Chinese And Korean Art Slides [1]


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Chinese And Korean Art Slides [1]

  1. 1. Chinese & Korean ArtBefore 1279<br />By Mark Wesolowski, <br />Sam Schnittman, <br />& Rachael Garcia<br />
  2. 2. History of China:<br />Yellow, Yangzi, Songhua, and Pearl Rivers.<br />Floods and Travel.<br />Xia Dynasty (5000 -1700 BC) <br />Farming Villages with Pottery. <br />
  3. 3. Xia Dynasty: Painted Pottery Cultures<br />Distinctive forms of Neolithic pottery identify different cultures<br />Yangshao culture-near Yellow River<br />Perfectly round bowls, highly polished surfaces<br />All without pottery wheel  advanced technology<br />Marks on rims-beginnings of Chinese writings potentially<br />Carved scenes into bottom of bowl—important activities<br />5000-4000 BCE,<br />near Xi'an<br />
  4. 4. Xia Dynasty: Painted Pottery Cultures<br />Liangzhu culture-800 miles from Yangshao<br />Half-human and half-animal images<br />Large round eyes, flat nose, rectangular mouth<br />Carved into a cong-object resembling a cylindrical tube encased in a rectangular block<br />Object of importance-found near head of a buried person in a large tomb—served as an altar<br />Technical sophistication evident through intricacy<br />Jade, Before 3000 BCE<br />
  5. 5. History of China:<br />Shang Dynasty (1700-1100 BC)<br />First unified Chinese Empire.<br />Bronze Age, military expansion.<br />
  6. 6. Culture of China:<br />Ancestralism:<br />Shangdi = Great Ancestor.<br />Tombs and Ritual Burial.<br />Oracles read bones and made offerings.<br />Pictographs and Chinese characters developed<br />
  7. 7. Bronze Age China<br />Piece-mold casting<br />Model of the bronze-to-be made of clay and dried<br />Clay pressed onto model and broken off at different times<br />Mold eventually created  molten bronze poured in<br />
  8. 8. Ritual Bronzes<br />Shang tombs reveal a warrior culture<br />Many humans and animals sacrificed to accompany the dead<br />Bronze vessels are the most admired and studied<br />Connected with ritual practices—served as containers for food or wine<br />Decorated with complex array of animal-like images<br />Seem to be related to hunting life<br />Creatures appear strange and fearsome-sense of mystery<br />Fang Ding,<br />12th Century BCE<br />
  9. 9. History of China:<br />Zhou Dynasty (1100-221 BC)<br />Relative Peace under Feudal Government.<br />King Ruled as Son of Tian (Heaven).<br />
  10. 10. Bronze Bells<br />Ritual bronzes continued to play important roles<br />New forms also developed<br />Some bells placed in tombs<br />Bells precisely calibrated to sound two tones<br />Arranged in scale patterns in variety of registers<br />Music played part in rituals  supernatural<br />Taotie-ancient mask motif-appears on front and back<br />Set of 65 Bells,<br />Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng,<br />433 BCE<br />
  11. 11. History of China:<br />Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC)<br />Totalitarian Military Regime.<br />Legalism = Harsh Laws, No Philosophy Allowed.<br />
  12. 12. Qin Dynasty<br />Single ruler  mausoleum<br />Army of terracotta soldiers and horses<br />Individualized faces, meticulously rendered uniforms<br />Soldiers,<br />Mausoleum of Emperor Shihuangdi,<br />210 BCE<br />
  13. 13. Soldiers,<br />Mausoleum of Emperor Shihuangdi,<br />210 BCE<br />Funerary Temple of Hatsepshut,<br />1473-1458 BCE<br />
  14. 14. History of China:<br />Han Dynasty (206BC – 220AD)<br />Peaceful and Prosperous<br />
  15. 15. Painted Banner<br />Highlights the mythocentric age<br />People believed in a close relationship between the human and supernatural worlds<br />T-shaped silk banner—summarizes this early view<br />3 scenes of universe: heaven, earth, and underworld<br />Tomb of Marquess of Dai,<br />160 BCE<br />
