In the decades after 1850, the industrial technologies of steam power, coal, and iron brought the west into a position of dominance over the less industrialized parts of the world. Global Dominion of the West Advancing Industrialism Provided the economic and military basis for the West’s rise to dominion over the rest of the world. This process is well illustrated in the history of the railroad, the most important technological phenomenon of the early 19 th century because it facilitated economic and political expansion. Colonialism and the New Imperialism The history of European expansion into Asia, Africa, and other parts of the globe dates back at least to the Renaissance. Between 1500 – 1800, Europeans established trading outposts in Africa, China, and India. The most dramatic example of the new imperialism was in Africa. In 1880, Europeans nations controlled only 10 percent of the continent,but by 1900 all of Africa, save Ethiopia and Liberia, had been carved up b y European powers, who introduced new models of political and economic authority, often with little regard for native populations. Marx and Engels In the Communist Manifesto , Marx and Engels prophesized that a revolution would make the proletariat the new ruling class. Nietzsche’s New Morality(Thus Spoke Zarathustra) Nietzsche called for a new morality that privileged the “superman.”
This painting presents a somewhat romanticized view of the laboring classes. Economic unrest prevailed not only in the cities but in rural areas. In late -19 th century France, the population was 2/3 rural, largely poor, and often reduced to back breaking labor. Wealthy landowners in some parts of Europe treated their agricultural laborers as slaves. In American, until after the Civil War (1861-1865), most of those who worked the great Southern plantations were, in fact, African-American Slaves.
Marx- agreed with the socialists that bourgeois capitalism corrupted humanity, but his theory of social reform was even more radical. For it preached violent revolution that would both destroy the old order and usher in a new society. Marx began his career by studying law and philosophy at the University of Berlin. Moving to Paris he became a lifelong friend of the social scientist and journalist Fredrich Engles. Shared a similar critical attitude in respect of the effects of European industrial capitalism. A short treatise published as the platform of a workers’ association called the Communist League. Is a sweeping condemnation of the effects of capitalism on the individual and society at large. It argues that capitalism concentrates wealth in the hands of the few, providing great luxuries for some while creating an oppressed and impoverished proletariat (working class) The Communist Manifesto begins thus :- A spectre is haunting Europe -- the spectre of communism. All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Pope and Tsar, Metternich and Guizot, French Radicals and German police-spies. Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as communistic by its opponents in power? Where is the opposition that has not hurled back the branding reproach of communism, against the more advanced opposition parties, as well as against its reactionary adversaries? Two things result from this fact: I. Communism is already acknowledged by all European powers to be itself a power. II. It is high time that Communists should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish their views, their aims, their tendencies, and meet this nursery tale of the spectre of communism with a manifesto of the party itself. To this end, Communists of various nationalities have assembled in London and sketched the following manifesto, to be published in the English, French, German, Italian, Flemish and Danish languages. Nietzsche’s New Morality Nietzsche called for a new morality that privileged the “superman.”
She was a social realist and a feminist whose early prints illustrate peasant rebellions and mass protests. Among these movements for economic and social reform, one of the most idealistic was socialism . Socialism attacked capitalism as unjust; it called for the common ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution in the interest of the public good. Society, according to the socialists, should operate entirely in the interest of the people.
Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz (July 8, 1867 – April 22, 1945) was a German painter , printmaker , and sculptor whose work offered an eloquent and often searing account of the human condition in the first half of the 20th century. Her empathy for the less fortunate, expressed most famously through the graphic means of drawing , etching , lithography , and woodcut , embraced the victims of poverty, hunger, and war.   Initially her work was grounded in Naturalism , and later took on Expressionistic qualities.  Kollwitz lost her youngest son Peter on the battlefield in World War I in October 1914, prompting a prolonged depression. By the end of the year she had made drawings for a monument to Peter and his fallen comrades; she destroyed the monument in 1919 and began again in 1925.  The memorial, titled The Grieving Parents , was finally completed and placed in the Belgian cemetery of Roggevelde in 1932.  Later, when Peter's grave was moved to the nearby Vladslo German war cemetery , the statues were also moved.
Charles Dickens (1812-1870), Oliver Twist (slums and orphanages) 1838, Oliver Twist : Please Sir, I want some more. Noah Claypole : Workhouse, what's your mother? Oliver Twist : She's dead. Noah Claypole : What she die of workhouse? Oliver Twist : They said she died of a broken heart. Nickolas Nickleby (rural schools) 1839, David Copperfield (debtor’s prison) 1850, &quot;You'll find us rough, sir, but you'll find us ready.“, &quot;I am a lone lorn creetur and everythink goes contrairy with me.“ &quot;I'd better to into the house, and die and be a riddance!“, - Charles Dickens, David Copperfield , Ch. 3 The most popular English novelist of his time, He came from a poor family who provided him with little formal education, his early experiences supplied some of the themes for his most famous novels. His novels are frequently theatrical, his characters may be drawn to the point of caricature, and his themes often suggest a sentimental faith in kindness and good cheer as the best antidotes to the bitterness of contemporary life. Mark Twain ( 1835-1910) (Longhorn Clemens), The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (rural farmlands/ Mississippi river) 1884, It was fifteen minutes before I could work myself up to go and humble myself to a nigger; but I done it, and I warn't ever sorry for it afterwards, neither. I didn't do him no more mean tricks, and I wouldn't done that one if I'd a knowed it would make him feel that way. (15.49) The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (boy and runaway slave/American south just prior to the Civil War) 1876, Quote 15: &quot;'Say--boys, don't say anything about it, and some time when they're around, I'll come up to you and say, &quot;Joe, got a pipe? I want a smoke.&quot; And you'll say, kind of careless like, as if it warn't anything, you'll say, &quot;Yes, I got my old pipe, and another one, but my tobacker ain't very good.&quot; And I'll say, &quot;Oh, that's all right, if it's strong enough.&quot; And then you'll out with the pipes, and we'll light up just as ca'm, and just see 'em look!'&quot; Chapter 16, pg. 102 Twain shared Dickens’ sensitivity to pictorial detail, but he brought to his writing a unique blend of humor and irony. As humorist journalism and social critic, Twain offered his contemporaries a blend of entertainment and vivid insight into the dynamics of a unique time and place, the American South just prior to the Civil War.
