade and gold wire , length 6’ 2” found resting in a lacquered coffin in a Cliffside tomb excavated in 1968, the deceased wore a shroud consisting of some 2000jade wafers (sewn together with golden thread ) thought to protect the body form decay and assist in achieving immortality.
Believed the larger and finer horses of central asia were descendants of celestial horses. They were reported to sweat blood. A condition that may have been caused by parasitic infections that caused swellings that burst and bled.
Visual Arts and Music Because the Chinese built primarily in the impermanent medium of wood, nothing remains of the grand palaces of the Qin and Han eras. And while the Chinese produced no monumental architecture comparable to that of Rome, the Great Wall and the royal tombs (themselves replicas of the royal palaces) testify to the high level of Chinese building skills. Like their forebears, the Han excelled in bronze-casting and ceramics. Han craftspeople also produced exquisite works in jade, gold, lacquered wood, and silk. The numerous polychromed ceramic figures found in the royal tombs of the Han and their followers leave a record of daily life that ranges from horseback riding to music-making (Figure 3.24).
Artist: n/aseated buddha cave 20, Yungang Grotto, china Title: Seated Buddha, Cave 20, Yungang Medium: Stone Size: height 45' (13.7 m) Date: Northern Wei dynasty, c. 460 CE Source/Museum: Datong, Shanxi In “ Seated Buddha, cave 20 ” (10-13) which is situated along a portion of the old “Silk Road” trade route in China. There is a large rock cut relief statue of the Buddha that initially resided inside a natural cave, but weathering has eroded the exterior fully exposing the work inside. This location along an inter-cultural “highway” most likely birthed this interpretation of Buddha by way of a subtle mixing of styles; Primarily the Gandhara and Mathura approaches. The clothing is a hybrid of either style because it does not have a harsh, set patterning like some Hellenistic pieces but it does still retain some rich, repetitive detail in the folding and mannerisms of worn clothing with an added amount of abstract embellishment. The facial structure more closely resembles the Gandhara style (9-13) in its sharper definition and more “Greek” move toward facial features. The nose and eye treatment closely resembles early Mediterranean art in its execution of more sharply defining facial contours in a conceptual manner. This is further compounded by the archaic smile of the Buddha that has been seen on many Greek artworks in the past. The overall softer body tones and shaping can obviously be attributed to the Mathura style as well as the overall presentation is not as precise or discerning in proportion as some other Gandhara works.
Chinese Pagodas Pagodas developed from Buddhist stupas; the design was brought from India via the Silk Road Built for sacred purpose, each design is repeated vertically on each level, getting progressively smaller. Japanese also developed pagodas stu·pa /ˈstupə/ Show Spelled[stoo-puh] Show IPA noun a monumental pile of earth or other material, in memory of Buddha or a Buddhist saint, and commemorating some event or marking a sacred spot. Artist: n/a Title: Elements of Architecture: Pagodas Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: Early stupa, later stupa, watchflower, stone pagoda, wooden pagoda
Typical Chinese Buddhist pagoda About 210’ tall (was taller, rebuilt during Ming dynasty after earthquake) Artist: n/a Title: Great Wild Goose Pagoda At Ci’en Temple, Xi’an Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: Tang dynasty, first erected 645 CE; rebuilt mid-8th century CE Source/Museum: Shanxi
Forbidden City - Beijing, China, Ming Dynasty (14th century), Hall of Supreme Harmony. Balance & symmetry, tradition Courtyard style emphasizing empty space with crowded spaces. Reflects Confucianism. Courtyard styles. Only royalty could enter-walled city 9000 buildings. Artist: n/a Title: Great Wild Goose Pagoda At Ci’en Temple, Xi’an Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: Tang dynasty, first erected 645 CE; rebuilt mid-8th century CE Source/Museum: Shanxi
Forbidden City - Yellow roof tiles reserved for royalty. Red also royal color. Dragon symbols appear. Rooftops supported by duogang, used for Imperial buildings. Today this is a museum and tourist attraction. : n/a Title: Great Wild Goose Pagoda At Ci’en Temple, Xi’an Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: Tang dynasty, first erected 645 CE; rebuilt mid-8th century CE Source/Museum: Shanxi
