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Discuss the key concepts, principles,
and elements of DRRM.
Recognize its importance.
Develop a community
preparedness plan.
DRRM includes the concepts of mitigating and preparing for the
adverse impacts of hazards, reducing vulnerabilities to hazards, wise
management of land and the environment, and increasing disaster
resilience of communities, among others.
DRRM is not just about responding to disasters but also about
building resilience before disasters happen.
Different hazards require different strategies and plans. Community-
based practices include identifying hazards and vulnerabilities, creating
early warning systems, developing evacuation plans, establishing
emergency communication protocols, and providing education and
awareness programs.
Key practice: Developing a community preparedness plan that involves
all stakeholders and covers all aspects of disaster preparedness,
response, and recovery.
UNISDR is a global framework for disaster risk
reduction that guides and coordinates the efforts
of a wide range of partners.
UNISDR aims to achieve substantive reduction in
disaster losses and build resilient nations and
communities as an essential condition for
sustainable development.
Asia-Pacific region has the most frequent and severe
disaster impacts globally.
Disaster losses affect not only those directly impacted
but also other countries and communities globally.
Efforts to reduce disaster risks are needed through
collaboration and partnerships.
DRRM should be given the utmost priority, especially
in the Philippines, because of the following reasons:
1. Geographical location and exposure to multiple hazards
make DRRM in the Philippines a priority.
• The Philippines experiences seismic movements, volcanic
eruptions, earthquakes, typhoons, flooding, and storm surges.
• More than one hazard may be encountered by a particular
region in a short period of time, leading to devastating
impacts.
• DRRM implementation can lower the risks of disasters brought
by natural hazards.
2. Developing countries like the Philippines may not have
enough resources to address immediate needs and
recover from disaster damage.
• DRRM implementation can help communities cope and
adapt to post-disaster conditions by building stronger
and sustainable livelihoods.
• Leaving the site in disarray for a long time may lead to
hazardous physical and pathological conditions, making
victims more vulnerable to diseases.
3. DRRM is essential in building a more equitable and
sustainable future for communities in high-risk areas for
disasters.
• The cost of disaster damage poses a significant threat
to the country's economy and development prospects.
• DRRM programs help prevent any wasting of days and
months without any profitable transactions.
The key principles of DRRM justify why certain changes have
to be made (if any) and explain the urgency of creating a
DRRM plan. Key principles should be able to make people
realize why disaster plans should find its position at the top
of the priority list of any community that is vulnerable to any
forms of hazards. Hence, all DRRMs are created on the
following premises:
1. Development can either increase or decrease disaster risk.
Human development constantly alters the environment to meet growing population
demands, creating challenges for adaptability of organisms due to inevitable
environmental changes. This results in disaster risk whenever development takes
place, such as when clearing land for agriculture, which threatens native species and
increases disaster risk for inhabited land. Proper disaster prevention and mitigation
plans can decrease disaster risk associated with development projects.
2. DRRM policies, laws, and regulations will not save lives unless implemented in
communities.
To ensure the accuracy and effectiveness of disaster plans in DRRM, action is crucial
through drills or actual implementation. Policies are drafted by experts and authorities
to be specific to the community, but putting plans into action is necessary to validate
their feasibility. Engaging communities and stakeholders in hazard simulations during
drills can reveal any inadequacies or flaws in the plans, allowing for improvements.
3. The community is the front line of disaster risk management.
The primary objective of DRRM plans is to save lives. This is why the community is the
first consideration in all phases of DRRM plans. Its demographic profile (e.g.,
population, population density, socioeconomic status, age groups) should be first
established to custom- fit the plans. This is to ensure that the community's needs are
met while rescue operations are ongoing.
4. DRRM is not a stand-alone activity.
DRRM does not only consider the direct or primary effects of disasters but also the
network that connects communities internally and externally. It cuts across almost all
aspects of life where people are involved in. Once any of the stakeholders is affected,
the whole network can be disrupted in chain reaction. Hence, when drafting a DRRM,
all sectors of the society should be considered, from individual families to schools,
hospitals, economic sectors, tourists, and external supports.
4. DRRM is not a stand-alone activity.
DRRM does not only consider the direct or primary effects of disasters but also the
network that connects communities internally and externally. It cuts across almost all
aspects of life where people are involved in. Once any of the stakeholders is affected,
the whole network can be disrupted in chain reaction. Hence, when drafting a DRRM,
all sectors of the society should be considered, from individual families to schools,
hospitals, economic sectors, tourists, and external supports. Every sector of the
society should be involved in the drafting of the DRRM plan because the same sectors
will be affected from the failure or success of it.