Tolstoy, Renounced his wealth and property and went to live and work among the peasants Both men were born and bred in wealth, but both turned against upper-class Russian society and sympathized with the plight of her lower classes. Tolstoy ultimately renounced his wealth and property and went to live and work among the peasants, his historical novel war and peace often hailed as the greatest example of realistic Russian fiction traces the progress of five families whose destinies unroll against the background of napoleon’s invasion of Russian in 1812. in this sprawling narrative, as in many of his other novels , he exposes the privileged position of the nobility and the cruel exploitation of the great masses of Russian people. “ Nothing is so necessary for a young man as the company of intelligent women.” “If everyone fought for their own convictions there would be no war.” “Pierre was right when he said that one must believe in the possibility of happiness in order to be happy, and I now believe in it. Let the dead bury the dead, but while I'm alive, I must live and be happy.” ― Leo Tolstoy , War and Peace Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881), Crime and Punishment (1866), The Brothers Karamazov (1880) Flaubert, Especially as they were affected by social conventions and personal values. Such heroines did not create the world in their own image; rather the world-or more specifically the social and economic environment – molded them and governed their destinies. Tells the story of a woman who is afflicted by the boredom of her mundane existence, educated in a convent and married to a dull small town physician, she tries to live out the fantasies that fill the pages of romance novels; but all of her efforts to escape her circumstance lead ultimately to her destruction. Critics – “the inventor of the modern novel” &quot;in accordance with theories she considered sound, she tried to physic herself with love. By moonlight, in the garden, she recited all the love poetry she knew and sighed and sang of love's sweet melancholy. But afterwards she found herself not a whit less calm, and Charles not a whit more amorous or emotional.&quot; - Gustave Flaubert, Madame Bovary , Ch. 7 &quot;for her, life was as cold as an attic with a window looking to the north, and ennui, like a spider, was silently spinning its shadowy web in every cranny of her heart.&quot; - Gustave Flaubert, Madame Bovary , Ch. 7
Zola – Naturalist fiction was based on the premise that live should be represented objectively and without embellishment or idealization. I am little concerned with beauty or perfection. I don't care for the great centuries. All I care about is life, struggle, intensity.&quot; &quot;If you shut up truth, and bury it underground, it will but grow.&quot; Art is a corner of creation seen through a temperament. Perfection is such a nuisance that I often regret having cured myself of using tobacco. &quot;If I cannot overwhelm with my quality, I will overwhelm with my quantity.“ Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) A Doll’s House (1879) Traces the awakening of a middle-class women to the meaninglessness of her role as “a doll-wife” living in a “doll’s house”. A moralist and a student of human behavior, Ibsen rebelled against the artificial social conventions that led people to pursue self-deluding and hypocritical lives. He shocked the public by writing prose dramas that addressed such controversial subjects as insanity, incest, and venereal disease. At the same time, he explored universal themes of conflict between the individual and society between love and duty, and between husband and wife. Home life ceases to be free and beautiful as soon as it is founded on borrowing and debt. HENRIK IBSEN, A Doll's House
M 19th Century more skeletal architecture. Land values soared, so buildings went UP (skyscrapers, etc.) Eiffel specialized in railway bridges Eiffel Tower , 1887-1889, Gustave Eiffel Centerpiece of 1889 Paris Universal Exposition Innovative elevator swings up diagonally Also helped with Statue of Liberty and Panama Canal! Artist: Gustave Eiffel Title: Eiffel tower Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: 1887–89 Source/ Museum: Paris any buildings (Crystal Palace) had skeleton holding up a exterior curtain of glass or steel.
Influence of Medici palaces from Renaissance Heavy Romanesque arches Iron columns for interior supports (Skeletal construction) Interior arranged around a central court Feminine department store + masculine warehouse look Few historical illusions Chicago School of architecture formed after Great Fire Artist: Henry Hobson Richardson Title: Marshall Field Wholesale Store Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: 1885–87 Demolished c. 1935 Source/ Museum: Chicago
Otis invented elevator, which allowed high buildings Prototype of modern office building Accent on horizontal thrust Exterior: decorative terra cotta tiles “ Form follows function” was his motto, now very famous in architecture Artist: Louis Sullivan (Frank Lloyd Wright’s teacher/boss) Title: Wainwright Building Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: 1890–91 Source/ Museum: n/a
His staff testify to the importance of the photographer as a chronicler of human life. Today is the 150th anniversary of the start of the American Civil War, which began with the attack on Fort Sumter in South Carolina. Although the phrase “the first modern war” is applied to other conflicts, namely the Crimean War (which was the first reported in the British press), the American Civil War was the first truly mechanised war, the first in which use of railways, telegraph, mines, iron ships and rifles were used, not to mention a submarine. Because of this it was also exceptionally horrific, one of the bloodiest in history. And it was also the first conflict to be widely photographed: there are a handful of images from Crimea, but over a million prints were made of the “War Between The States” (many of which ended up being used as glass in greenhouses). It was also the first war in which journalists and photographers staged images, many of the gory post-battle shots being altered, with snappers moving bodies around to make it look more dramatic.