Exterior walls of a courtyard style residence Frame an atrium for tranquility Courtyard on larger scale in Forbidden City Wood structures, rectangular grid CONFUCIANISM Exterior walls of a courtyard style residence Frame an atrium for tranquility- Elders live in suite of rooms on warmer north end Children leave in the wings Courtyard on larger scale in Forbidden City Wood structures, rectangular grid CONFUCIANISM
In the Middle ages, while Eastern Europe consisted mainly of cow pastures, and random villages, China, under the centralized rule of the Tang dynasty (618-907 c.e.) and the subsequent Song dynasty (960-1279), boasted a sophisticated urban culture with city populations that often reached one million. The Tang Empire dwarfed the Carolingian Empire in the west not only in terms of its geographic size and populations but also with respect to its intellectual and educational accomplishments . Tang bureaucrats, steeped in Confucian traditions and rigorously trained in the literary classics, were members of tan intellectual elite that rose to service on the basis of merit, Beginning in the 7 century (but rooted in a long tradition of leadership based on education and ability), every government official was subject to a rigorous civil service examination. A young man gained a political position by passing three levels of examinations, (district, provincial, and national) that tested his familiarity with the Chinese classics as well as his grasp of contemporary political issues.
China had control over Central Asia again during Tang dynasty Fascination w/Turkic cultures .. Shows Turkish musicans with Han Chinese Naturalism - new interest and trend in painting & sculpture Beautiful 3 color glazes, spontaneous Silk Road was flourishing, brought Chinese goods to West Neoconfucianism= naturalism Artist: n/a Title: Camel Carrying a Group of Musicians Medium: Earthenware with threecolor glaze Size: height 26 ⅛&quot; (66.5 cm) Date: Tang dynasty, c. mid-8th century CE Source/Museum: Tomb near Xi’an, Shanxi. / National Museum, Beijing
Buddhist philosophy was incorporated into neo-confucianism, with respect for nature, harmony, and metaphysical beliefs. Chinese sculpture produced large scale sculptures such as the terra cotta army of Shi Huangdi, the Seated Buddha at Shanxi (cave) and this Seated Guanvin Bodhisattva. Buddhist philosophy was incorporated into neo-confucianism, with respect for nature, harmony, and metaphysical beliefs. This polychrome wooden figure of Guanyin is possibly the best-preserved and most magnificent sculpture from this period of Chinese Buddhist art. A bodhisattva, unlike a Buddha, refrains from entering Nirvana until all sentient beings have attained enlightenment. Guanyin, the bodhisattva most associated with compassion by Chinese Buddhist followers, is depicted here in a pose of royal ease. Gentle and calming, the Guanyin bodhisattva would appeal to patrons in need of emotional support and guidance. With coloring dated to no later than the mid-16th century, the sculpture’s vivid tonal intensity adds to the bodhisattva’s emotional approachability.
Chinese calligraphy considered the highest art form. Calligraphers have different styles and spend years perfecting the techniques. Children learned to write first by copying ideographs Confucius praised pursuit of knowledge & the arts; painting was to reflect moral concerns and calligraphy revealed the character of the writer Some calligraphy cannot be read by modern Chinese readers, it is so artistically done Literati - Confucian scholars- practiced this art form Hand scrolls (Paintings) often have a label in calligraphy in the colophon section. Artist: n/a Title: Art and Its Context: Chinese Characters Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: Chinese characters: Ancient, Modern, ideographs
Artist: Wang Xizhi Title: Portion of a letter from the Feng Ju album Medium: Ink on paper Size: 9¾ X 18½&quot; (24.7 X 46.8 cm) Date: Six Dynasties period, mid-4th century CE Source/Museum: National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
Landscape painting, the visual record of the natural world, was born in China. While Roman artists used realistic depictions of nature as background settings , the Chinese made landscape a subject in its own right. Some of the earliest and finest Chinese landscapes poem came from the Tang and Song eras. In landscape painting, as in poetry, the Chinese sought to evoke a mood rather than to provide a literal objective record of reality. There is no single viewpoint from which to observe all elements in this cosmic view of nature. Rather, we perceive the whole form what one 11 th century Chinese art critic called “the angle of totality.”