  16. 16. Heavenly realm shown at the top-in crossbar of the T<br />Sun in upper-right corner, inhabited by a mythical crow<br />Upper left-mythical toad stands on a crescent moon<br />Between the two- primordial deity shown as a man with a long serpent’s tail<br />Han image of the Great Ancestor<br />Dragons and other celestial creatures swarm below<br />Painted Banner<br />
  17. 17. Painted Banner<br />Gate guarded by two seated figures stands where the horizontal of heaven meets the banner’s long vertical<br />Two intertwined dragons loop through a circular jade piece known as bi<br />Usually a symbol of heaven-divides space into two areas<br />Above the bi-earthly realm<br />Deceased woman and her three attendants stand on a platform while two kneeling figures offer gifts<br />
  18. 18. Painted Banner: Underworld<br />Beneath the bi-represents the underworld<br />Silk draperies and a stone chime hanging from the bi form a canopy for the platform below<br />Stone chimes-ceremonial instruments<br />Ritual bronze vessels with food and wine<br />Fish and other strange creatures-inhabitants of the underworld<br />
  19. 19. Culture of China:<br />Daoism:<br />Developed from Ancestralism. (Immortality)<br />Harmony between humans and nature.<br />Confucianism:<br />Self Discipline and Duty. (Ethics)<br />
  20. 20. Daoism: Sculpture<br />Incense Burner- bronze-cast from prince’s tomb<br />Legend-Isles of the Immortals in the Eastern Sea<br />Gold inlay outlines stylized waves of the sea<br />Birds, animals, and people who had discovered secret of immortality<br />Tomb of Prince Liu Sheng,<br />113 BCE<br />
  21. 21. Confucianism: Carved Reliefs<br />Rubbing of a Stone Relief in the Wu Family Shrine<br />Two-story building-women on upper, men on lower<br />Homage to first emperor of Han dynasty-hieratic scale<br />Birds on roof-represents immortals<br />Lower register-procession brings dignitaries to reception<br />151 CE<br />
  22. 22. 300 Year Difference In Creation<br />
  23. 23. Compared with Han dynasty banner, this late Han relief shows the change that took place in their worldview in just 300 years<br />Banner-equal emphasis on heaven, earth, and underworld; humans dwarfed by supernatural<br />In this relief-focus clearly on the human realm<br />Importance of emperor as holder of the mandate of Heaven<br />Illustrates fundamental Confucian themes:<br />social order and decorum<br />Confucianism: Carved Reliefs<br />
  24. 24. Figure Representation<br />The Suicide of Ajax,<br />540 BCE (Greece)<br />
  25. 25. Culture of China:<br />Silk Road:<br />First opened under Han Dynasty.<br />Trade of Silk and Spices with world.<br />Buddhism comes to China via Silk Road.<br />
  26. 26. Architecture of China:<br />Bracketing:<br />Roof system with broad eaves and tiles<br />Employed to show aesthetic order. (Alberti)<br />
  27. 27. History of China:<br />Six Dynasties (220 – 585 AD)<br />Warring States with regional rivalries.<br />
  28. 28. Six Dynasties: Painting<br />Few paintings survive<br />Literary sources  important period for painting<br />Landscape first appears as a subject<br />Daoists-wandering through countryside = spiritual refreshment<br />Wandering in the mind through a painting could do the same<br />First works on theory and aesthetics- Xie He<br />
  29. 29. Xie He: 6 Principles<br />1-“Spirit consonance” imbues a painting with “life’s movement”<br />Spirit- qi-breath that animates all creation, the energy that flows through all things<br />Must cultivate own spirit so this universal energy flows through them and infuses their work<br />2-brushstrokes are the “bones” of a picture, its primary structural element<br />Painting is judged by the quality of brushstroke<br />Each stroke is a vehicle of expression; through these can the first principle be achieved<br />