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, Cold Harbor, Va.; photograph by Mathew Brady, 1864.
French, Minimizes any display of pomp and ceremony. He banished from his view all sentimentality and artifice. Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. The Realist movement bridged the Romantic movement (characterized by the paintings of Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix ), with the Barbizon School and the Impressionists . Courbet occupies an important place in 19th century French painting as an innovator and as an artist willing to make bold social commentary in his work. A Burial at Ornans . The Burial , one of Courbet's most important works, records the funeral of his grandfather  which he attended in September 1848. People who attended the funeral were the models for the painting. Previously, models had been used as actors in historical narratives, but in Burial Courbet said he &quot;painted the very people who had been present at the interment, all the townspeople&quot;. The result is a realistic presentation of them, and of life in Ornans.The vast painting—it measures 10 by 22 feet (3.1 by 6.6 meters)—drew both praise and fierce denunciations from critics and the public, in part because it upset convention by depicting a prosaic ritual on a scale which previously would have been reserved for a religious or royal subject.According to art historian Sarah Faunce, &quot;In Paris the Burial was judged as a work that had thrust itself into the grand tradition of history painting, like an upstart in dirty boots crashing a genteel party, and in terms of that tradition it was of course found wanting.&quot;  The painting lacks the sentimental rhetoric that was expected in a genre work : Courbet's mourners make no theatrical gestures of grief, and their faces seemed more caricatured than ennobled. The critics accused Courbet of a deliberate pursuit of ugliness.  Eventually, the public grew more interested in the new Realist approach, and the lavish, decadent fantasy of Romanticism lost popularity. The artist well understood the importance of the painting. Courbet said of it, &quot; The Burial at Ornans was in reality the burial of Romanticism. &quot; Courbet became a celebrity, and was spoken of as a genius, a &quot;terrible socialist&quot; and a &quot;savage&quot;.  He actively encouraged the public's perception of him as an unschooled peasant, while his ambition, his bold pronouncements to journalists, and his insistence on depicting his own life in his art gave him a reputation for unbridled vanity.  Courbet associated his ideas of realism in art with political anarchism , and, having gained an audience, he promoted democratic and socialist ideas by writing politically motivated essays and dissertations. His familiar visage was the object of frequent caricature in the popular French press.
Working class – proletariat. Jean-François Millet (October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France . Millet is noted for his scenes of peasant farmers; he can be categorized as part of the naturalism and realism movements. The Gleaners Main article: The Gleaners The Gleaners , 1857. Musée d'Orsay , Paris. This is one of the most well known of Millet's paintings, The Gleaners (1857). Walking the fields around Barbizon one theme returned to Millet's pencil and brush for seven years—gleaning—the centuries old right of poor women and children to remove the bits of grain left in the fields following the harvest. He found the theme an eternal one, linked to stories from the Old Testament. In 1857, he submitted the painting The Gleaners to the Salon to an unenthusiastic, even hostile, public. (Earlier versions include a vertical composition painted in 1854, an etching of 1855-56 which directly presaged the horizontal format of the painting now in the Musée d'Orsay.  ) A warm golden light suggests something sacred and eternal in this daily scene where the struggle to survive takes place. During his years of preparatory studies Millet contemplated how to best convey the sense of repetition and fatigue in the peasants' daily lives. Lines traced over each woman’s back lead to the ground and then back up in a repetitive motion identical to their unending, backbreaking labor. Along the horizon, the setting sun silhouettes the farm with its abundant stacks of grain, in contrast to the large shadowy figures in the foreground. The dark homespun dresses of the gleaners cut robust forms against the golden field, giving each woman a noble, monumental strength.
The subject of sheep shearing occupied Millet for much of the 1850s. This composition is similar to that of a painting in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, which Millet exhibited at the Salon of 1853. He produced several other drawings on this theme, a second painting, and a watercolor that was delivered to his friend and biographer Alfred Sensier in 1857. Finally, he adapted the design in a painting exhibited at the Salon of 1861.
Left the world a detailed record of the social life of his time. Honoré Daumier (February 26, 1808 – February 10, 1879) was a French printmaker , caricaturist , painter , and sculptor , whose many works offer commentary on social and political life in France in the 19th century. A prolific draftsman who produced over 4000 lithographs , 1000 wood engravings, 1000 drawings, 100 sculptures he was perhaps best known for his caricatures of political figures and satires on the behavior of his countrymen, although posthumously the value of his painting has also been recognized. 
His caricature of the king as Gargantua led to Daumier's imprisonment for six months at Ste Pelagie in 1832.
Daumier, who had served a prison term for a cartoon of 1831 depicting King Louis-Philippe as Rabelais' Gargantua, made this lithograph for the January 9, 1834, issue of La Caricature , a political weekly begun by Charles Philipon in 1830 and closed by the government in 1835. Daumier, one of the nineteenth century's great caricaturists, was prolific as a pointed political satirist until complete censorship of such subjects was imposed by the government in 1835. In this lithograph, he ridiculed the conservative members of the Chamber of Deputies—all recognizable to his contemporaries—for their arrogance and corruption, depicting them as bloated and dozing. Daumier's publisher Charles Philipon covered the costs of the censor's fines against his politically charged periodicals by issuing such prints as part of the subscription series L'Association Mensuelle .