Original handscroll was about 12” wide Now several feet with all enthusiastic descriptions, comments, poetry from readers “ Du Hua” to literally, READ a painting as a form of appreciation Han Gan, a leading horse painter of the Tang dynasty (618–906), was known for portraying not only the physical likeness of a horse but also its spirit. This painting, the most famous work attributed to the artist, is a portrait of Night-Shining White, a favorite charger of the emperor Xuanzong (r. 712–56). The fiery-tempered steed, with its burning eye, flaring nostrils, and dancing hooves, epitomizes Chinese myths about imported &quot;celestial steeds&quot; that &quot;sweat blood&quot; and were really dragons in disguise. This sensitive, precise drawing, reinforced by delicate ink shading, is an example of baihua (white painting), a term used in Tang texts to describe monochrome painting with ink shading, as opposed to full color painting. The later term baimiao (white drawing) denotes line drawing without shading, as seen in the paintings of Li Gonglin (ca. 1041–1106). Han Gan is said to have preferred visits to the stables over the study of earlier paintings of horses, and his keen observation of actual animals is confirmed by his accurate rendering of equine movement. But Han's largely profile image and his reduction of the animal's anatomy to a series of abstract curves transform Night-Shining White into an archetypal &quot;dragon steed.&quot; Only his addition of pale shading softens the geometry of the drawing, changing flat lines into three-dimensional flesh. The numerous seals and inscriptions added to the painting and its borders by later owners and experts are a distinctive feature of Chinese collecting and connoisseurship. While collectors are sometimes overzealous in showing their appreciation in this manner, the addition of seals and comments by later viewers served to record a work's transmission and offers vivid testimony of an artwork's continuing impact on later generations Original handscroll was about 12” wide Now several feet with all enthusiastic descriptions, comments, poetry from readers “ Du Hua” to literally, READ a painting as a form of appreciation Painters were highly valued; some Emperors became noted calligraphers and painters Studied under appreentice ship system
Some parts of painting are empty & barren, others are crowded.. Yin/Yang of Daoism aka Taoism This is an example of the empty space contrasted with calligraphy and densely detailed drawing Artist: n/a Title: Unmarked image on page 365 Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
Northern Song: fascination with precision and details as shown here. Artist: Fan Kuan Title: Travelers Among Mountains and Streams Medium: Hanging scroll, ink and colors on silk Size: height 6' 9½&quot; (2.06 m) Date: Northern Song dynasty, early 11th century CE Source/Museum: National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.
Literati painters rejected traditional apprentice system run by the state…to pursue their own unique styles (contra Confucianism) Dong Qi Chang famous literati painter, influenced by Daoism Thick paces contrast with open areas - negative space implies clouds Artist: Xia Gui Title: Section of Twelve Views from a Thatched Hut Medium: Handscroll, ink on silk Size: height 11&quot; (28 cm) length of extant portion 7'7½&quot; (2.31 m) Date: Southern Song dynasty, early 13th century CE Source/Museum: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. Purchase, Nelson Trust (32-159/2)
The porcelains of the Ming dynasty have attained such recognition in the West that &quot;Ming&quot; has become almost generic for anything ceramic fabricated in China before the twentieth century. While, unhappily, many of the pieces called Ming have no possible claim to that attribution, the porcelains that were produced during the period are among the most beautiful and exciting to emerge from China's kilns. Because the kilns at Jingdezhen and the surrounding area of Jiangxi Province became paramount during the Ming era, overshadowing all other manufacturing centers, our attention focuses primarily on wares from these kilns from this time onward. In many respects, the blue and white porcelains of the early fifteenth century exemplify these wares at their apogee. They combine the freedom and energy of a newly ripened art form with the sophistication of concept and mastery of execution that come with maturity. The highest traditions of early Ming-dynasty brushwork are represented in the bristling dragon on this marvelous jar. His dorsal fins are like the teeth of a buzz saw, his claws have a strong bone structure, and he moves around the jar with total power yet consummate grace. Flanked by the heads of fearsome monsters is an inscription with the reign title of the incumbent emperor, Xuande. Reign marks became popular during the Xuande era (1426–35) and were used continuously after that time. Artist: n/a Title: Guan ware vase Medium: Gray stoneware with crackled grayish blue glaze Size: height 6 ⅝&quot; (16.8 cm) Date: Southern Song dynasty, 13th century CE Source/Museum: Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, London Porcelain painted in underglaze blue Example of fine porcelain ware created during this period Technically superior, thin walls, glazing
Princely Hindu family At 19 married his cousin and fathered a son.