  30. 30. Admonitions of the<br />Imperial Instructress<br />to Court Ladies<br />Ink and Colors on Silk,<br />Six Dynasties Period<br />
  31. 31. Admonitions of the Imperial Instructress to Court Ladies<br />Artist-GuKaizhi (344-407 CE)<br />Alternates illustrations and text to relate seven Confucian stories of wifely virtue from Chinese history<br />Illustration-depicts courage of Lady Feng<br />Escaped circus bear rushes toward her husband, a Han emperor, who is filled with fear<br />Behind his throne, two female servants turn to run away<br />Two male attendants try to fend off the bear with spears<br />Only Lady Feng is calm-rushes forward to place self between beast and the emperor<br />
  32. 32. Figures drawn with a brush in a thin, even-width line<br />A few outlined areas are filled with color<br />Facial features are well depicted<br />Movements and emotions are shown through conventions such as bands flowing from Lady Feng’s dress, indicating she is rushing forward<br />Upturned strings on sides of emperor’s head  fear<br />No setting—artist relies on careful figure placement to create a sense of depth<br />Admonitions of the Imperial Instructress to Court Ladies<br />
  33. 33. Admonitions of the<br />Imperial Instructress<br />to Court Ladies<br />Ink and Colors on Silk,<br />Six Dynasties Period<br />
  34. 34. Painting done on silk<br />Early Chinese painters developed a format used called the handscroll- long, narrow horizontal composition, compact enough to be held in the hand when rolled up<br />Intimate works, meant to be viewed by only two or three people at a time<br />Not completely unrolled—viewers would open a scroll and savor it slowly from right to left, only displaying a foot or two at a time<br />Admonitions of the Imperial Instructress to Court Ladies<br />
  35. 35. Depth<br />Body Representation<br />
  36. 36. Emperor Justinian and His<br />Attendants, 547 CE (Italy)<br />Crucifixion, Late 11th<br />Century CE (Greece)<br />
  37. 37. The Raisin of the Cross,<br />Rubens, 1610 CE<br />
  38. 38.
  39. 39. Calligraphy<br />Emphasis on expressive quality and structural importance of brushstrokes finds its purest embodiment in calligraphy<br />Same brushes used for both painting and calligraphy<br />Regarded as one of the highest forms of expression in China<br />Only the few literate and Confucian scholars could practice it<br />
  40. 40. FengJu Album<br />Most important-Wang Xizhi<br />A letter mounted as part of an album<br />Relaxed, easy going manner<br />Strokes vary in width and length, creating vitality<br />Characters are distinct, but within characters the strokes run together<br />Mid 4th Century CE<br />
  41. 41. Rock-Cut Caves of the Silk Road<br />Most impressive works of Six Dynasties<br />Buddhist sculpture-Seated Buddha<br />Done during a period of avid patronage to Buddhism<br />Buddhism made its greatest advances during this time<br />45-foot statue-elongated ears, monk’s robe, stylized hair—attributes of the Buddha<br />Less human than other <br /> Buddhist traditions<br />Purpose?<br />460 CE<br />
  42. 42. Portraiture as Propaganda<br />45 feet tall<br />Constantine the Great,<br />325-326 CE (Rome)<br />30 feet tall<br />
  43. 43. History of China:<br />Sui Dynasty (585 - 618 AD)<br />Short lived, but unified empire.<br />Tang Dynasty (618 - 907 AD)<br />Buddhism is largest religion.<br />
