Teaching methodology skills ma

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Teaching methodology skills ma

  1. 1. Teaching Methodology: Language Skills 1
  2. 2. Course Syllabus  Course Objectives:  The course attempts to get us familiar with the various theoretical and practical aspects of understanding and teaching language skills and subskills. It will act as a foundation course for the related courses such as Practical Teaching, Materials Preparation, Testing, and ESP.    Course Requirement:  Students are required to prepare for scheduled classes and actively participate in the class discussions.  They will be asked to summarize and comment on parts of the course materials.  They are to submit a term project concerning the course related issues. 2
  3. 3.  Required texts:  Long, M. H., & Doughty, C. J. (ed.) (2009). The Handbook of language and 3 teaching. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.  Richards, J. C. & Renandya, W. A. (ed.) (2002). Methodology in language teaching: an anthology of current practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Related Articles    Additional texts:  Brown, D. H. (2001). 2nd ed. Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. NY: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. (Part IV of the book).  Celce- Murcia. M. (Ed.) (1991). Teaching English as a second or foreign language. 2nd ed. Boston. MA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.  Harmer, J. (2001). The practice of English language teaching. Essex, UK: Pearson Education Limited. (Chapters 13-19).  O'Malley, J. M., & Chamot, A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Ellis, R. (1990). Instructed second language acquisition. London: Basil Blackwell.
  4. 4. Teaching Listening Comprehension The Communicative language teaching & Listening Listening: a channel for comprehensible input (Krashen) Listening: an important feature of interlanguage for acquiring language Sources of meaning in text comprehension:1. input and 2. listener’s knowledge of language, general knowledge and context of interaction (limited by memory limitations) In conversational listening, comprehension is the result of joint action: listeners and speakers carry out individual communicative acts coordinately. 4
  5. 5. Three main topics involved in Teaching Listening: Cognitive & social dimensions of listening Approaches to teaching listening Assessment of listening Cognitive Dimensions of Listening:  Anderson’s (1995) model of perceptual processing, parsing & utilization ( a connectivist model). It explains interactive processes taking place in short-term memory, listening strategies, and listening problems  Connectionist Model: Proposes processing through a vast activation of interconnected and associative neural networks in the brain. 5
  6. 6. Cognitive Dimensions of Listening (Cont.) The processing and storage of information have been explained through Working memory which includes: The phonological loop and the visual-spatial sketchpad responsible for short-term processing The central executive directing attention to the input and coordinates various cognitive processes The episodic buffer integrating information processed through previous processing systems into a single mental presentation 6
  7. 7. Cognitive Dimensions of Listening (Cont.) Fundamental principles concerning cognition and listening: For processing to take place, attention must be directed at the input and some amount of decoding and analysis of the signals must occur. 2. As new information is being processed, it is acted upon by existing knowledge or schemata retrieved from long-term memory. (top-down) 3. The ability to process speech successfully depends on how much linguistic information is processed quickly. 1. 7
  8. 8. Social dimensions of listening Listening happens in texts or utterances. Face-face communication: gesture, other non-verbal / culturally bound cues The status relationships between interlocutors / power relationship Pragmatic comprehension: understanding speaker’s intention (implicature), making inferences and determining implied meaning The important role of language proficiency in processing both linguistic and contextual information Psychological dimension: language classroom, anxiety associated with listening and its effect on listening performance, motivation 8
  9. 9. Approaches to Teaching SL/FL Listening Bottom-up processing: Perception of sounds and words in speech stream  The primacy of the acoustic signal in listening comprehension  Adequate perception of lexical information as the first stage of using background information for interpreting the input  Word segmentation a major challenge for ESL and EFL listeners  Parsing the stream of speech into meaningful units and determining word boundaries are difficult to do 9
  10. 10. Solutions: 1. Native language segmentation procedure 10 applicable to the new language with different rhythm 2. Calling attention to prosodic features (stress and intonation) useful for determining word boundaries 3. Attending to pause-bounded units more useful than syntactic units 4. Inserting word boundaries before stressed syllables useful in identifying words 5. Using word-onset (initial phonemes of a word) a useful word-recognition strategy 6. Using lexical information and stress cues
  11. 11. Word recognition: Hulstijn’s (2003) six-step procedure in word recognition:  1. Listening to the oral text without reading the written version  2. Determining your level of comprehension  3. Replaying the recording as often as possible  4. Checking the written text  5. Recognizing what you should have understood  6. Replaying the recording until you understand it without written support 11
  12. 12. Word recognition (Cont.): Word-recognition training:  Analysis of parts of the text transcription, dictation, and analogy exercises  Listening to “i-1 level” texts: texts where most words are known  Dealing with prosodic level e.g. understanding the prominence (word stress in the context of discourse)  Understanding phonological modifications (e.g. elision, assimilation, liaison)  Using dictogloss (noticing the differences between their reconstruction of text and a written transcription of the original after listening) Listeners focus on their problems, consider reasons for their errors, and evaluate the importance of these errors  Repeating exactly and listening to reduced speech rate 12
  13. 13. Top-down processing: Teaching learners to reflect on the nature of listening and to self-regulate their comprehension processes Developing learner’s metacognitive knowledge about listening: individual’s understanding of the ways different factors act and affect the course and outcome of learning (listening) Metacongition: attributes to effective self-directed learning having positive effect on learning 13