To arrive at a release from illusion and ultimately nirvana To follow this path is the escape from the wheel of rebirth that binds all Hindus.
Buddha's hands form one of many mudras (Hand gestures)that make reference to his teachings
A pair of richly attired dignitaries are engaged in intellectual activities. Calligraphic writing materials, musical instruments, painted scrolls, and a chesslike board game-enduring symbols of accomplishment among Chinese humanists.
Japan had periods of isolation and periods of trade with Korea and China. Various forms of Buddhism became very popular in Japan, especially Zen Buddhism. zen buddhism: Web definitions:Zen: school of Mahayana Buddhism asserting that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith; China and Japan. Japanese were influenced by Chinese ink scroll paintings One of the best preserved continuous artistic traditions in the world. Artist: n/a Title: Japan Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: n/a
Shinto at a glance The essence of Shinto is the Japanese devotion to invisible spiritual beings and powers called kami , to shrines , and to various rituals. Shinto is not a way of explaining the world . What matters are rituals that enable human beings to communicate with kami. Kami are not God or gods. They are spirits that are concerned with human beings - they appreciate our interest in them and want us to be happy - and if they are treated properly they will intervene in our lives to bring benefits like health, business success, and good exam results. Shinto is a very local religion , in which devotees are likely to be concerned with their local shrine rather than the religion as a whole. Many Japanese will have a tiny shrine-altar in their homes. However, it is also an unofficial national religion with shrines that draw visitors from across the country. Because ritual rather than belief is at the heart of Shinto, Japanese people don't usually think of Shinto specifically as a religion - it's simply an aspect of Japanese life. This has enabled Shinto to coexist happily with Buddhism for centuries Artist: n/a Title: Myth and Religion: Buddhist Symbols Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: n/a Source/Museum: Lotus flower, double lotus flower, chakra, marks of a buddha
This ink painting from the early 14th century illustrates a Zen Buddhist monk sewing. Monk Sewing , Kao Ninga – 14 th century Zen monks lived in monasteries, not wandering around preaching … they took ordinary live activities, such as sewing or working in a garden, as a form of meditation. This cultural philosophy still exists today in Japan Like the popular six-syllable mantra Om mani padme hum , and the Great Compassion Mantra ( Nīlakantha dhāranī ) it is a popular mantra synonymous the practice of the Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara . The Shurangama Mantra also extensively references Buddhist deities ( ishtadevata ) such as Bodhisattvas Manjushri , Mahakala , Sitatapatra Vajrapani and the Five Dhyana Buddhas especially Medicine Buddha ( Akshobhya or Vajradhara ) in East Asia . It is often used for protection or purification for meditators and is considered to be part of Tantric Buddhism or Vajrayana or Shingon Buddhism in Japan .  Artist: Attributed to Kao Ninga Title: Monk Sewing Medium: Ink on paper Size: 31⅞ X 13½&quot; (83.5 X 35.4 cm) Date: Kamakura period, early 14th century Source/Museum: The Cleveland Museum of Art. John L. Severance Fund (62.163)
Phoenix Hall , Kyoto prefecture, Temple dedicated to phoenix and Amida Buddhism. Heia period, 1053 CE, example of Pure Land Buddhist temple. Pure Land Buddhism came to prominence.. New form, you can reach paradise through faith alone. Chinese influence in roofs and stone base. Water is part of design. Artist: n/a Title: Phoenix Hall, Byodo-in, Uji Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: Heian period, c. 1053 CE Source/Museum: Kyoto Prefecture
Artist: n/a Title: Phoenix Hall, Byodo-in, Uji Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: Heian period, c. 1053 CE Source/Museum: Kyoto Prefecture
Her achievement is all the more remarkable in that she – like every Japanese female – was excluded from the opportunity of a scholarly education and, from training in written Chinese, the literary language of Japan. Nevertheless, using a system of phonetic symbols derived from Chinese characters, Murasaki left a record of her culture, both in her Diary and in her novel.
