Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Group 2 presentation


Published on

Cognitive and Meta Cognitive Strategies for Listening

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Group 2 presentation

  2. 2. Four sets of cognitive strategies exist<br />Practicing <br />Receiving and Sending Messages<br />Analyzing and Reasoning<br />Creating Structure for Input and Output <br />The first letters of each of these strategy sets combine to form the acronym. PRAC, because......<br />Cognitive Strategies<br />
  3. 3. “Cognitive strategies re PRACtical for language learning.”<br />Practicing<br /><ul><li>Repeating
  4. 4. Formally Practicing with sounds and writingsystems
  5. 5. Recognizing and using formulas and pattern
  6. 6. Recombining
  7. 7. Practicing naturalistically</li></ul>Receiving and Sending Messages<br /><ul><li>Getting the ideas quickly
  8. 8. Using resources for receiving and sending
  9. 9. Reasoning deductively
  10. 10. Analyzing expressions
  11. 11. Analyzing contrastively (across languages)
  12. 12. Translating
  13. 13. Transferring</li></ul>Analyzing and Reasoning<br />Creating Structure for Input and Output<br /><ul><li>Taking Notes
  14. 14. Summarizing
  15. 15. Highlighting</li></ul>Cognitive Strategies. (from Oxford, 1990)<br />
  16. 16. Metacognitive Strategies<br />What is metacognitive? <br />Metacognitive means beyond, beside, or with the cognitive. Therefore, metacognitive strategies are actions which go beyond purely cognitive devices, and which provide a way for learners to coordinate their own learning process. <br />
  17. 17. Centering Your Learning<br />Arranging and Planning Your Learning<br />Evaluating Your Learning<br />Ten strategies form these three groups, the acronym for which is CAPE. Remember these strategy sets by saying.....<br />Metacognitive strategies include three strategy sets: <br />
  18. 18. “Metacognitive strategies make language learners more CAPE-able.”<br />Centering Your Learning<br /><ul><li>Overviewing and linking with already known material
  19. 19. Paying attention
  20. 20. Delaying speech production to focus on listening
  21. 21. Finding out about language learning
  22. 22. Organizing
  23. 23. Using resources for receiving and sending
  24. 24. Setting goals and objectives
  25. 25. Identifying the purpose of a language task (purposeful listening/reading/speaking/writing)
  26. 26. Planning for a language task
  27. 27. Seeking practice opportunities</li></ul>Arranging and Planning your learning<br />Evaluatingyour learning<br /><ul><li>Self-monitoring
  28. 28. Self evaluating</li></ul>Metacognitive Strategies. (from Oxford, 1990)<br />
  29. 29. STRATEGIES USEFUL FOR LISTENING<br />COGNITIVE LISTENING STRATEGIES<br />Strategy setStrategy<br /> <br />Practicing Repeating<br />Practicing Formally practicing with sounds and writing systems<br />Practicing Recognizing and using formulas and patterns<br />Practicing Practicing naturalistically<br />Receiving and sending messages Getting the idea quickly<br />Receiving and sending messages Using resources for receiving and sending messages<br />Analyzing and reasoning Reasoning deductively<br />Analyzing and reasoning Analyzing expressions<br />Analyzing and reasoning Analyzing contrastively (across languages)<br />Analyzing and reasoning Translating<br />Analyzing and reasoning Transferring<br />Creating structure for Taking notes <br />input and output<br />Creating structure for Summarizing<br />input and out <br />Creating structure for Highlighting<br />input and output <br />
  30. 30. STRATEGIES USEFUL FOR LISTENING<br />METACOGNITIVE LISTENING STRATEGIES<br />Centering your learning Overviewing and linking with already known material<br />Centering your learning Paying attention<br />Centering your learning Delaying speech production to focus on listening<br />Arranging and planning Finding out about language learningyour learning <br />Arranging and planning Organizingyour learning <br />Arranging and planning Setting goals and objectives<br />your learning <br />Arranging and planning Identifying the purpose of a language task<br />your learning <br />Arranging and planning Planning for a language taskyour learning <br />Arranging and planning Seeking practice opportunitiesyour learning <br />Evaluating your learning Self-monitoring<br />Evaluating your learning Self-evaluating<br />Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Boston, Mass: Heinle & Heinle. pp 318 – 319. <br />
  31. 31. Listening Comprehension Strategies<br />Linguistic rules are intrenalized by extensive exposure to authentic texts<br />In particular, to comprehensible input that provides an appropriate level of challenge to the learner.<br />Modified teacher input will enhance comprehension<br />PROMOTES ACQUISITION<br />O’Malley & Chamot, 1990<br />
  32. 32. Training Cognitive Strategies <br />A group of learner training activities which can <br />be introduced progressively by the teacher into a<br />programme are those which aim to increase <br />students’ knowledge of useful ways to learn and<br /> develop the strategies they need’(Hedge <br />2000).  The teacher illustrates different strategies and students can decide which ones works best for them. Being exposed to different techniques, students are made aware of different possibilities available to them.  Such strategies are chiefly applied in establishing the meaning of new words. ‘Some of these will be cognitive strategies and will replace the techniques which learners previously expected to come from teachers’(Hedge 2000), namely a direct translation or an explanation of the new word. <br />