This lithograph, published in Association Mensuelle, illustrates an event that occurred during the riots of April 1834, when government troops opened fire on the inhabitants of a building. Daumier scrutinized French politics with such grim, inextinguishable hope that his cartoons symbolize any crisis anywhere. His vision of a timeless nightmare, skeletons on the march toward the offices of the war council, shocked the censors into prohibiting the publication of this print. Thus, while Daumier's caricatures generally circulated in large numbers, there exists only one of the Council of War .
During the reign of Louis Philippe , Charles Philipon launched the comic journal, La Caricature , Daumier joined its staff, which included such powerful artists as Devéria , Raffet and Grandville , and started upon his pictorial campaign of satire, targeting the foibles of the bourgeoisie , the corruption of the law and the incompetence of a blundering government .
As a chronicler of modern urban life, Daumier captured the effects of industrialization in mid-nineteenth-century Paris. Images of railway travel first appeared in his art in the 1840s. This Third-Class Carriage in oil, unfinished and squared for transfer, closely corresponds to a watercolor of 1864 (Walters Art Museum, Baltimore). Daumier executed another oil version of the subject, which he finished but extensively reworked (National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa).
When Rosa Bonheur exhibited The Horse Fair at the Salon of 1853, her reputation as an artist had been fairly well established by the paintings, drawings, and sculpture she had shown at the annual Salons since 1841, but few of her works attained the dash and grandeur of The Horse Fair , and none received the same acclaim. Vastly admired on the Continent, where it was exhibited in Paris, Ghent, and Bordeaux, the painting was subsequently shown in England and the United States. It has become one of the Metropolitan Museum's best known works of art. Bonheur began work on The Horse Fair in 1852. For a year and a half, she made sketches twice a week at the horse market in Paris, on the boulevard de l'Hôpital, dressing as a man in order to attract less attention from the horse dealers and buyers. The picture shows with accuracy the trees lining the boulevard and the cupola of the Hôpital de la Salpêtrière nearby.
Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins (July 25, 1844 – June 25, 1916) was an American realist painter , photographer , sculptor , and fine arts educator. He is widely acknowledged to be one of the most important artists in American art history.   For the length of his professional career, from the early 1870s until his health began to fail some 40 years later, Eakins worked exactingly from life, choosing as his subject the people of his hometown of Philadelphia . He painted several hundred portraits , usually of friends, family members, or prominent people in the arts, sciences, medicine, and clergy. Taken en masse , the portraits offer an overview of the intellectual life of Philadelphia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; individually, they are incisive depictions of thinking persons. As well, Eakins produced a number of large paintings which brought the portrait out of the drawing room and into the offices, streets, parks, rivers, arenas, and surgical amphitheaters of his city. These active outdoor venues allowed him to paint the subject which most inspired him: the nude or lightly clad figure in motion. In the process he could model the forms of the body in full sunlight, and create images of deep space utilizing his studies in perspective. No less important in Eakins' life was his work as a teacher. As an instructor he was a highly influential presence in American art . The difficulties which beset him as an artist seeking to paint the portrait and figure realistically were paralleled and even amplified in his career as an educator, where behavioral and sexual scandals truncated his success and damaged his reputation. In the spring of 1889 the University of Pennsylvania Medical Class of 1889 commissioned Thomas Eakins to paint a portrait of D. Hayes Agnew , who was retiring as professor that year. Eakins made the decision not to do a conventional portrait of Dr. Agnew, but instead to create a work along the lines of &quot;The Gross Clinic,&quot; painted by Eakins fourteen years for the alumni of Jefferson Medical College. Both &quot;The Agnew Clinic&quot; and &quot;The Gross Clinic&quot; present portraits of an esteemed doctor and professor as he performs surgery for medical students in a amphitheater . In 1875 Eakins depicted Dr. Samuel Gross performing surgery for students at Thomas Jefferson Medical College, while in 1889 the artist portrayed Dr. Agnew performing a mastectomy for students in the University of Pennsylvania's Medical Department. During the intervening period between these two paintings, however, Joseph Lister's discoveries had led to the promotion of antiseptic surgery by Agnew and others, which contributed to clear artistic differences between the two paintings. Whereas Dr. Gross had performed surgery in his street clothes with minor help from his assistants, by 1889 Eakins depicted Agnew and his team of doctors as wearing clean white gowns, using sterilized instruments in a covered case, and benefiting from the services of a nurse. The emphasis on hygiene led to the lighter colors used in the Agnew Clinic painting, and the greater involvement of assisting medical staff influenced the switch from the vertical format of the Gross Clinic painting to a horizontal format for the Agnew Clinic canvas
In the decade following the Civil War, rowing became one of America’s most popular spectator sports. When its champions, the Biglin brothers of New York, visited Philadelphia in the early 1870s, Thomas Eakins made numerous paintings and drawings of them and other racers. Here, the bank of the Schuylkill River divides the composition in two. The boatmen and the entering prow of a competing craft fill the lower half with their immediate, large-scale presence. The upper and distant half contains a four-man rowing crew, crowds on the shore, and spectators following in flagdecked steamboats. Himself an amateur oarsman and a friend of the Biglins, Eakins portrays John with his blade still feathered, almost at the end of his return motion. Barney, a split-second ahead in his stroke, watches for his younger brother’s oar to bite the water. Both ends of the Biglins’ pair-oared boat project beyond the picture’s edges, generating a sense of urgency, as does the other prow jutting suddenly into view.
While realistic in execution the painting may be interpreted as a romantic metaphor for the isolation and plight of black American in the decades following the Civil War. Winslow Homer (February 24, 1836 – September 29, 1910) was an American landscape painter and printmaker , best known for his marine subjects. He is considered one of the foremost painters in 19th century America and a preeminent figure in American art. Largely self-taught, Homer began his career working as a commercial illustrator .  He subsequently took up oil painting and produced major studio works characterized by the weight and density he exploited from the medium. He also worked extensively in watercolor , creating a fluid and prolific oeuvre, primarily chronicling his working vacations.  