This Japanese classic tells the story of a young Heian prince and his life and loves at court, but also describes his moods, his tastes, and his desires. Here Murasaki wrote the world’s first psychological novel, but in addition as she painted a detailed picture of daily life among the Heian aristocrats with their elegant silk robes, refined manners, affection for music, and poetic versatility – features that prefigure by 500 years those of the Renaissance West. The Tale of Genji was written shortly after the year 1000 in Japan's Heian era, when the capital was situated at Heian-kyo (present-day Kyoto ). Genji, the hero of the Tale, is the son of the emperor and his favorite concubine, Kiritsubo. A Korean sage predicts a brilliant future for Genji but his mother suffers the jealousy of rivals at court, becomes ill and dies. The distraught emperor becomes obsessed with the tragic story of Yang Kwei-fei , but eventually finds another concubine, Fujitsubo, who reminds him of his former love. Since Genji lacks backing at court, the emperor makes him a commoner, assigning him membership of the non-royal Genji clan. The eldest son of the emperor and Lady Kokiden is made crown prince. Genji becomes an uncommonly handsome and gifted young man, admired by all but feared by Lady Kokiden and her family. The first part of the Tale follows his amorous exploits with a variety of ladies in and around Heian-kyo, his friendship with To no Chujo and arranged marriage to To no Chujo's sister Aoi, the birth of his son and his budding relationship with the young Murasaki. Meanwhile, the old emperor dies and is succeeded by Lady Kokiden's son. Genji's amorous intrigues cause a scandal at court and he is forced to leave the capital and live in Suma for several years. During this second part of the Tale, Genji meets the ex-Governor of Harima and his daughter The Akashi Lady. Genji returns to the capital and the emperor abdicates in favour of Fujitsubo's (and secretly Genji's) son. Genji's position at court is restored and the Akashi Lady has a baby girl. Genji then goes on a pilgrimage to the Sumiyoshi Shrine to give thanks to the deity for protecting him during the storm at Suma. After his return to the capital he settles down with Murasaki and several other ladies at his Rokujo Mansion. During this long section of the Tale, Genji's influence at court increases steadily and he is preoccupied with the advancement of his children and grandchildren at court. Genji is persuaded to marry the Third Princess, who gives birth to a son and soon after becomes a Buddhist nun.
16 th century, as Japan emerged from a feudal age, the new merchant class that occupied Japan’s growing commercial cities demanded new forms of entertainment.
The discipline required derived from calligraphy . Traditionally, every literate person learned to write by copying Chinese ideographs. Then gradually exposed to different stylistic interpretations of these characters. Copied great calligraphers' manuscripts, which were often preserved on carved stones so that rubbings could be made.
Shaven head, yellow robe, begging bowl he followed the way of the Hindu ascetic. After 6 years he came to reject the life of self-denial. Turning inward he began the work of meditation that would bring him to inner illumination
Greek and romans chapter 7 earlychinesejapaneseart 101012153900-phpapp01
Philosophy permeates fine art…..
<ul><li>China size of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Most populated country </li></ul><ul><li>Many languages & ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled by dynasties </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Shang dynasty (ca. 1776–1027 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warrior tribe, urban culture and calligraphy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Western Zhou dynasty (1027–771 B.C.E.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>world’s first administration system </li></ul></ul>Bronze - Ceremonial vessel with a cover, late Shang dynasty, China, ca. 1000 B.C.E. Bronze, height 20-1/16 in
<ul><li>royal tombs were filled with treasures </li></ul><ul><li>carved jade and bronze </li></ul>Standing figure, late Shang dynasty, ca. 1300-1100 B.C.E., from Pit 2 at Sanxingdui, Guanghan, Sichuan Province. Bronze, height 8 ft. 7 in.