  33. 33. Teachers encourage students to use clues in both listening and reading texts to help them guess the meaning of the word or sentence. Let us examine the sentence, "Jack is introverted and doesn’t have many friends," Learners who had not come across the word ‘introverted’ before would probably be able to guess the meaning by substituting ‘shy’ rather than ‘outgoing’. The context tells us that Jack ‘doesn’t have many friends’ which gives us the clue here.  <br /> <br />Students are encouraged autonomous use of dictionaries to check the meaning of new words.  <br /> <br />Students can also be encouraged to use the ‘knowledge of affixation’ to determine word meaning.  As many word parts include affixes known as prefixes (attached before the word stem) and suffixes (attached after the word stem),  it is advantageous to learners to acquire a knowledge of some common affixes which can help them to establish and learn the meaning of many new words. For example, if students learn the meaning of some of the most common prefixes (un-, re-, in-, dis-, pre-) and suffixes (-less, -full, - ist,) they will have important clues about the meaning of a wide range of English words containing affixes. <br /> <br />Students are encouraged to use their text books as a learning source,” searching for language data and analyzing them to find patterns and follow rules”( Hedge 2000). Grammar rules are discovered by the learner.  For instance: Where does John live? What does he work? Where do Rosemary and Jill live? Where do they work? When does John start work? When do Rosemary and Jill start work? Students are asked the following questions: Where do the words do and does come in the sentences? Why? <br /> <br />Summarizing is a strategy which can be introduced in the language classroom. Students are required to restate the most important things they heard or read.  For example, after listening to a short job interview, students are asked to give information in their own words about the interviewee. <br /> <br />
  34. 34. Hedge 2000 claims that “It can <br />be productive, at the beginning of <br />a course, to ask students to share <br />ideas about possible metacognitive<br />strategies or self-help strategies.”  By sharing such strategies students are encouraged to reflect on their own learning strategies. Teachers can support students by explaining and illustrating strategies which can be applied to plan, monitor and evaluate their own personal learning activities and progress. <br />Training Metacognitive Strategies <br />
  35. 35. Teachers can encourage students to “seek their own practice opportunities” (Oxford  1990) . For example, students are made aware of the fact that English is all around them. Students can be encouraged to compile lists of English words they find in shops or in advertisements.  Additionally, students can seek opportunities to listen to authentic English on the Internet, e.g. news broadcasts and so on. <br />Teachers encourage students to do some “planning for a language task” Oxford, R (1990). For example, students can independently plan before engaging in a listening activity by gathering knowledge and looking up words about the topic beforehand. Advance preparation sets the ‘listening scene’ and can be more beneficial for some students than listening without any prior preparation.  <br />Teachers encourage ‘paying attention’.  For example, during the listening activities students pay attention to specific language aspects, e.g. intonation. Statements spoken as questions have end-rising intonation. Rosemary booked the concert tickets? As a statement the same sentence has an end-falling intonation.  <br />By introducing classroom journal writing, students are encouraged not only to autonomously monitor and evaluate their progress but also to describe their activities. For example, students can keep a journal regarding listening activities.  They can simply write down what they heard in their ‘listening journal’.  Additionally, they can identify problems they encountered during the listening activity, e.g. understanding, too fast, new words, pronunciation etc. Students are motivated to address to their own listening problems. <br />
  36. 36. The Importance of Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies in Developing Listening Skills<br /> <br />Teaching listening skills has often been neglected in ELT circles. It is important to realize that listening skills are just as important for oral communication as speaking skills. The very fact that most people engaged in communication, spend about “9% of their time devoted to writing, 16% devoted to reading, 30% to speaking” and a notable “45 %”  of their time to listening, shows the importance of listening of developing these skills, Hedge (2000).  <br /> <br /> Employing both cognitive strategies and metacognitive strategies in the language classroom plays a major role in developing listening skills which influences the overall performance of second language speakers of English. <br /> <br />English being the global business language, it is obvious that “oracy, the ability to understand and participate in spoken communication” Hedge (2000) has become crucial for business people worldwide.  Both speaking skills and  listening skills are central in today’s fast world of business. Business counterparts, world-wide who have developed good listening skills will be able to understand conversations more accurately enabling them to make quick responses and decisions. In short, students who have practiced strategies, such as “receiving and sending messages” or “analyzing expressions”  Oxford, R (1990), will be better equipped to liaise successfully with both their native and non-native English speaking business partners.  Misunderstandings cost time and money. <br /> <br />Another reason for the importance of listening skills’ development is the fact that more and more non-native speakers of English are studying as at British and American universities. If metacognitive strategies, such as, “paying attention” and “arranging and planning your learning” are  developed at an early age, students who go on to tertiary education will probably encounter fewer problems understanding their lecturers at college or university. <br />
  37. 37. TOP 10 RESOURCES<br />1.<br />2-<br />3-<br />4-<br />  <br /> 5-<br />6-<br />7-<br />8-<br />9-<br />10-<br />
  38. 38. Brandl, K. (2002). Integrating Internet-Based Reading Materials into the Foreign Language Curriculum: From Teacher-to Student Centre Approaches. Language Learning and Technology. 6(3), pp. 87-107<br />Dodge, B. (1995). "Some Thoughts About WebQuests" [Last Accessed: 19.02.2011]   <br />Hedge, T. (2000). Teaching and learning in the language Classroom. Oxford: Oxford University Press <br />Goh, C. (2008). Metacognitive Instruction for Second Language Listening Development: Theory, Practice and Research Implications. RELC Journal , 188 – 213.  <br />O'Malley, J.M. & Chamot, A.U. (1990). Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press<br />Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Boston: Heinle& Heinle Publishers<br />REFERENCES<br />