  44. 44. Architecture of China:<br />Nanchan Temple, Shanxi Province (782 AD):<br />Broad overhang with Han Bracketing.<br />Bay/Module Construction = Cubic Building Unit.<br />
  45. 45. Architecture of China:<br />Pagodas:<br />Came to China via Silk Road.<br />Stupa model with Bracketing.<br />Symbolic Structures = Order.<br />Religious Sanctuary.<br />
  46. 46. Architecture of China:<br />Great Wild Goose Pagoda, <br />Shanxi Province <br />(8th Century AD):<br />Built by Monk Xuanzang. <br />Model of Indian Architecture.<br />Simplicity, Proportion, Grace.<br />
  47. 47. Culture of China:<br />Silk Road:<br />Expanded during Tang Dynasty.<br />Open and international mood, naturalism in art.<br />
  48. 48. Tang Dynasty: Figure Painting<br />China’s great age of figure painting<br />Very few exist<br />Copies done by Song dynasty artists<br />
  49. 49. Ladies Preparing Newly Woven Silk<br />Attributed to Emperor Huizong (last of Northern Song)<br />Long handscroll; depicts activities of court women as they weave and iron silk<br />Refined lines, bright colors<br />Share the grace and<br /> dignity of Tang <br /> sculpture and<br /> architecture<br />Early 12th Century CE<br />
  50. 50. History of China:<br />Song Dynasty (960 - 1279 AD)<br />Invasions from the North lead to a domestic mood.<br />Expansion in Arts.<br />Neo-Confucianism with metaphysical elements.<br />
  51. 51. Song Dynasty: Sculpture<br />Changing political fortunes, political unrest, and religious questioning<br />Didn’t affect the creation of splendid works<br />Many sculptures of Bodhisattvas<br />Beings who are close to enlightenment but who voluntarily remain on earth to help others achieve enlightenment<br />Represented as young princes wearing royal garments and jewelry<br />The finery indicates their worldly but virtuous lives<br />
  52. 52. Seated Guanyin Bodhisattva<br />Guanyin-Bodhisattva of Infinite compassion<br />Appears in many guises (Water and Moon Guanyin)<br />Sits on rocks by the sea<br />Position-royal ease<br />Arm rests on his raised and bent right knee and his left arm and foot hang down, the foot touching a lotus blossom<br />10th-12th Century CE<br />
  53. 53. Spear Bearer,<br />Polykleitos,<br />450-440 CE<br />
  54. 54. Landscape Painting with Neo- Confucianism:<br />Realistic Landscape Scenes.<br />Balance of Natural Forces.<br />Not Actual Location, <br />Artist’s emotion and symbolism.<br />Monochrome with Ink on Silk.<br />Western Landscapes = Scientific Mimicry.<br />
  55. 55. Fan Kuan:<br />990 – 1030 AD.<br />Travelers Among Mountains and Streams<br />9 Feet Long, 3 Planes, Climbing Mountains<br />Texture & Contrast.<br />Hierarchy and Harmony.<br />
  56. 56. XuDaoning:<br />970 – 1052 AD.<br />Fishing in a Mountain Stream.<br />Mobile (Walking) Perspective = Acts of a Play.<br />
  57. 57. Zhang Zeduan:<br />Spring Festival on the River.<br />Domestic Court Painting.<br />Encyclopedic View of Everyday Life.<br />Busy Commerce and Industry.<br />Allegory of Good Government.<br />
  58. 58. Xia Gui:<br />1195 -1235 AD, Southern Song = Refined Style.<br />Intimate with Ink Washes = Simple.<br />Chan Buddhism i.e. Zen focus.<br />
  59. 59. Sculpture: Guan Ware:<br />High Neck with Cracked Glaze Technique.<br />
  60. 60. The Arts of Korea<br />Located China and Japan<br />Peninsula in Northeast Asia<br />
  61. 61. History of Korea: The Three Kingdoms Period<br />57 BCE-668 BCE<br />In Korea there were 3 independent states:<br />Goguryeo<br />Silla<br />Baekje<br />
  62. 62. Gold Headdress<br />An enduring monument of this period:<br />Found in Large tomb mounds<br />Crowns were most spectacular items found<br />Made specifically for burial<br />Made from cut pieces of thin gold sheet and wire<br />Comma-shaped ornaments of green and white jadeite<br />Tall, branching forms resemble trees and antlers<br />Appendages suggest wings or feathers<br />Shows relationship with animals and natural world<br />6th Century CE<br />