5.The main objective of DRRM is to build a resilient community.
A resilient community is able to withstand the likely impacts of a hazard without
suffering or being devastated completely. They are aware of the lurking hazards but
are not worried because they know they are ready and equipped. Resilience creates a
stronger relationship within the community and outside entities.
Elements of DRRM Plans A DRRM plan covers all stages of
development from planning all the way to execution. It also
incorporates feedback, recommendations, and guidance
taken from various sectors of the society. It is a cyclic
process of updating information and plans to make the DRRM
more specific and suitable to the community. The following
are the basic elements of a DRRM plan, in order of execution:
A DRRM plan covers all stages of development from planning all the way to execution.
It also incorporates feedback, recommendations, and guidance taken from various
sectors of the society. It is a cyclic process of updating information and plans to
make the DRRM more specific and suitable to the community. The following are the
basic elements of a DRRM plan, in order of execution:
1. Assesment and analysis- This is also known as the needs and risk assessment.
Risks are identified and assessed based on the following:
• Hazard profile - likelihood, frequency, severity, warning, and likely impact of the
hazard(s)
• Vulnerability of the area - exposure of the community or other elements to the
identified hazard and how they could be affected, whether directly or indirectly.
• Capacity of the community - identification of all available and accessible
facilities and services that can minimize or prevent the hazard from turning into a
disaster.
2. Design- This is modeled on the findings from the Assessment and Analysis stage. It
should include, at the minimum, the following components (Turnbull et al., 2013):
• issues identified during the analysis
• identification of responsibility, priorities, and competencies of individuals and
institutions or agencies carrying out the task
• identification of other programs and strategies that may complement, add, or or
duplicate with other programs
• potential partners, allies, and networks
• source of funding and its restrictions.
3. Results of Implementation - Implementing the DRRM plan is usually in the form of
a drill. Regular implementation is important because new conditions or unforeseen
situations always arise in communities because of their dynamism. The outcome of
the implementation should be properly and accurately documented
so that any necessary changes in the DRRM design can be made immediately. Also, in
this component, constant confirmation of partnership and networks is necessary to
enhance the relationship of all sectors involved and the efficiency of all their identified
roles and services. This becomes crucial during emergency situations as priorities are
usually done based on the established relationship of the beneficiary of assistance
A community-based DRRM is essential to develop, implement, and maintain an
effective early warning system in a hazard-prone community. Through a community
preparedness plan, the community is informed and trained on how to prepare for
hazard events and emergencies. For an effective community preparedness plan,
communities need to be actively involved in it. The key components of a community
preparedness plan are the following:
I. Community Profile
• Identification of vulnerable communities
This accounts for all communities within the area and their levels of exposure to
an identified hazard.
Track: Academic
You are a research assistant of a sociologist who is working on profiling your
city/municipality. He asks you to help him collect data by listing the different
villages or barangays and assessing the level of disaster risk, vulnerability, and
exposure to identified hazard. He asks you to use the chart below to help you
organize your data collection. Your data should be authentic and up-to-date.
Community
(village,
school,
etc.)
Hazard(earthquake
, volcanic eruption,
typhoon, etc.)
Frequency/I
ntensity of
Hazard
No. of
Individuals
with High Risk
Members
Livelihood
(agriculture,
fishing, etc.)
Risk Exposure
(low, medium,
high)
Rank Order
of Priority
At the minimum, DRRM experts (may be sourced locally or externally)
consider the basic elements of the DRRM as framework for the
community-based DRRM plan. Initially, the experts oversee, implement,
update, and manage the whole plan. Eventually, the locals of the
community will be trained so that they will take over the implementation
of the DRRM plan.
•
Trained personnel or experts are designated to form a
team for the following:
a. Search and rescue
The team is topographically knowledgeable and may even be
familiar with the individuals or families they are searching for or
rescuing. They are equipped with appropriate gadgets or
equipment to aid in the search and rescue operation no matter
what the situation is.
b. Medical assistance
The team understands and knows how to deal with specific
health problems or medical needs. They are trained to work on
medical emergency cases. They are also prepared with medicine
supplies and health facilities specific to the medical case of the
injured.
c. Relief distribution
The team prepares a working network that facilitates fast and
efficient distribution of relief goods. They set up strategic ways and
means for receiving relief goods and distributing them to reach
even the remote areas of the affected communities.