Early work was before Impressionists- fully supported their aims worked closely w/ Monet- born into ranks of Parisian bourgeoisie credo: “Painter of modern life” believed that success as an artist only obtained through recognition at the Salon Édouard Manet (French pronunciation: [edwaʁ manɛ] ; 23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter. One of the first 19th-century artists to approach modern-life subjects, he was a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism . Édouard Manet—the eldest son of an official in the French Ministry of Justice—had early hopes of becoming a naval officer. After twice failing the training school's entrance exam, the teenager instead went to Paris to pursue a career in the arts. There he studied with Thomas Couture and diligently copied works at the Musée du Louvre. The biennial (and later, annual) Parisian Salons were considered the most expedient way for an artist to make himself known to the public, and Manet submitted paintings to Salon juries throughout his career. In 1861, at the age of twenty-nine, he was awarded the Salon's honorable mention for The Spanish Singer ( 49.58.2 ). His hopes for continued early success were dashed at the subsequent Salon of 1863. That year, more than half of the submissions to the official Salon were rejected, including Manet's own. To staunch public outcry, Napoleon III ordered the formation of a Salon des Refusés. Manet exhibited three paintings, including the scandalous Déjeuner sur l'herbe (Musée d'Orsay, Paris). The public professed to be shocked by the subject of a nude woman blithely enjoying a picnic in the company of two fully clothed men, while a second, scantily clad woman bathes in a stream. While critics recognized that this scene of modern-day debauchery was, to a certain degree, an updated version of Titian's Concert champêtre (a work then thought to be by Giorgione; Musée du Louvre, Paris), they ruthlessly attacked Manet's painting style.
Figures are not modeled. Very flat, not relating with each other. His early masterworks, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) and Olympia , engendered great controversy and served as rallying points for the young painters who would create Impressionism. Today, these are considered watershed paintings that mark the genesis of modern art . In 1863, Manet shocked the French public by exhibiting his Déjeuner sur l'herbe (&quot;Luncheon on the Grass&quot;). It is not a realist painting in the social or political sense of Daumier , but it is a statement in favor of the artist's individual freedom. The shock value of a woman, naked as can be, casually lunching with two fully dressed men, which was an affront to the propriety of the time, was accentuated by the familiarity of the figures. Manet's wife, Suzanne Leenhoff , and his favorite model , Victorine Meurent , both posed for the nude woman, which has Meurent's face, but Leenhoff's plumper body. [ citation needed ] Her body is starkly lit and she stares directly at the viewer. The two men are Manet's brother Eugène Manet and his future brother-in-law, Ferdinand Leenhoff . They are dressed like young dandies . The men seem to be engaged in conversation, ignoring the woman. In front of them, the woman's clothes, a basket of fruit, and a round loaf of bread are displayed, as in a still life . In the background a lightly clad woman bathes in a stream. Too large in comparison with the figures in the foreground, she seems to float above them. The roughly painted background lacks depth – giving the viewer the impression that the scene is not taking place outdoors, but in a studio. This impression is reinforced by the use of broad &quot;photographic&quot; light, which casts almost no shadows: in fact, the lighting of the scene is inconsistent and unnatural. The man on the right wears a flat hat with a tassel, of a kind normally worn indoors. Despite the mundane subject, Manet deliberately chose a large canvas size, normally reserved for grander subjects. The style of the painting breaks with the academic traditions of the time. He did not try to hide the brush strokes: indeed, the painting looks unfinished in some parts of the scene. The nude is a far cry from the smooth, flawless figures of Cabanel or Ingres . Artist: Édouard Manet Title: Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (The Luncheon on the Grass) Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 7' X 8'8&quot; (2.13 X 2.64 m) Date: 1863 Source/ Museum: Musée d’Orsay, Paris modern version of the Pastoral Concert by Titian(or Giorgione?)
Though Manet's The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) sparked controversy in 1863, his Olympia stirred an even bigger uproar when it was first exhibited at the 1865 Paris Salon . Conservatives condemned the work as &quot;immoral&quot; and &quot;vulgar.&quot; Journalist Antonin Proust later recalled, &quot;If the canvas of the Olympia was not destroyed, it is only because of the precautions that were taken by the administration.&quot; However, the work had proponents as well. Émile Zola quickly proclaimed it Manet's &quot;masterpiece&quot; and added, &quot;When other artists correct nature by painting Venus they lie. Manet asked himself why he should lie. Why not tell the truth?&quot; Artist: Édouard Manet Title: Olympia Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 4'3&quot; X 6'2 ¼&quot; (1.31 X1.91 m) Date: 1863 Source/ Museum: Musée du Louvre, Paris Play by Alexandre Dumas about social climbing prostitute with same name. Manet began to gather with other rejects (refuses) in Montmartre.
