Qinto ming

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Qinto ming

  1. 1. Qin [Ch’in] Dynasty, 221-206 B.C.E. Established China’s first empire  Shi Huangdi (221-206 B.C.E) Legalist rule  Bureaucratic administration Centralized control Military expansion Book burnings  targetedConfucianists Buried protestors alive! Built large section of the Great Wall
  2. 2. Shi Huangdi’s Terra CottaArmy
  3. 3. Shi Huangdi’s Terra CottaArmy
  4. 4. Shi Huangdi’s Terra Cotta Soldiers& Cavalrymen
  5. 5. Cavalry
  6. 6. Individual Soldiers
  7. 7. The Details of an IndividualSoldier
  8. 8. Individual “Tombs”
  9. 9. The Great Wall with Towers
  10. 10. The Eastern terminus of the GreatWall, Shanhai Pass
  11. 11. Han Dynasty, 206 B.C.E.-220 C.E. “People of the Han”  original Chinese Paper invented [105 B.C.E.]  Silk Road trade develops; improves life for many Buddhism introduced into China Expanded into Central Asia
  12. 12. Han – Roman EmpireConnection
  13. 13. Chang’anThe Han Capital
  14. 14. Liu Sheng Tomb (d. 113BCE)His jade suit has 2498 pieces!
  15. 15. Emperor Wudi, 141-87B.C.E. Started public schools. Colonized Manchuria,Korea, & Vietnam. Civil service system  bureaucrats Confucian scholar-gentry Revival of Chineselandscape painting.
  16. 16. Han ArtifactsImperialImperialSealSealHan CeramicHan CeramicHouseHouse
  17. 17. Ceramics, Later Han Period
  18. 18. Trade Routes of the Ancient World
  19. 19. Multi-Cultural Faces -- PeopleAlong the Silk Road
  20. 20. Ruins of Jiaohe, Turphan depression.Han dynasty outpost in Central Asia
  21. 21. Sui Dynasty, 581-618C.E. “Land Equalization” System  landredistribution. Unified coinage. Grand Canal constructed. Established an army of professionalsoldiers. People were overworked andovertaxed!
  22. 22. The Grand Canal
  23. 23. The Grand Canal Today
  24. 24. Tang Dynasty, 618-907C.E. Imperial examination system perfected. Liberal attitude towards all religions. Spread of Buddhism in China Golden Age of foreign relations withother countries.  Japan, Korea, Persia
  25. 25. Tang GovernmentOrganization
  26. 26. Tang Dynasty, 618-907 C.E. New technologies: Printing  moveable print  Porcelain Gunpowder Mechanical clocks More cosmopolitan culture. Reestablished the safety of theSilk Road. Tea comes into China from Southeast Asia. 
  27. 27. Empress Wu Zetian, 624-705 The only female Empress in China’shistory who ruled alone.  Searched for outstanding individualsto attract to her court. Construction of new irrigationsystems. Buddhism was the favored statereligion. Financed the building of manyBuddhist temples. BUT… She appointed cruel and sadisticministers to seek out her enemies.
  28. 28. Foot-Binding in TangChinaBroken toes by 3 years of age.Size 5 ½ shoeon the right
  29. 29. Foot-Binding in TangChinaMothers bound their daughters’ feet.
  30. 30. Foot-Binding in TangChina For upper-class girls,it became a newcustom.
  31. 31. The Results of Foot-Binding
  32. 32. Song [Sung] Dynasty, 960-1279 C.E. Creation of an urban, merchant, middle class. Increased emphasis on education & cheaperavailability of printed books. Magnetic compassmakes China a greatsea power! 
  33. 33. Song Peasant Family
  34. 34. Rice Cultivation Began Under theSong
  35. 35. Song Rice Cultivation
  36. 36. Mongolian Steppes
  37. 37. Xinjiang Region – Typical Uygher[Mongol] “Yurt”
  38. 38. Mongol Invasions
  39. 39. Mongol Warriors
  40. 40. Mongol Archer
  41. 41. Gold Saddle Arch –Mongols, 13c
  42. 42. Gold Saddle, Front View –Mongols, 13c
  43. 43. The MONGOLS [“GoldenHorde”] Temujin --> Genghis Khan [“Universal Ruler”] 1162 - 1227 from the steppe [dry, grass-covered plainsof Central Asia]