Track: Sports
Your team has been called to help organize the screening of volunteers who will
become part of the Emergency Rescue Group (ERG). The creation of this group was
initiated in response to the recommendations of the DILG. You have been unanimously
chosen to serve as team leader. As such, you think of qualifications that are needed to
efficiently become part of the ERG. Write three separate checklists/standards that will
be used by your team to screen the volunteers for the following areas: (a) search and
rescue, (b) medical assistance, and (c) relief distribution. Your suggested qualifications
should be justifiable and necessary.
This identifies the community's relationships with certain agencies and
institutions in terms of providing aid, facilitating services, and supporting
programs related to the implementation, improvement, and enhancement
of the DRRM plan.
Find out if you have a rescue
team in place in your
community. Do you know how to
contact it in case of an
emergency?
This is the identification of both vertical (buildings, poles, and trees)
and horizontal (roads, cable wires, pipes, and bridges) infrastructure
and natural elements that may be affected or can cause disaster
from a hazard. Different hazards have different effects on these
structures that may cause disaster to its users. Factors that may
determine the level of disaster risk that these structures have are
age and durability of the structures, magnitude of potential hazard,
presence of other structures within its vicinity, type of material, and
approximate number of people or vehicles using the structure.
The World Health Organization (WHO) published a manual titled
Managing Disaster Risks in Communities (2015) Assess the attitude
of certain stakeholders in your community toward participating in
disaster risk planning. See the following image which was taken
from selected pages in the section titled "Roles of Stakeholders" of
the WHO manual
For each identified group of stakeholders, assess its attitude or level of awareness on drafting a
disaster risk plan, using the Stakeholder Analysis Matrix. The result of this activity can help determine
future problems that can be resolved immediately.
This assessment, done by the experts identified in the Manpower section,
includes comprehensive and specific discussions on risk assessments, risk
reduction, disaster preparedness, and risk management plans before, during, and
after the disaster. Basically, this section includes the identification of each
potential hazard and the level of disaster risk that the community has on each
hazard. The guiding parameters in assessing the risks include the following:
vulnerability of the community to the hazard, potential magnitude of the hazard
(high scale or low scale), duration of impact (short term or long term) of the
hazard to the community, causality of effects (direct or indirect) to exposed
elements, and reversibility of the potential disaster to the community and other
identified stakeholders.
An early warning system (EWS) is the provision of information about an
imminent hazard that is likely to affect a community. This may be in various
forms of communication (e.g., sound, symbol, letter) that can be easily and
immediately understood by all stakeholders. The EWS should be short,
distinct, and clear so as not to be confused with ordinary communication
that does not require urgent action. Most warning systems involve alert
levels that are distinguished through colors. Red usually connotes imminent
danger.
The objective here is to search for and provide immediate aid to
survivors of a disaster. One important aspect in a successful
search and rescue operation is the familiarity of the rescuer with
the various locations in the community. In cases where missing or
lost persons are in areas that are not readily visible or accessible, a
familiar rescuer may be able to find them because of his or her
knowledge of the site prior to the disaster.
The rescuers should also be cognizant of potential risks such as
limited entry or exits, possible secondary or multiple collapse of
unstable structures, electrical and gas hazards, and disaster.
In the midst of losing properties and loved ones, survivors need to
address their basic needs: water, food, shelter, and health care. A well-
planned DRRM provides survivors with these needs.
•
Water is the primary need of all survivors. The body needs water to
be able to function properly. Thus, survivors should have an
adequate supply of clean, potable water during disasters.
Food that is served to the survivors needs to be ready-to-eat, as much as
possible. In the past, many survivors, especially the children, had difficulty
opening cans and cooking noodles because of lack of kitchen tools.
Survivors, aside from dealing with trauma, are also absorbed with checking
on their properties and searching and taking care of their loved ones.
Hence, additional steps required in food preparation might become too
taxing for them.
Safe evacuation centers must be identified and available areas. Some
parameters such as capacity of the building, availability of facilities, area size,
distance from danger, etc, should be considered.
Basic facilities and medicine for treating common injuries and medical
problems need to be checked for availability and sufficiency if a disaster
is expected.