Artist: Édouard Manet Title: A Bar at the Folies-Bergère Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 37 ¾ X 51 ¼&quot; (95.9 X 130 cm) Date: 1881–82 Source/ Museum: Courtauld Institute of Art Gallery, London. (P.1934.SC.234) Barmaid stares out at us. What is the mirror reflecting? Trapeze in upper far left corner Composition pushes goods for sale up to the counter Modern sales technique of products next to a pretty sales girl
which was singled out for criticism by Louis Leroy upon its exhibition. The hallmark of the style is the attempt to capture the subjective impression of light in a scene. Impressionism was a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s. The name of the style is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, soleil levant ( Impression, Sunrise ), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satiric review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari . Characteristics of Impressionist paintings include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes; open composition ; emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time); common, ordinary subject matter; the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience; and unusual visual angles. The development of Impressionism in the visual arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media which became known as Impressionist music and Impressionist literature . The term &quot;Impressionism&quot; can also be used to describe art created in this style, but not during the late 19th century
Claude Monet (French pronunciation: [klod mɔnɛ] ), born Oscar Claude Monet (14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926), was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting .   The term Impressionism is derived from the title of his painting Impression, Sunrise ( Impression, soleil levant ). Artist: Claude Monet Title: Rouen Cathedral: The Portal (in Sun) Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 39 ¼ X 26&quot; (99.7 X 66 cm) Date: 1894 Source/ Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Theodore M. Davis Collection, Bequest of Theodore M. Davis, 1915 (30.95.250)
Monet did a series of large canvases on water lilies. He frequently painted his house at Giverny with the gardens and Japanese bridge.
Narrative: photographic effect and aura of spontaneity. Handling of paint : loose and rapid thick “impasto” Light and shadow : fleeting effects of sunlight falls in patches, dappling the surface
Artist: Pierre-Auguste Renoir Title: Moulin de la Galette Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 4'3½&quot; X 5'9&quot; (1.31 X 1.75 m) Date: 1876 Source/ Museum: Musée d’Orsay, Paris People not posed, enjoying meals and dancing
Worked mostly indoors (not plein air) Asymmetrical compositions Feathery brushstrokes showing the dancers’ costumes Artist: Edgar Degas Title: The Rehearsal on Stage Medium: Pastel over brush-and-ink drawing on thin, cream-colored wove paper, laid on bristol board, mounted on canvas Size: 21 ⅜ X 28¾&quot; (54.3 X 73 cm) Date: c. 1874 Source/ Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Gift of Horace Havemeyer, 1929 (29.160.26)
Friend of Degas & Renoir, Naturalism, innocence of children
Cassatt did a series of paintings and pastel drawings on the theme of mother and child.
tilted style, outlining, pattern, and treatment of space.
Shows her sister at the opera Artist: Mary Cassatt Title: Woman in a Loge Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 31 ⅝ X 23&quot; (80.3 X 58.4 cm) Date: 1879 Source/ Museum: Philadelphia Museum of Art. Bequest of Charlotte Dorrance Wright
Sketchy, painterly brushwork Artist: Berthe Morisot Title: Summer’s Day Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 17 13⁄16 X 29 5⁄16&quot; (45.7 X 75.2 cm) Date: 1879 Source/ Museum: The National Gallery, London. Lane Bequest, 1917
Atmospheric effect of fireworks, study in harmony of color, shape, light Whistler successfully sued a critic over negative comments James McNeill Whistler (1834–1903) James McNeill Whistler participated in the artistic ferment of Paris and London in the late nineteenth century, crafted a distinctive style from diverse sources, and arrived at a version of Post-Impressionism in the mid-1860s, a time when most of his contemporaries in the avant-garde were still exploring Realism and Impressionism . Born in Lowell, Massachusetts, Whistler spent part of his youth in Saint Petersburg , Russia, where his father, a civil engineer, advised on the construction of the railroad to Moscow and Whistler took drawing classes at the Imperial Academy of Sciences. Upon his return home, Whistler entered the United States Military Academy at West Point. He studied drawing with Robert W. Weir but had less success in other subjects; his failure in chemistry led to his dismissal from the academy in 1854. After working in the drawings division of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, where he received his first training in etching , Whistler—already fluent in French from his childhood years in Russia—decided to pursue a career as an artist by going to Paris to study.
Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910 to describe the development of French art since Manet . Fry used the term when he organized the 1910 exhibition Manet and Post-Impressionism . Post-Impressionists extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations: they continued using vivid colours, thick application of paint, distinctive brush strokes, and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour.
strongly based on system of rules mathematical precision color theory Very different from Impressionism’s informal, seemingly accidental quality
Used perspective by juxtaposing warm colors and receding cool colors Solid and firmly constructed, not dappled momentary glimpse like the Impressionists did (Post Impressionism Artist: Paul Cézanne Title: Mont Sainte-Victoire Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 25 ½ X 32&quot; (64.8 X 92.3 cm) Date: c. 1885–87 Source/ Museum: Courtauld Institute of Art Gallery, London. (P.1934.SC.55)
Thick short brushstrokes, impasto paint Artist: Vincent van Gogh Title: The Starry Night Medium: Oil on canvas At one with forces of nature Left to right wave impulse in his work, tree looks like green flames reaching to the sky exploding with stars Size: 28 ¾ X 36 ¼&quot; (73 X 93 cm) Date: 1889 Source/ Museum: The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest (472.1941)
Gauguin traveled to Tahiti in search of paradise, Exotic primitivism, Symbolic, mysterious,Color to express emotion Artist: Paul Gauguin Title: Mahana No Atua (Day of the God) Medium: Oil on canvas Size: 27 ⅜ X 35 ⅝ &quot; (69.5 X 90.5 cm) Date: 1894 Source/ Museum: The Art Institute of Chicago. Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection (1926.198)
Physically handicapped, short man Influence of Degas Influence of Japanese prints Artist: Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Title: Jane Avril Medium: Lithograph Size: 50 ½ X 37&quot; (129 X 94 cm) Date: 1893 Source/ Museum: San Diego Museum of Art. Gift of the Baldwin M. Baldwin Foundation (1987.32) Emphasis on curving lines, text integrated with the forms in the picture.