Bronze Age - Piece Mold Casting & Lost Wax bronze bells from the Zhou dynasty, 433 BCE <ul><li>Bells sounded 2 tones, scale in a variety of registers </li></ul>
<ul><li>Spirits, gods, and the natural order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important emphasis on “balance” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Book of Changes (China’s oldest known text ) </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Book of History, government records, speeches, reports, and announcements by rulers and ministers </li></ul><ul><li>The Book of Songs –300 poems: folk songs, ceremonial and secular poems </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Book of Rites –texts on rules of conduct for everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>The Spring and Autumn Annals – commentaries that chronicle events up to the 5 th century b.c.e. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Analects , the ancient Chinese conviction that human beings must heed a moral order that is fixed in nature, not in divine pronouncement. </li></ul><ul><li>Human character not birth determined the worth and statue of the individual. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Bing Fa (The Art of War) Sun Wu, ca. 500 and 400 b.c.e. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mencius (372-289 b.c.e.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded Confucian concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Han Fei Zi (? – 233 b.c.e.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Argued that the rationality of an adult was </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no more reliable than that of an infant. </li></ul></ul>
Sima Qian’s Records of the Grand Historian <ul><li>son of an official historian -Sima Tan. </li></ul><ul><li>On his deathbed asked finish writing a history of the past events of the nation. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Song of Sorrow , Liu Xijun, ca. 107 b.c.e. </li></ul><ul><li>Song: I Watered My Horse at the Long Wall Caves , Chen Lin (d. 217 c.e.) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nineteen Old Poems of the Han”, late second century c.e. </li></ul>
<ul><li>major religion indigenous to the country. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Way” (Dao) which is the ultimate truth to the universe. </li></ul>Daoists Priests in Xian, China perform a sacrificial ritual to the kitchen god.
Laozi is the famed Chinese philosopher and founder of Daoism. Daoist nuns look out a window of Beichan Temple in Qinghai Province, China. The temple was build in the Northern Wei period (386-534).
<ul><li>Yin/Yang, “the foundation of the entire universe,” </li></ul>
<ul><li>Yin/Yang, “the foundation of the entire universe,” </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Qin dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Survived only fifteen years but created the basic structure that would govern China for generations to come </li></ul></ul>
The Qin Dynasty (221-210 B.C.E.) <ul><li>Rome and China traded overland, by way of Asian traders (middleman), but neither reflects the direct influence of the other. </li></ul>
<ul><li>1st ruler of united China - Hin/Qin dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Codified written Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>Established uniform currency </li></ul><ul><li>Started famous Great Wall of China </li></ul><ul><li>Began his majestic tomb (SOLDIERS) </li></ul><ul><li>Insisted on govt based on accomplishments rather than family connections </li></ul>
“ First Emperor” Shih Huang Di tomb <ul><li>700,000 workers to build. </li></ul><ul><li>8,000 life-size terra-cotta armed soldiers, with horse drawn chariots. </li></ul>
Soldiers ( Army of Emp. Shi Huangdi , terra cotta, c 210 BCE, Qin Dynasty) <ul><li>Discovered in 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>6’ tall soliders </li></ul><ul><li>8000 warriors, 100 chariots, 2 bronze chariots, 30,000 weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Tomb of 1st Emperor of China </li></ul><ul><li>Shi Huangdi </li></ul><ul><li>Daoism shown in individuality </li></ul>
Soldiers ( Army of Emp. Shi Huangdi , terra cotta, c 210 BCE, Qin Dynasty) <ul><li>Soldiers were originally painted </li></ul>
“ First Emperor” Shih Huang Di (259-210 B.C.E.)
<ul><li>Royal promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Brought wealth </li></ul><ul><li>peasant farmers encouraged to own land </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily taxed </li></ul>
The Great Wall of China <ul><li>Began 3 rd cen. B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>1500 miles long </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Han dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their intellectual and cultural achievements influenced all peoples near China: Vietnam, Japan, and Korea </li></ul></ul>Tomb model of a house, eastern Han dynasty, first century, earthenware with unfired pigments
<ul><li>cartography, medicine, mathematics, astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>paper, block printing, </li></ul><ul><li>seismograph, crossbow, </li></ul><ul><li>horse collar, wheelbarrow </li></ul><ul><li>Lamp held by kneeling servant-girl. Bronze, from the tomb of Tou Wan Western Han dynasty </li></ul>
<ul><li>From the tomb of Liu Sheng at Lingshan </li></ul><ul><li>thought to protect the body form decay and assist in achieving immortality. </li></ul>.