In some cases when terrible unexpected circumstances occur,a
debriefing might be necessary. Debriefing is a session used by grief
counselors to help people cope with major loss or suffering to reduce
possible post-traumatic stress disorder.
All families need to prepare at home a
survival kit that becomes handy during
disasters. This kit should contain
essential items, should be water
waterproof, and should be checked
regularly for any expiring medicines or
materials.
Food Medicines
1. Clean drinking water (at least three liters/day
per person)
2. Easy to prepare, store, and carry foods (biscuits,
cookies, crackers, canned foods in easy-open
cans)
3. Candies (to maintain sugar in the body)
4. Food for babies or elderly
1. For fever and nausea
2. For cough and colds
3. For stomach upset (Imodium or Loperamide)
4. For headaches and other pains (paracetamol,
ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, etc.)
5. For allergies (antihistamines)
6. Special medicines for diabetes, hypertension,
etc.
First Aid Sanitation and toiletries
1. Medicated plastic strips
2. Gauze
3. Antiseptic/disinfectant
4. Antibiotic ointment
5. Wipe packets
1. Tissue
2. Sanitary napkins or diapers
3. Toothpaste and toothbrushes
4. Bath soap and laundry soap
5. Small towels
6. Plastic bags or garbage bags
Clothing Emergency tools or gadgets
1. Extra clothes
2. Jackets
3. Blankets
4. Underwear
1. Plastic whistles
2. Flashlights
3. Batteries
4. Radios
5. Mobile phones and chargers
Important items
Important documents (sealed in waterproof
container or envelope)
1. Keys
2. Cash
3. Jewelry
1. Birth and/or marriage certificates
2. Bank passbooks, investment records
3. Government IDs
The following are general guidelines that need to be remembered and followed in
an evacuation:
1. Be aware of the emergency exits and waring calls of the buildings you
frequently go to.
2. When emergency alarms are sounded, keep calm and try to
keep others calm, too.
3. Exit the buildings using the stairwells. NEVER use the elevator.
4. If there is a DRRM personnel directing people on what to do,
follow his or her instruction to facilitate a systematic and orderly
evacuation or DRRM procedure.
5. Once in the assembly area, notify authorities of people who need assistance
such as the injured, trapped, or disabled.
6. Never reenter the building unless it has been declared safe by authorities.
Do you have the habit of
searching for the emergency
exits each time you enter a
new building?
This is the process of gradually restoring the community to return to its
predisaster level of functioning. Remember that one of the principles of the
DRRM is to build a resilient community. Having recovery plans will give
communities options for rehabilitation of livelihood, restoration of social and
economic activities, advancement in development projects, and
reconstruction of shelters and infrastructure. Resilient communities have a
proactive attitude toward disaster. They view it as a learning process instead
of a destructive event, simply because they are equipped with recovery plans.
It is important to develop a comprehensive DRRM plan to estimate and
allocate funds für the implementation of the plan before, during, and after a
disaster. Aside from the various components identified in each stage, a
contingency fund is always provided for expenses that are overlooked or an
allowance for inflation. All estimates of computation should be conservative to
allow for any changes in fees and costs. Responsible management and
utilization of funds need to be strictly exercised in this regard.
Draft a budget for a DRRM Plan. What items should be considered in the budget
proposal? Refer to your community for sample size and setting.
Track: Technical-vocational
An emergency hotline has just been set up to receive emergency calls nationwide.
You are the assistant manager in a call center and has been tasked by the manager to
draft guidelines on how to receive critical calls. Based on your length of experience
working in a call center, you need to draft five important rules on how to manage
emergency calls. Your "golden rules" will be posted on the desks of call center agents.
So make sure that the rules are clear, helpful, and doable.
Beyond Walls 9.6 Apply It in Real Life
The collaboration of Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) and United
Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) has
resulted in many initiatives that promote safer communities and sustainable
development. Part of their output is a guide on community-based disaster risk
management workbook that can be used in developing an effective and functional
DRRM plan. You can access this by visiting http://www.unisdr.org/files/3366
3366CBDRMShesh.pdf.
Extend Your Knowledge
The goal of a DRRM plan is to create a resilient community. A DRRM plan is
important because the community has to be prepared for any type of hazard. All
preparations are comprehensively and completely detailed in a DRRM plan. In making
a DRRM plan, a stakeholders must be part of the whole processes so that they are
aware of their roles, capabilities, and tasks. Every person in the community should
participate and cooperate to make the DRRM plan successful in reducing or
preventing any disaster risk.
