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Using and Adapting Authentic Materials to Motivate Students

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These are the slides from the Teacher Training Workshop on using and adapting authentic materials to help motivate students

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Using and Adapting Authentic Materials to Motivate Students

  1. 1. USING AND ADAPTING AUTHENTIC MATERIALS TO HELP MOTIVATE STUDENTS Richard Pinner rpinner@sophia.ac.jp
  2. 2. Overview 9:00~ 10:30 •Overview & Definition of Authenticity 10:45~ 12:15 •Methodological Approaches 13:30~ 15:00 •Text Resources Workshop Part 1 15:15~ 16:45 •Text Resources Workshop Part 2 17:00~ 18:00 •Assessment
  3. 3. Aims Examine how best to select and adapt authentic materials to use with students as a way of exposing them to other cultures and ways of thinking. To look at, observe and demonstrate tasks which utilise authentic materials. Participants will adapt materials and design their own tasks.
  4. 4. All about me… Pinner, R. S. (2014). The authenticity continuum: Towards a definition incorporating international voices. English Today, 30(4), 22-27. doi:10.1017/S0266078414000364 Pinner, R. S. (2016a). The nature of authenticity in English as a foreign language: a comparison of eight inter- related definitions. ELTWO Journal, 9(1), 78-93. Pinner, R. S. (2016b). Reconceptualising Authenticity for English as a Global Language. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Pinner, R. S. (2019). Social Authentication and Teacher-Student Motivational Synergy. London: Routledge. =
  5. 5. DEFINING AUTHENTICITY: THE DEBATE What is authenticity?
  6. 6. ENGLISH IS … Before we can start – finish this sentence
  7. 7. Fake
  8. 8. Charlie Chaplin came third in a Charlie Chaplin lookalike contest
  9. 9. What is authenticity in language teaching and learning?
  10. 10. • Writing on the WALL • IF KILLING GILMORE CAN CHANGE WRITING ON WALL STATEMENTS • MAKE THEM MORE SCIENTIFIC LIKERTS?
  11. 11. Authenticity comes from the Greek word authenteo which meant ‘to have full power’. The word is made of two parts; auto- means ‘self’ and hentes refers to the doer or being, and thus has etymological roots with autonomy (self and nomos as in law, self-governing).
  12. 12. Gilmore (2007) 8 ‘inter-related’ definitions 1. “the language produced by native speakers for native speakers in a particular language community 2. the language produced by a real speaker/writer for a real audience, conveying a real message 3. the qualities bestowed on a text by the receiver, in that it is not seen as something inherent in a text itself, but is imparted on it by the reader/listener) 4. the interaction between students and teachers and is a ‘personal process of engagement’ 5. the types of task chosen 6. the social situation of the classroom 7. assessment 8. culture, and the ability to behave or think like a target language group in order to be recognized and validated by them” From Gilmore (2007: 98)
  13. 13. What is authenticity? Native Real Self Classroom Task Social Assessment Culture
  14. 14. Two Basic Strands existential • interactions practical • materials Pinner, R. S. (2016). The nature of authenticity in English as a foreign language: a comparison of eight inter-related definitions. ELTWO Journal, 9(1), 78-93.
  15. 15. Authenticity is… the degree of congruence between one’s actions and one’s core self- conceptions – consisting of fundamental values, beliefs, and identities (Vannini & Burgess, 2009, p. 104) “
  16. 16. •Who is an authentic speaker of English? •Who represents the best models for our learners?
  17. 17. “native speaker”
  18. 18. What is a native speaker?
  19. 19. Native-speakerism Holliday, A. (2005). The struggle to teach English as an international language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  20. 20. What is your experience of Native- Speakerism?
  21. 21. All Englishes are equal, but some varieties are more equal than others Pinner, R. S. (2016). Reconceptualising Authenticity for English as a Global Language. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  22. 22. What Do you think Authenticity Is?
  23. 23. authentic materials are real, as in “not originally developed for pedagogical purposes, such as the use of magazines, newspapers, advertisements, news reports or songs” (Richards & Schmidt, 2013: 43). Richards, J. C., & Schmidt, R. W. (2013). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. Harlow: Routledge.
  24. 24. ‘Classic’ Definition
  25. 25. The Authenticity Continuum Pinner, R. S. (2014). The authenticity continuum: Towards a definition incorporating international voices. English Today, 30(4), 22-27. Pinner, R. S. (2016). Reconceptualising Authenticity for English as a Global Language. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
  26. 26. Graded Readers
  27. 27. Graded Reader
  28. 28. Video Project
  29. 29. Video Project
  30. 30. Class Journal
  31. 31. Class Journal
  32. 32. Reflection
  33. 33. Do you agree with this equation? Authenticity Motivation
  34. 34. What is Motivation? • Basically it’s why people do things. • For language learning it is often cited as the reason students are successful (or not). • One of the main factors contributing to motivation has been repeatedly shown to be….. • ….the teacher. (Dörnyei & Csizér, 1998 ; Chambers, 1999)
  35. 35. Extrinsic Intrinsic
  36. 36. Intrinsic Extrinsic
  37. 37. Show of hands Which do you find more motivating – materials from a course book or materials you have selected or created yourself?