<ul><li>Prancing horse, eastern Han dynasty second century c.e., bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Descendants of celestial horses. </li></ul>.
. Buckle ornament with dances, western Han dynasty 206-8 c.e. bronze
Seated Buddha , Stone carving, 45’ tall, 460 CE. China Shows Indian/Central Asian Buddhist iconography with large shoulders + slender body, lotus position, long ears, ushnishu, and peaceful smile.
<ul><li>Chinese Pagodas </li></ul><ul><li>Pagodas developed from Buddhist stupas; the design was brought from India via the Silk Road </li></ul><ul><li>Built for sacred purpose </li></ul>
Great Wild Goose Pagoda Ci’en Temple, Xi’an Tang dynasty, 645 CE About 210’ tall
Forbidden City - Beijing, China, Ming Dynasty (14th century), Hall of Supreme Harmony. Balance & symmetry, tradition Courtyard style emphasizing empty space with crowded spaces. Reflects Confucianism.
Forbidden City - Yellow roof tiles reserved for royalty. Red also royal color. Dragon symbols appear. Rooftops supported by duogang, used for Imperial buildings . Tang dynasty, first erected 645 CE; rebuilt mid-8th century CE
<ul><li>courtyard style residence </li></ul><ul><li>larger scale in Forbidden City </li></ul>
<ul><li>Tang (618-907 C.E.) and Song (960-1279) Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Boasted a sophisticated urban culture with city population of one million. </li></ul>
Camel Carrying a Group of Musicians Tang Dynasty, 8th century CE Earthenware w/ 3 color glaze, 26” high Fascination w/Turkic cultures .. Shows Turkish musicans with Han Chinese Naturalism - new interest and trend in painting & sculpture
Standing Court Lady, Tang dynasty, mid-seventh century. Pottery with painted decoration, height 15 1/8 in.
Horse and Rider, Tang dynasty, early eighth century. Pottery with three-color glaze and painted decoration, height 15 in.
<ul><li>Marvels of calculated simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>The intellectual elite of Tang and Song China were deeply influenced by </li></ul><ul><li>Confucian traditions . </li></ul>Ru ware, bowl in the shape of a lotus, Northern Song dynasty, twelfth century. Porcelain, height 4 in. National Palace Museum, Taiwan.
<ul><li>China, most revered of sculptured images </li></ul><ul><li>Beings who have postponed entrance into nirvana in order to assist others in attaining enlightenment </li></ul>Guanyin, tenth to early twelfth century. Wood with painted decoration
<ul><li>CALLIGRAPHY </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese calligraphy considered the highest art form. </li></ul><ul><li>Literati - Confucian scholars- practiced this art form </li></ul>
Portion of a letter by Wang Xizhi Six Dynasties period, mid 4th century CE Feng Ju style - ‘ walking” or semi cursive style fluid & graceful strokes, not too informal, but dynamic
<ul><li>A Solitary Temple Amid Clearing Peaks, </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Song Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Li Cheng (attrib.) (919-967), c. 940-967. </li></ul><ul><li>Hanging scroll, ink and slight color on silk, </li></ul><ul><li>ivory roller, 44 x 22". </li></ul><ul><li>The Tang and Song eras were a Golden Age of landscape painting. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese landscapes offer a holistic and contemplative view of nature, A feature they share with Daoism and Buddhism. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Han Gan (618–906 ce), was known for portraying not only the physical likeness of a horse but also its spirit. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Landscape paintings highly prized in Chinese art. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not represent a particular forest, mountain, or view, but an artistic construct yielding a philosophical idea </li></ul>
<ul><li>Travelers Among Mountains and Streams, </li></ul><ul><li>Fan Kaun </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Song Dynasty, 11th century CE </li></ul><ul><li>Hanging scroll, ink & colors on silk, 6’9” high </li></ul><ul><li>Subtly graded ink tones </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Song painting </li></ul>