Essential Learning
DRRR-Powerpoint.pptx

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DRRR-Powerpoint.pptx

  • 1.
  • 2. Discuss the key concepts, principles, and elements of DRRM. Recognize its importance. Develop a community preparedness plan.
  • 3. DRRM includes the concepts of mitigating and preparing for the adverse impacts of hazards, reducing vulnerabilities to hazards, wise management of land and the environment, and increasing disaster resilience of communities, among others. DRRM is not just about responding to disasters but also about building resilience before disasters happen.
  • 4. Different hazards require different strategies and plans. Community- based practices include identifying hazards and vulnerabilities, creating early warning systems, developing evacuation plans, establishing emergency communication protocols, and providing education and awareness programs. Key practice: Developing a community preparedness plan that involves all stakeholders and covers all aspects of disaster preparedness, response, and recovery.
  • 5. UNISDR is a global framework for disaster risk reduction that guides and coordinates the efforts of a wide range of partners. UNISDR aims to achieve substantive reduction in disaster losses and build resilient nations and communities as an essential condition for sustainable development.
  • 6. Asia-Pacific region has the most frequent and severe disaster impacts globally. Disaster losses affect not only those directly impacted but also other countries and communities globally. Efforts to reduce disaster risks are needed through collaboration and partnerships. DRRM should be given the utmost priority, especially in the Philippines, because of the following reasons:
  • 7. 1. Geographical location and exposure to multiple hazards make DRRM in the Philippines a priority. • The Philippines experiences seismic movements, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, typhoons, flooding, and storm surges. • More than one hazard may be encountered by a particular region in a short period of time, leading to devastating impacts. • DRRM implementation can lower the risks of disasters brought by natural hazards.
  • 8. 2. Developing countries like the Philippines may not have enough resources to address immediate needs and recover from disaster damage. • DRRM implementation can help communities cope and adapt to post-disaster conditions by building stronger and sustainable livelihoods. • Leaving the site in disarray for a long time may lead to hazardous physical and pathological conditions, making victims more vulnerable to diseases.
  • 9. 3. DRRM is essential in building a more equitable and sustainable future for communities in high-risk areas for disasters. • The cost of disaster damage poses a significant threat to the country's economy and development prospects. • DRRM programs help prevent any wasting of days and months without any profitable transactions.
  • 10. The key principles of DRRM justify why certain changes have to be made (if any) and explain the urgency of creating a DRRM plan. Key principles should be able to make people realize why disaster plans should find its position at the top of the priority list of any community that is vulnerable to any forms of hazards. Hence, all DRRMs are created on the following premises:
  • 11. 1. Development can either increase or decrease disaster risk. Human development constantly alters the environment to meet growing population demands, creating challenges for adaptability of organisms due to inevitable environmental changes. This results in disaster risk whenever development takes place, such as when clearing land for agriculture, which threatens native species and increases disaster risk for inhabited land. Proper disaster prevention and mitigation plans can decrease disaster risk associated with development projects. 2. DRRM policies, laws, and regulations will not save lives unless implemented in communities. To ensure the accuracy and effectiveness of disaster plans in DRRM, action is crucial through drills or actual implementation. Policies are drafted by experts and authorities to be specific to the community, but putting plans into action is necessary to validate their feasibility. Engaging communities and stakeholders in hazard simulations during drills can reveal any inadequacies or flaws in the plans, allowing for improvements.
  • 12. 3. The community is the front line of disaster risk management. The primary objective of DRRM plans is to save lives. This is why the community is the first consideration in all phases of DRRM plans. Its demographic profile (e.g., population, population density, socioeconomic status, age groups) should be first established to custom- fit the plans. This is to ensure that the community's needs are met while rescue operations are ongoing. 4. DRRM is not a stand-alone activity. DRRM does not only consider the direct or primary effects of disasters but also the network that connects communities internally and externally. It cuts across almost all aspects of life where people are involved in. Once any of the stakeholders is affected, the whole network can be disrupted in chain reaction. Hence, when drafting a DRRM, all sectors of the society should be considered, from individual families to schools, hospitals, economic sectors, tourists, and external supports.