Influence of Japanese prints
The son of an inspector in the Paris Préfecture de Police and a former seamstress, Auguste Rodin grew up in a working-class district of Paris known as the Mouffetard. His early instruction was provided by the &quot;Petit École&quot; (the École Impériale Spéciale de Dessin et de Mathématiques), a school for the training of decorative artists, where he acquired a thorough grounding in the traditions of French eighteenth-century art, and by informal studies of anatomical structure under the tutelage of Antoine-Louis Barye, the French Romantic sculptor, best known for his animal subjects. Refused entrance to the prestigious École des Beaux-Arts, Rodin escaped the rigid Neoclassical training that still dominated its curriculum in the mid-1850s, but forfeited the early success that École graduates were ordinarily assured. Instead, Rodin served a long and difficult apprenticeship. For many years, he was employed as a modeler in the Paris studio of the highly successful and prolific sculptor Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse (1824–1887), and later, during the economic chaos that followed the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, he followed Carrier-Belleuse to Belgium, where he continued as an assistant in the sculptor's temporarily transplanted studio. There he became a partner of the Belgian Antoine (Joseph) Van Rasbourgh in the execution of monumental stone sculptures that included the allegorical groups of Africa and Asia for the Brussels Bourse.
19th Century more skeletal architecture. Land values soared, so buildings went UP (skyscrapers, etc.) Eiffel specialized in railway bridges Eiffel Tower , 1887-1889, Gustave Eiffel Centerpiece of 1889 Paris Universal Exposition Innovative elevator swings up diagonally Also helped with Statue of Liberty and Panama Canal! Artist: Gustave Eiffel Title: Eiffel tower Medium: n/a Size: n/a Date: 1887–89 Source/ Museum: Paris
Chapter 13 materialism
The Industrial Era and the Urban Scene <ul><li>In the decades after 1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Two major art movements realism and Impressionism. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Beginning in 1848, the lower classes protested against bad conditions with sporadic urban revolts. </li></ul>Jean-François Millet, Gleaners , 1857. Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 9" x 3' 8". Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC REALITIES
<ul><li>Marx and Engels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Communist Manifesto (1848) , Marx and Engels prophesized that a revolution would make the proletariat the new ruling class. </li></ul></ul>
Käthe Kollwitz (1867-–1945) <ul><li>Between 1855-1861, there were almost 500 peasant uprisings across Europe. </li></ul>
Käthe Kollwitz (1867–1945), Death and the Mother , 1934. Lithograph, 20 1/8" x 14 5/8" Kathe Kollwitz, Widows and Orphans (1919) KATHE KOLLWITZ The People , Woodcut (1922-23)
Russian Realism <ul><li>Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War and Peace (1869) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traces the progress of five families whose destinies unroll against the back ground of Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>French Realism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Madame Bovary (1857) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examined everyday lives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>of middle-class women </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Emile Zola (1840-1902) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nana (1880) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scathing portrayal of a beautiful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but unscrupulous prostitute. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Doll’s House (1879) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>middle-class women as “a doll-wife” living in a “doll’s house”. </li></ul></ul>
Late-Nineteenth-Century Architecture <ul><li>Cast-Iron Structures </li></ul><ul><li>The Skyscraper </li></ul>Joseph Paxton (1803–1865), Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, London, 1851. Cast iron, wrought iron, and glass. Destroyed by fire in 1936. Contemporary lithograph by Joseph Nash, Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel (1832–1923), Eiffel Tower, 1889. Iron on a reinforced concrete base, height 934'. Paris.
Marshall Field Wholesale Store , 1885, Chicago, Henry Hobson Richardson <ul><li>Masculine warehouse look </li></ul><ul><li>Iron columns for interior supports </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago School of architecture formed after Great Fire </li></ul>
<ul><li>Otis invented elevator </li></ul><ul><li>Prototype of modern office building </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior: decorative terra cotta tiles </li></ul><ul><li>“ Form follows function” was his motto, now very famous in architecture </li></ul>Wainwright Building, 1890 Louis Sullivan, Chicago School
Realism in the Visual Arts The Birth of Photography <ul><li>Mathew B. Brady, (1861-1865) eyewitness photographs for the American civil war. </li></ul>Mathew B. Brady or staff, Dead Confederate Soldier with Gun, Petersburg, Virginia, 1865. Photograph. The Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
French Realism - Gustave Courbet (1819-1877) <ul><li>Outspoken socialist, “A painter should paint only what he can see.” </li></ul>Gustave Courbet. Burial at Ornans , 1849. Oil on canvas, 10' 4" x 21' 11". Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
Jean-francois Millet (1814-1875) : “Peasant Painter” <ul><li>Not a socialist, devoted his career to painting the everyday lives of the rural proletariat. </li></ul>Jean-François Millet, Gleaners , 1857. Oil on canvas, approx. 2' 9" x 3' 8". Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
Sheep Shearing Beneath a Tree , ca. 1854 Jean-François Millet (French, 1814–1875) Conté crayon with stumping, pen and brown ink, heightened with white on beige wove paper
Honoré Daumier, Third-Class Carriage , c. 1862. Oil on canvas, 25 3/4" x 35 1/2".
The Horse Fair , 1853–55 Rosa Bonheur (French, 1822–1899) Oil on canvas
Realism in American Painting Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) , The Agnew Clinic , 1889. Oil on canvas, 6 ft. 2 1/2 in. x 10 ft. 10 1/2 in. University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine.
Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) , The Biglin Brothers Racing , 1873. Oil on canvas, 24 1/4" x 36 1/8". National Gallery of Art Thomas Eakins (1844-1916)
Winslow Homer (1836-1910) <ul><li>romantic metaphor for the isolation and plight of black American in the decades following the Civil War. </li></ul>Winslow Homer (1836-1910), The Gulf Stream , 1899. Oil on canvas, 28 1/8 in. x 4 ft. 1 1/8 in. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Impressionism Forerunner… Édouard Manet <ul><li>Manet (1832-1883). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After rejection by salon, set up his own exhibitions </li></ul></ul>
The Scandalous Realism of Manet Luncheon on the Grass , Edouard Manet <ul><li>Napoleon III authorized Exhibition of refused artists from the Salon, such as Manet and Monet </li></ul><ul><li>This painting was found scandalous… </li></ul>Édouard Manet (1832–1883). Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) , 1863. Oil on canvas, 7' x 9'. Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
Pastoral Concert (Fête champêtre) 1508-09 Oil on canvas, 110 x 138 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris Édouard Manet (1832–1883). Le Déjeuner sur l'Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) , 1863. Oil on canvas, 7' x 9'. Musée d'Orsay, Paris.
Olympia , Manet, 1863 <ul><li>courtesan stares out at us, not modeled figure. </li></ul><ul><li>Olympia confronts the viewer, she is powerful, NOT an accommodating female nude. </li></ul>Édouard Manet. Olympia , 1863. Oil on canvas, 4' 3" x 6' 3". Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY.
Olympia, Manet, 1868 Venus of Urbino, Titian, 1538
Bar at the Folies-Bergere, Manet, oil on canvas, 1882 <ul><li>More impressionistic than Manet’s early works. </li></ul>
Impressionism The movement's name was derived from Monet's early work, Impression: Sunrise, (capture the impression of light in a scene.) The Impressionist style was probably the single most successful and identifiable "movement" ever, and is still widely practiced today. Claude Monet , Impressionism: Sunrise 1872
Monet’s Rouen Cathedral in sun , 1894, oil on canvas, 40” x 26” (and in sunset…)
Berthe Morisot , Summer’s Day , oil on canvas, 1879 <ul><li>Sister in law of Manet and grandaughter of Fragonard </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class women </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical composition </li></ul>
James Whistler’s Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket , 1875 <ul><li>Subtle harmonies of painting comparable to music </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese influence </li></ul>
Post-Impressionism 1885-1905 <ul><ul><li>Characteristics : bright color and visible, distinctive brushwork </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trends : more emphasis on composition and form and greater psychological depth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact : set the stage for major directions of early 20th century art </li></ul></ul>
Sunday Afternoon at the Park 1885 <ul><ul><ul><li>intellectual & scientific </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>uniformly sized dots </li></ul></ul></ul>Seurat Style : Pointillism
Cezanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire , 1887 <ul><li>Wanted to make objects geometric constructions with splashes of pure color </li></ul>
<ul><li>Tilted perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast of solid forms with flat surfaces </li></ul>
Van Gogh <ul><li>Color : vibrant </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms : simplified and outlined in black contours. </li></ul></ul></ul>Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear 1889 <ul><li>Brushwork : impasto </li></ul>
Vincent Van Gogh, Starry Night , 28” x 36”, 1889 <ul><li>View from hospital room in St-Remy </li></ul>
Paul Gauguin , Manaha No Atua , (Day of the God), oil on canvas. Symbolism (post impressionism), 1894. <ul><li>Painted native peoples in geometric bright colors </li></ul>
<ul><li>1893, Art Nouveau style </li></ul><ul><li>Noted graphic designer (Poster designer) </li></ul><ul><li>frequented the Moulin Rouge </li></ul>Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , Jane Avril , lithograph
Global Dominion of the West <ul><li>Advancing Industrialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided the economic and military basis for the West’s rise to dominion over the rest of the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonialism and the New Imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The history of European expansion into Asia, Africa, and other parts of the globe dates back at least to the Renaissance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marx and Engels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Communist Manifesto , Marx and Engels prophesized that a revolution would make the proletariat the new ruling class. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nietzsche’s New Morality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nietzsche called for a new morality that privileged the “superman.” </li></ul></ul>
Post-Impressionism <ul><ul><li>Post-Impressionism artists were dissatisfied with limitations of Impressionist style. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were influenced by Impressionism but took their art in other directions, it is less idyllic and more emotionally charged than Impressionist work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzed structure, and solidity of forms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still strong influence of Japanese prints. </li></ul></ul>
The Bather ,1885 Cezanne Figure : non-formula Composition : tight, construction of upright & horizontal forms <ul><ul><ul><li>Figure coincides with the lines of landscape: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper body the sky </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower body the earth. </li></ul></ul></ul>Landscape : conceptual, not ‘plein air.’
Mystery of the Mirror in Manet’s painting It is the viewer of the painting (you)!
Claude Monet Impressionism: Sunrise 1872 <ul><li>Leader of the Impressionists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aesthetic aim : fleeting effects of light, shadow and atmosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application of paint : thick, heavy layers or strokes (impasto). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by : Baroque “painterliness” (ex: Rubens) </li></ul></ul>Distinguished from Renaissance ideal that used flat, smooth paint surface
<ul><li>Eiffel Tower , 1887-1889, Gustave Eiffel </li></ul><ul><li>Centerpiece of 1889 Paris Universal Exposition </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative elevator swings up diagonally </li></ul><ul><li>Also helped with Statue of Liberty and Panama Canal! </li></ul>
Young Ladies of the Village , 1852 Gustave Courbet (French, 1819–1877) Oil on canvas 76 3/4 x 102 3/4 in. (194.9 x 261 cm)