  38. 38. The relationship between student and teacher motivation can be either positively or negatively synergistic. Deci et al (1997: 68) “
  39. 39. Teacher Motivation Student Motivation
  40. 40. Teacher Motivation Student Motivation
  41. 41. Motivational Synergy
  42. 42. There is a strong theoretical link Authenticity Motivation
  43. 43. Authenticity as a Gap Risking authenticity: Energy Return on Investment in Language Teaching (Pinner) 47/41
  44. 44. Authenticity as a Bridge Risking authenticity: Energy Return on Investment in Language Teaching (Pinner) 48/41
  45. 45. Do you get back what you put in? Risking authenticity: Energy Return on Investment in Language Teaching (Pinner) 49/41
  46. 46. Looking at the dynamic link between teacher and student Risking authenticity: Energy Return on Investment in Language Teaching (Pinner) 50/41
  47. 47. ERI Energy Return on Investment Risking authenticity: Energy Return on Investment in Language Teaching (Pinner) 51/41
  48. 48. Energy Return on Investment (ERI) • This is a term taken from physics and ecology, often used to explain the efficiency of fuels. • Energy is fundamentally defined as the ability to do work, and ERI is very basically the payback received • In terms of teaching, I apply ERI to refer to the amount of energy a teacher invests in the class, and how much energy (work) is returned by the students. Risking authenticity: Energy Return on Investment in Language Teaching (Pinner) 52/41
  49. 49. Energy Return on Investment (ERI) I hypothesise this to be the way that social authentication is forged. If there is a high congruence between teacher and learners, this creates a close synergy with reciprocal and mutually beneficial energy flow. At other times, unresponsive learners mean that a teacher will naturally reduce the amount of energy they expend on a class, which in turn has a knock-on effect for motivation. Risking authenticity: Energy Return on Investment in Language Teaching (Pinner) 53/41
  50. 50. Looking at the dynamic link between teacher and student Risking authenticity: Energy Return on Investment in Language Teaching (Pinner) 54/41
  51. 51. Risking authenticity: Energy Return on Investment in Language Teaching (Pinner) 55/41
  52. 52. Risking authenticity: Energy Return on Investment in Language Teaching (Pinner) 56/41
  53. 53. Risking authenticity: Energy Return on Investment in Language Teaching (Pinner) 57/41
  54. 54. PART 2 - METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES AND ICT A Theoretical Framework for adapting authentic materials
  55. 55. Authentic Tasks – Example A: The teacher brings an English language newspaper to class and has students read the text and underline every instance of the present perfect aspect or passive tense, and then ask them to copy them all out into their notebooks. – Example B: The teacher uses an ‘inauthentic’ text from a published course book which was contrived specifically to practise reported speech and then discuss other ways in which the speakers from the text could have said the same thing using different language. – Example C: The teacher asks students to use the internet to research about their favourite celebrity or hero and then create a short presentation in English to the rest of the class about that person. • Unlike Texts, Authentic Tasks can come from any source.
  56. 56. Useful Definition Authentic materials are ‘designed not to transmit declarative knowledge about the target language but rather to provide an experience of the language in use.’ (Tomlinson & Masuhara, 2010: 400) “
  57. 57. Mishan’s (2005) 3 Cs Culture Currency Challenge
  58. 58. Culture
  59. 59. Currency
  60. 60. Challenge
  61. 61. What are your experiences? • The most motivating class you ever taught? • The most authentic class you ever taught? • The least authentic class you have to teach? • The most high-tech class you ever taught?
  62. 62. Washback • How do exams affect your decision of what to teach in class? • Is there any way for you to combine authenticity and still prepare your students for their assessments? Cheng & Watanabe (2004)
  63. 63. Authentic texts?
  64. 64. Are authentic materials too confusing?
  65. 65. What can you do to help students deal with authentic texts?
  66. 66. Dealing with difficulty • Get them used to authentic materials • Coping Strategies – Panacea Method
  67. 67. Nanotechnology is not a for the problems faced by modern medicine, but it can help overcome some of the difficulties. panacea Problems Difficulties ≠ Solutions Answers Cure solution
  68. 68. Scaffolding?