Dwelling in the Qinghian Mountains, 1617, ink on paper, Ming Dynasty Dong Qi Chang - famous literati painter, influenced by Daoism
Jar , Ming dynasty, China 15th Century, 19”high Xuande mark (1426 - 1435) Porcelain painted in underglaze blue
<ul><li>Buddha - Siddhartha Gautama </li></ul><ul><li>(Sanskrit “Enlighten One”) </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>560-480 or 440-360 B.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Devastated by his discovery of the three “truths” of existence- sickness, old age, and death. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Sitting beneath a bo (fig) tree, he finally arrived at the full perception of reality that became the basis of his teachings. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Four Noble Truths </li></ul><ul><li>One’s spiritual Journey must </li></ul><ul><li>lead to the awareness of </li></ul><ul><li>Four Noble Truths. </li></ul><ul><li>Pain is Universal </li></ul><ul><li>Desire causes pain </li></ul><ul><li>Ceasing to desire relieves pain </li></ul><ul><li>Right conduct provides escape from pain </li></ul>
<ul><li>Xie Huan, Literary Gathering in the Apricot Garden , detail. 1437. Handscroll, ink and colors on silk, 14 3/4 x 94 3/4 in. Ming Dynasty 1368-1644. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) These scholar-gentleman played a major role in the administration of governmental affairs. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Various forms of Buddhism became very popular in Japan, especially Zen Buddhism. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese were influenced by Chinese ink scroll paintings </li></ul>
Buddhism came to Japan during early 6th century BCE, from Korea & China (Asuka Period). Adopted as state religion, yet existed side by side with Shinto, a nature based religion .
<ul><li>Monk Sewing , Kao Ninga – 14 th century </li></ul><ul><li>ordinary activities as a form of meditation. This cultural philosophy still exists. . </li></ul>Innovative wood sculpture by Kosho shows practice of Pure Land Buddhist chanting. Monks traveled around Kuya Preaching, Kosho, 1207 monk traveling around chanting.. Tiny Buddhas coming out his mouth to represent the 6 syllables of the chang
Phoenix Hall , Kyoto prefecture, Heia period, 1053 CE, example of Pure Land Buddhist temple Chinese influence in roofs and stone base. Water is part of design.
Jocho, Amida Buddha, Phoenix Hall, c 1050 CE, gold leaf and laquer on wood 9’ tall .
<ul><li>The Birth of the Novel </li></ul><ul><li>8 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Murasaki Shikibu (978-1016) </li></ul><ul><li>The author of the world’s first novel, was one of a group of female writers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tale of Genji (1000) </li></ul>
<ul><li>Niou serenades Nakanokimi (detail from the 12th century Genji Monogatari Emaki scroll). </li></ul>
Masanobu (?), Kabuki stage, ca. 1740. Colored woodblock print. <ul><li>The oldest form of Japanese theater, No` drama </li></ul><ul><li>14 th century </li></ul><ul><li>performances in song, dance, and mime. </li></ul>
Ko-omote No mask, Ashikaga period, fifteenth century. Painted wood, height approx. 10 in. <ul><li>16 th century emerges a new form of entertainment. </li></ul><ul><li>Kabuki, literally, “song-dance-art” </li></ul>
<ul><li>Fans, album leaves, and murals </li></ul><ul><li>Handscrolls on silk or cotton with dowels (meant to be unrolled and enjoyed, not hung on wall).. Read right to left. </li></ul><ul><li>Colophon - write comments or poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Hanging scrolls with main scene on front and title on top back </li></ul><ul><li>Same brushes used for painting & calligraphy </li></ul>
<ul><li>Aim of traditional painter was to capture not outer appearance but inner energy, and spirit. “DRAGON STEED” </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected color or too much background info </li></ul><ul><li>Pure line to define form, no opaque pigments “white painting ” </li></ul>
<ul><li>At 29 he renounced his wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Abandoned his family and took up the quest for enlightenment. </li></ul>