  44. 44. The MONGOLS [“GoldenHorde”] Genghis Khan’s Tax Laws: If you do not pay homage,we will take your prosperity. If you do not have prosperity,we will take your children. If you do not have children,we will take your wife. If you do not have a wife,we will take your head. Used cruelty as a weapon  some areas neverrecovered from Mongol destruction!
  45. 45. Mongol Nobleman, late13c
  46. 46. Robe of a MongolNobleman, early 14c
  47. 47. Yuan Golden Bowl, 13c
  48. 48. The Extent of the MongolEmpire
  49. 49. Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty,1279-1368 C.E. Kublai Khan [r. 1260-1294] Pax Mongolica [“Mongol Peace”] Tolerated Chinese culturebut lived apart from them.  No Chinese in top govt. posts. Believed foreigner were moretrustworthy. Encouraged foreign trade &foreign merchants to live and workin China. Marco Polo
  50. 50. Marco Polo (1254-1324) A Venetian merchant. Traveled through YuanChina: 1271-1295 “Black Stones” [coal] Gunpowder. Noodles.
  51. 51. Marco Polo’s Travels
  52. 52. Yuan Porcelains & Ceramics
  53. 53. Yuan Dynasty, 1279-1368C.E. The Black Plague was spread by theMongols in the mid-14c. Sent fleets against Japan. 1281  150,000 warriors Defeated by kamikazi [“winds of the gods”]  Kublai Khan experienced severalhumiliating defeats in Southeast Asialate in his life.
  54. 54. China’s last native imperial dynasty!
  55. 55. The Forbidden City: China’sNew Capital
  56. 56. Revived the Civil Service Exam
  57. 57. Ming Cultural Revolution Printing & Literacy Cheap, popular books: woodblock printing. cheap paper. Examination system. Leads to explosion inliteracy.  Leads to furtherpopularization of thecommercial market. Culture & Art Increased literacyleads to increasedinterest in culturalexpressions, ideas,and things: Literature. Painting. Ceramics. Opera.
  58. 58. Ming Silver Market Spanish Silver Convoys Triangle route: Philippines to China to Japan. Silver floods Chinese Market: Causes devaluation of currency & recession Adds to reasons for Chinese immigration overseas. Reduces price of Chinese goods in Europe Increases interest in Chinese culture & ideas inEurope. Helps fund conquest of New World  Encourages Europeans in conquest & trade.
  59. 59. Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644C.E. Golden Age of Chinese Art Moderation Softness Gracefulness Three different schools ofpainting developed. Hundreds of thousands ofworkers constructed theForbidden City.
  60. 60. Ming Emperor Tai Zu (r.1368-1398)
  61. 61. The Tribute System
  62. 62. Admiral Zheng He (ChengHo) Ming “Treasure Fleet” Each ship 400’ long & 160’ wide1371-1435
  63. 63. Admiral Zheng He (ChengHo) China’s “Columbus?” 
  64. 64. Admiral Zheng He’sVoyages First Voyage: 1405-1407 [62 ships; 27,800 men]. Second Voyage: 1407-1409 [Ho didn’t go on this trip]. Third Voyage: 1409-1411 [48 ships; 30,000 men]. Fourth Voyage: 1413-1415 [63 ships; 28,500 men]. Fifth Voyage: 1417-1419 Sixth Voyage: 1421-1422 Emperor Zhu Gaozhi cancelled future trips and ordered shipbuilders and sailors to stop work. Seventh Voyage: 1431-1433 Emperor Zhu Zhanji resumed the voyages in 1430 to restorepeaceful relations with Malacca & Siam 100 ships and 27,500 men; Cheng Ho died on the returntrip.
  65. 65.  1498 --> Da Gama reached Calcutta, China’s favorite port.
  66. 66. Ming Porcelain / Ceramics,17c–18c
  67. 67. Ming Vases, 18c
  68. 68. Ming Carved Lacquer Dish15c
  69. 69. Ming Scroll Painting“Travellers in AutumnMountains”
  70. 70. Ming Painting – “TaoistScholar”
  71. 71. Ming Painting – “Birds andFlowers”, 16c
  72. 72. Ming Painting andCalligraphy, early 16c
  73. 73. Imperial China’s Impact onHistory Removed religion from morality. Beginnings of political philosophythrough which a ruler must provehe/she is legitimate. Mandate of Heaven Secular law. Valued history  The Dynastic Cycle

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