  69. 69. Considerations for choosing materials
  70. 70. Context of Learners Choosing appropriate materials – what factors should you consider? – Age – Language difficulty (Flesch-Kinkaid) – Engagement / relevance – Sensitive issues
  71. 71. Adapting Materials Comprehension Form Focused (vocabulary and grammar). This should be dealt with in as interactive a way as possible – eg. Students could simply match up the numbers 1 -6 with a – e or they could check the words in a dictionary and teach them to their partners. Consider scaffolding. Engagement Once the main ideas of the materials are clear and students have been given time to prepare and understand, have them interact in a personal (authentic) way with the text/material. Eg. Asking opinions, debating, responding etc. Materials need face validity Reflection The students should be given a chance to reflect on the skills/language that they have used and the purpose this has in their own learning. In other words, Autonomy training. Students should know something about what and why they were learning.
  72. 72. What are Multimedia Materials • Have you ever used them in class? • Are these more motivating for students? Why? • Advantages and Disadvantages • What limitations are there? (facilities, time, money)
  73. 73. Some Examples • D-Volver • Google Maps • Podcasts • WebQuests • Video Lessons • Online Exchange Programs • Remote Access Field Trip (RAFT)
  74. 74. My student’s Video Project
  75. 75. Discussion • What are some of the possible constraints of using these resources? • Are you a technophile or a technophobe? • Can you see any advantages/disadvantages to using technology in class?
  76. 76. TED.com
  77. 77. Other ideas • Blended Learning • Moodle and Virtual Learning Environments • Webinars and Open Access Video Lectures (Harvard etc) • Create your own media/lesson share club at school. • Teacher training videos.com
  78. 78. Webquests • Download • Make your own
  79. 79. What are the best resources you know?
  80. 80. PART 3 & 4 – RESOURCES WORKSHOP Traditional ‘Textual’ Authentic Materials
  81. 81. Evaluation • Age of your learners • Language ability vs. difficulty of text • Engagement / relevance • Sensitive issues / appropriateness Adaptation • Comprehension • Engagement • Reflection
  82. 82. Task: Adapting Authentic Texts Form small groups You will be given an authentic text to use Discuss the merits of this text in groups Plan a lesson which you think would be suitable for this text Try to create some comprehension questions, discussion points and communicative tasks Explain your lesson plan to the class
  83. 83. Over to you
  84. 84. Over to you Share your plan, explain the process of your adapted lesson. Tell us how this is authentic and why you think it will be motivating.
  85. 85. Samples • Guardian Lessons • Weather Lesson • Film Lesson • Blockbusters
  86. 86. Summary • You can download the slides and additional resources at www.uniliterate.com • Please email me! rpinner@sophia.ac.jp
  87. 87. PART 5 - ASSESSMENT Adapting your own materials
  88. 88. Instructions • Time: 60 minutes • Sections: 2 • Part One: 45 Minutes The first part is a short essay about how you see your relationship to authenticity. • Part Two: 15 Minutes The second part of the assessment is a short questionnaire about your attitudes to authenticity. This part is optional. All materials must be submitted at the end, you will not be able to make a copy of this assessment.
  89. 89. Native-speaker Centric Before this workshop I just thought that ‘authentic’ means ‘native’; using a newspaper in English class is better than using a textbook. But now, at the end of the workshop, I can talk more about authenticity, giving my experiences today as an example. (Momoko) “
  90. 90. Authenticity, Self and Efficacy [...] I have felt negative about myself as a non- native English speaker who teaches English. Now, I don’t. Authenticity connects me not only to English but also learning. (Momoko) “
  91. 91. Authenticity, Self and Efficacy My idea about authenticity has changed dramatically by participating in this workshop. Before I joined this workshop, my definition of authenticity was the language material source from native speakers. […] “
  92. 92. Further • A resource for CLIL in Japan www.cliljapan.org • You can download the slides and additional resources at www.uniliterate.com • Please email me! rpinner@sophia.ac.jp
  93. 93. Thanks for your attention! See you later, alligator.
  94. 94. Authentic Englishes 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Comp Auth Comp Auth Comp Auth Comp Auth Comp Auth Comp Auth British American Indian Singpore Korean Geordie
  95. 95. What are Authentic Texts? • Does authenticity come only from native or L1 speakers of English? • Can something be authentic if it was produced by learners rather than native speakers? • If English is the world’s second language, what are authentic examples of English?
  96. 96. Native speakers may feel the language 'belongs' to them, but it will be those who speak English as a second or foreign language who will determine its world future. David Graddol, The Future of English 1997 “
  97. 97. Kachru (1985) Inner circle Outer circle Expanding circle
  98. 98. Graddol’s (1997) Three Circles of English Overlapping
  99. 99. Is World English Authentic? • What variety of English do you hope to teach your learners?

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