  • 13. 4. DRRM is not a stand-alone activity. DRRM does not only consider the direct or primary effects of disasters but also the network that connects communities internally and externally. It cuts across almost all aspects of life where people are involved in. Once any of the stakeholders is affected, the whole network can be disrupted in chain reaction. Hence, when drafting a DRRM, all sectors of the society should be considered, from individual families to schools, hospitals, economic sectors, tourists, and external supports. Every sector of the society should be involved in the drafting of the DRRM plan because the same sectors will be affected from the failure or success of it. 5.The main objective of DRRM is to build a resilient community. A resilient community is able to withstand the likely impacts of a hazard without suffering or being devastated completely. They are aware of the lurking hazards but are not worried because they know they are ready and equipped. Resilience creates a stronger relationship within the community and outside entities.
  • 14. Elements of DRRM Plans A DRRM plan covers all stages of development from planning all the way to execution. It also incorporates feedback, recommendations, and guidance taken from various sectors of the society. It is a cyclic process of updating information and plans to make the DRRM more specific and suitable to the community. The following are the basic elements of a DRRM plan, in order of execution:
  • 15. A DRRM plan covers all stages of development from planning all the way to execution. It also incorporates feedback, recommendations, and guidance taken from various sectors of the society. It is a cyclic process of updating information and plans to make the DRRM more specific and suitable to the community. The following are the basic elements of a DRRM plan, in order of execution: 1. Assesment and analysis- This is also known as the needs and risk assessment. Risks are identified and assessed based on the following: • Hazard profile - likelihood, frequency, severity, warning, and likely impact of the hazard(s) • Vulnerability of the area - exposure of the community or other elements to the identified hazard and how they could be affected, whether directly or indirectly. • Capacity of the community - identification of all available and accessible facilities and services that can minimize or prevent the hazard from turning into a disaster.
  • 16. 2. Design- This is modeled on the findings from the Assessment and Analysis stage. It should include, at the minimum, the following components (Turnbull et al., 2013): • issues identified during the analysis • identification of responsibility, priorities, and competencies of individuals and institutions or agencies carrying out the task • identification of other programs and strategies that may complement, add, or or duplicate with other programs • potential partners, allies, and networks • source of funding and its restrictions. 3. Results of Implementation - Implementing the DRRM plan is usually in the form of a drill. Regular implementation is important because new conditions or unforeseen situations always arise in communities because of their dynamism. The outcome of the implementation should be properly and accurately documented
  • 17. so that any necessary changes in the DRRM design can be made immediately. Also, in this component, constant confirmation of partnership and networks is necessary to enhance the relationship of all sectors involved and the efficiency of all their identified roles and services. This becomes crucial during emergency situations as priorities are usually done based on the established relationship of the beneficiary of assistance
  • 18. A community-based DRRM is essential to develop, implement, and maintain an effective early warning system in a hazard-prone community. Through a community preparedness plan, the community is informed and trained on how to prepare for hazard events and emergencies. For an effective community preparedness plan, communities need to be actively involved in it. The key components of a community preparedness plan are the following: I. Community Profile • Identification of vulnerable communities This accounts for all communities within the area and their levels of exposure to an identified hazard.
  • 19. Track: Academic You are a research assistant of a sociologist who is working on profiling your city/municipality. He asks you to help him collect data by listing the different villages or barangays and assessing the level of disaster risk, vulnerability, and exposure to identified hazard. He asks you to use the chart below to help you organize your data collection. Your data should be authentic and up-to-date. Community (village, school, etc.) Hazard(earthquake , volcanic eruption, typhoon, etc.) Frequency/I ntensity of Hazard No. of Individuals with High Risk Members Livelihood (agriculture, fishing, etc.) Risk Exposure (low, medium, high) Rank Order of Priority
  • 20. At the minimum, DRRM experts (may be sourced locally or externally) consider the basic elements of the DRRM as framework for the community-based DRRM plan. Initially, the experts oversee, implement, update, and manage the whole plan. Eventually, the locals of the community will be trained so that they will take over the implementation of the DRRM plan. • Trained personnel or experts are designated to form a team for the following:
  • 21. a. Search and rescue The team is topographically knowledgeable and may even be familiar with the individuals or families they are searching for or rescuing. They are equipped with appropriate gadgets or equipment to aid in the search and rescue operation no matter what the situation is. b. Medical assistance The team understands and knows how to deal with specific health problems or medical needs. They are trained to work on medical emergency cases. They are also prepared with medicine supplies and health facilities specific to the medical case of the injured. c. Relief distribution The team prepares a working network that facilitates fast and efficient distribution of relief goods. They set up strategic ways and means for receiving relief goods and distributing them to reach even the remote areas of the affected communities.