  63. 63. High-Fired Ceramics<br />Important advancement at this time<br />Most containers are for offerings of food placed in the tom to nourish the spirit of the deceased<br />Similar to Chinese<br />Generally unglazed stoneware-impervious to liquids<br />Most imposing-tall stands that were used to support round-bottomed jars<br />Long cylindrical shaft on a bulbous base<br />Little surface ornamentation<br />Some wave patterns or circles<br />5th-6th Century CE<br />
  64. 64. Similar death-related purposes<br />Greeks used them as grave markers<br />Actual depictions of scenes, including funerary processions<br />Greeks-geometric shapes<br />Koreans-geometric patterns<br />Dipylon Amphora, <br />760-735 BCE (Greece)<br />
  65. 65. Bodhisattva Seated in Meditation<br />Buddhism introduced around 372-384 CE<br />Buddhist art began in Korea just as mere imitation<br />By late 6th century, Koreans had style of own<br />Pose linked to Chine sculpture (royal ease)<br />Differences: slender body, elliptical face, elegant drapery folds, tri-lobed crown<br />Early 7th Century CE<br />
  66. 66. History of Korea:The Unified Silla Period<br />660 CE-Silla kingdom conquered Baekje<br />668 CE-defeats Goguryeo with help of Tang Dynasty<br />Buddhism prospers under Unified Silla<br />Many large, important temples erected<br />Lasts until<br /> 935 CE<br />
  67. 67. Seokguram<br />Greatest monument of the period—artificial cave temple atop Mount Toham<br />Modeled after Chinese cave temples<br />Small, rectangular antechamber joined by vestibule to circular main hall with domed ceiling<br />Huge Seated Buddha dominates main hall<br />Similar to Chinese sculptures-full and taut forms, drapery<br />
  68. 68. History of Korea: Goryeo Dynasty<br />Dominates until 1392 CE<br />Period of courtly refinement<br />Best known for celadon-glazed ceramics<br />
  69. 69. Celadon-Glazed Ceramics<br />Celadon-high-fired, transparent glaze of pale, bluish-green hue, typically applied over a pale gray stoneware body<br />Invented by Chinese potters<br />Korean potters experimented with such glazes<br />Best pieces went to palaces, nobles, or Buddhist clergy<br />Little decoration in 11th century<br />Carved or molded decoration in 12th century (mimicked contemporaneous Chinese ceramics)<br />Mid-12th Century-begin to explore new styles<br />Inlaid decoration stamped into body<br />Black and white slips create contrasting colors<br />Late 12th Century<br />
  70. 70. Buddhist Painting<br />Buddhism enjoyed patronage under Goryeo Dynasty<br />Paintings were wrought in ink and colors on silk<br />Hanging scrolls usually<br />Luxurious taste of the period:<br /> Flesh tones used for its face and hands<br />Rich colors and gold pigment used for the deity’s clothing<br />The Bodhisattba Avalokiteshvara,<br />Late 14th Century<br />
  71. 71. Brief Review<br />China distinctive for its early advancement in ceramics, metalwork, and jade<br />Technological advancement:<br />Potter’s wheel, reduction firing, bronze casting<br />Profound passion for refinement and subtleties of shape, proportion, and surface texture<br />Human relationships and heroic ideals<br />Confucian values and teaching standards of conduct—social order<br />Later embrace of Buddhist tradition from India<br />Represent divine potential of humanity-princely representations<br />Philosophical ideals through theme of landscape<br />Simple black ink  ultimate medium for expressing the vastness, abundance, and endurance of the universe<br />