  • 22. Track: Sports Your team has been called to help organize the screening of volunteers who will become part of the Emergency Rescue Group (ERG). The creation of this group was initiated in response to the recommendations of the DILG. You have been unanimously chosen to serve as team leader. As such, you think of qualifications that are needed to efficiently become part of the ERG. Write three separate checklists/standards that will be used by your team to screen the volunteers for the following areas: (a) search and rescue, (b) medical assistance, and (c) relief distribution. Your suggested qualifications should be justifiable and necessary.
  • 23. This identifies the community's relationships with certain agencies and institutions in terms of providing aid, facilitating services, and supporting programs related to the implementation, improvement, and enhancement of the DRRM plan.
  • 24. Find out if you have a rescue team in place in your community. Do you know how to contact it in case of an emergency?
  • 25. This is the identification of both vertical (buildings, poles, and trees) and horizontal (roads, cable wires, pipes, and bridges) infrastructure and natural elements that may be affected or can cause disaster from a hazard. Different hazards have different effects on these structures that may cause disaster to its users. Factors that may determine the level of disaster risk that these structures have are age and durability of the structures, magnitude of potential hazard, presence of other structures within its vicinity, type of material, and approximate number of people or vehicles using the structure.
  • 26. The World Health Organization (WHO) published a manual titled Managing Disaster Risks in Communities (2015) Assess the attitude of certain stakeholders in your community toward participating in disaster risk planning. See the following image which was taken from selected pages in the section titled "Roles of Stakeholders" of the WHO manual
  • 27.
  • 28. For each identified group of stakeholders, assess its attitude or level of awareness on drafting a disaster risk plan, using the Stakeholder Analysis Matrix. The result of this activity can help determine future problems that can be resolved immediately.
  • 29. This assessment, done by the experts identified in the Manpower section, includes comprehensive and specific discussions on risk assessments, risk reduction, disaster preparedness, and risk management plans before, during, and after the disaster. Basically, this section includes the identification of each potential hazard and the level of disaster risk that the community has on each hazard. The guiding parameters in assessing the risks include the following: vulnerability of the community to the hazard, potential magnitude of the hazard (high scale or low scale), duration of impact (short term or long term) of the hazard to the community, causality of effects (direct or indirect) to exposed elements, and reversibility of the potential disaster to the community and other identified stakeholders.
  • 30. An early warning system (EWS) is the provision of information about an imminent hazard that is likely to affect a community. This may be in various forms of communication (e.g., sound, symbol, letter) that can be easily and immediately understood by all stakeholders. The EWS should be short, distinct, and clear so as not to be confused with ordinary communication that does not require urgent action. Most warning systems involve alert levels that are distinguished through colors. Red usually connotes imminent danger.
  • 31. The objective here is to search for and provide immediate aid to survivors of a disaster. One important aspect in a successful search and rescue operation is the familiarity of the rescuer with the various locations in the community. In cases where missing or lost persons are in areas that are not readily visible or accessible, a familiar rescuer may be able to find them because of his or her knowledge of the site prior to the disaster. The rescuers should also be cognizant of potential risks such as limited entry or exits, possible secondary or multiple collapse of unstable structures, electrical and gas hazards, and disaster.
  • 32.
  • 33. In the midst of losing properties and loved ones, survivors need to address their basic needs: water, food, shelter, and health care. A well- planned DRRM provides survivors with these needs. • Water is the primary need of all survivors. The body needs water to be able to function properly. Thus, survivors should have an adequate supply of clean, potable water during disasters. Food that is served to the survivors needs to be ready-to-eat, as much as possible. In the past, many survivors, especially the children, had difficulty opening cans and cooking noodles because of lack of kitchen tools. Survivors, aside from dealing with trauma, are also absorbed with checking on their properties and searching and taking care of their loved ones. Hence, additional steps required in food preparation might become too taxing for them.
  • 34. Safe evacuation centers must be identified and available areas. Some parameters such as capacity of the building, availability of facilities, area size, distance from danger, etc, should be considered. Basic facilities and medicine for treating common injuries and medical problems need to be checked for availability and sufficiency if a disaster is expected. In some cases when terrible unexpected circumstances occur,a debriefing might be necessary. Debriefing is a session used by grief counselors to help people cope with major loss or suffering to reduce possible post-traumatic stress disorder.
  • 35.
  • 36. All families need to prepare at home a survival kit that becomes handy during disasters. This kit should contain essential items, should be water waterproof, and should be checked regularly for any expiring medicines or materials.
  • 37. Food Medicines 1. Clean drinking water (at least three liters/day per person) 2. Easy to prepare, store, and carry foods (biscuits, cookies, crackers, canned foods in easy-open cans) 3. Candies (to maintain sugar in the body) 4. Food for babies or elderly 1. For fever and nausea 2. For cough and colds 3. For stomach upset (Imodium or Loperamide) 4. For headaches and other pains (paracetamol, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, etc.) 5. For allergies (antihistamines) 6. Special medicines for diabetes, hypertension, etc.
  • 38. First Aid Sanitation and toiletries 1. Medicated plastic strips 2. Gauze 3. Antiseptic/disinfectant 4. Antibiotic ointment 5. Wipe packets 1. Tissue 2. Sanitary napkins or diapers 3. Toothpaste and toothbrushes 4. Bath soap and laundry soap 5. Small towels 6. Plastic bags or garbage bags Clothing Emergency tools or gadgets 1. Extra clothes 2. Jackets 3. Blankets 4. Underwear 1. Plastic whistles 2. Flashlights 3. Batteries 4. Radios 5. Mobile phones and chargers
  • 39. Important items Important documents (sealed in waterproof container or envelope) 1. Keys 2. Cash 3. Jewelry 1. Birth and/or marriage certificates 2. Bank passbooks, investment records 3. Government IDs
  • 40. The following are general guidelines that need to be remembered and followed in an evacuation: 1. Be aware of the emergency exits and waring calls of the buildings you frequently go to. 2. When emergency alarms are sounded, keep calm and try to keep others calm, too. 3. Exit the buildings using the stairwells. NEVER use the elevator. 4. If there is a DRRM personnel directing people on what to do, follow his or her instruction to facilitate a systematic and orderly evacuation or DRRM procedure. 5. Once in the assembly area, notify authorities of people who need assistance such as the injured, trapped, or disabled. 6. Never reenter the building unless it has been declared safe by authorities.
  • 41. Do you have the habit of searching for the emergency exits each time you enter a new building?
  • 42. This is the process of gradually restoring the community to return to its predisaster level of functioning. Remember that one of the principles of the DRRM is to build a resilient community. Having recovery plans will give communities options for rehabilitation of livelihood, restoration of social and economic activities, advancement in development projects, and reconstruction of shelters and infrastructure. Resilient communities have a proactive attitude toward disaster. They view it as a learning process instead of a destructive event, simply because they are equipped with recovery plans.
  • 43. It is important to develop a comprehensive DRRM plan to estimate and allocate funds für the implementation of the plan before, during, and after a disaster. Aside from the various components identified in each stage, a contingency fund is always provided for expenses that are overlooked or an allowance for inflation. All estimates of computation should be conservative to allow for any changes in fees and costs. Responsible management and utilization of funds need to be strictly exercised in this regard.
  • 44. Draft a budget for a DRRM Plan. What items should be considered in the budget proposal? Refer to your community for sample size and setting.
  • 45. Track: Technical-vocational An emergency hotline has just been set up to receive emergency calls nationwide. You are the assistant manager in a call center and has been tasked by the manager to draft guidelines on how to receive critical calls. Based on your length of experience working in a call center, you need to draft five important rules on how to manage emergency calls. Your "golden rules" will be posted on the desks of call center agents. So make sure that the rules are clear, helpful, and doable. Beyond Walls 9.6 Apply It in Real Life
  • 46. The collaboration of Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) has resulted in many initiatives that promote safer communities and sustainable development. Part of their output is a guide on community-based disaster risk management workbook that can be used in developing an effective and functional DRRM plan. You can access this by visiting http://www.unisdr.org/files/3366 3366CBDRMShesh.pdf. Extend Your Knowledge
  • 47. The goal of a DRRM plan is to create a resilient community. A DRRM plan is important because the community has to be prepared for any type of hazard. All preparations are comprehensively and completely detailed in a DRRM plan. In making a DRRM plan, a stakeholders must be part of the whole processes so that they are aware of their roles, capabilities, and tasks. Every person in the community should participate and cooperate to make the DRRM plan successful in reducing or preventing any disaster risk. Essential Learning