  14. 14. Top-down processing (Cont.): Three levels of Metacongition knowledge about listening:  1. Person knowledge: Knowledge of personal factors supporting or holding back one’s listening  2. Task knowledge: Knowledge dealing with the purpose of a listening task, its demands, text organization and structure, factors hindering the task, and type of listening skills needed to achieve the listening purpose  3. Strategy knowledge: Strategies useful for improving listening comprehension  Tools to develop listening strategies: Listening Diaries, process-oriented discussions, questionnaires 14
  15. 15. Integrated Model for teaching SL/FL listening Including both bottom-up and top-down processes Listening curriculum to become affective involves an active, strategic and constructive process. Supporting individual listening through collaborative activities Including activities that involves the application of strategies (e.g. scaffolding)   Stages of Listening Instruction & Related Metacognitive Process (Vandergrift, 2004) 15
  16. 16. Listening in Language Learning (P. Nation) Listening and speaking : secondary skills , means to ends rather than ends in themselves  Listening fundamental to speaking: Without understanding input at any level no learning might happen easily  Top-down and Bottom-up: Two dominant language pedagogy since early 1980’s  Bottom-up: Listening as a process of decoding the sounds that one hears from smallest meaningful units to complete texts in a linear process  Phonemic Units Words Phrases Utterances Complete Texts  Listener viewed as a tape recorder: Takes in and stores messages 16
  17. 17. Top-down: Listener actively constructs (reconstructs) the original meaning of the speaker via using prior knowledge of the context and situation in which the listening takes place.  Context and situation: knowledge of topic at hand, the speaker/s, their relationship to the situation, prior events Types of Listening: Listening Purpose 2. Role of Listener 3. Type of text being listened to 1. 17
  18. 18. Listening Purpose Listening to news broadcast for general idea Listening to news broadcast for specific information Listening to a sequence of instructions for operating a machine Listening to a poem or short story Practice: Listening text held constant listened to for various purposes 18
  19. 19. Role of Listener Reciprocal Listening: The listener a participant in the event Nonreciprocal:  No chance to ask questions, answer back, clarify understanding, or check comprehension Listening Practice Personalizing the listening to enable learners have some control over the content of the lesson  Extension Tasks 19
  20. 20. Learner-centered Dimension of Listening  1. Tasked devised in a way that the classroom action centered around learners  2. Teaching materials can be given a learner-centered dimension through involving learners in their underlying learning and making them actively contribute to the learning: Instructional goals made explicit to the learner A degree of choice given to the students Chances given to learners to bring their experience and background knowledge to class Learners encouraged to develop a reflective attitude to learning and improve skills in self-monitoring and self-assessment 20
  21. 21. Changing the Face of Listening (J. Field) A standard format for listening lesson developed in the late 1960’s:  Pre-listening: Pre-teaching of all important new vocabulary  Listening: Extensive (general questions to be followed) Intensive (detailed questions to be followed)  Post-listening: Analysis of the language in the text Listen and repeat 21
  22. 22. The format of Listening now: 22
  23. 23.  The aims of pre-listening:  To provide sufficient context to match what is available in real life  To create motivation Listening:  Extensive/intensive  Preset Questions  Listening Tasks  Authentic Materials  Strategic Listening Post-listening:   23 No longer “examining the grammar of the text” No longer “Listen-and-repeat phase”
  24. 24. Raising Student’s Awareness of the Features of Real-World Listening Input (W. K. Lam)  Features of Real-World Listening Input The Use of Time-Creating Devices: Pause fillers The Use of Facilitation Devices Use of less complex structures such as reduced clauses e.g. Me too, So am I, … The Use of Compensation Devices Building Redundancy:  24 Repetitions Reformulation Rephrasing
  25. 25. Classroom Implication  Awareness Raising Exercises  Differences between Spoken and Written texts  Skills Enabling Exercises  Listening Materials produced for learners are artificial, they do not have redundancy, hesitations, repetitions, etc. , thus authentic materials are needed.  Students can produced their own listening materials.  They can be helped to write semi-scripted simulated authentic speech i.e. just the main ideas are given to the students  Students can be asked to give their own authentic speech on selected topics 25
  26. 26. Listening Self-study Nation, P. & Newton, J. (2007). Teaching ESL/EFL listening and speaking. Chapters 1-3 26
  27. 27. Four roughly equal strands in a well-balanced language course: Learning through meaning-focused input via listening and reading where the learner’s attention is on the ideas and messages conveyed by the language. 2. Learning through meaning-focused output via speaking and writing where the learner’s attention is on conveying ideas and messages to another person. 3. Learning through attention to language items and language features (language-focused learning) via 1.  direct vocabulary study,  grammar exercises and explanation,  attention to the sounds and spelling of the language,  attention to discourse features  the deliberate learning and practice of language learning and language use strategies. 27
  28. 28. 4. Developing fluent use of known language items and features over the four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing (fluency development)  Meaning-focused Input: Learning through Listening and Reading  Certain conditions necessary for the existence of the strand:  1. Most of what the learners are listening to or reading is already familiar to them.  2. The learners are interested in the input and want to understand it.  3. Only a small proportion of the language features are unknown to the learners. In terms of vocabulary, 95 percent to 98 percent of the running words should be within the learners’ previous knowledge, and so only five or preferably only one or two words per hundred should be unknown to them (Hu and Nation, 2000).  4. The learners can gain some knowledge of the unknown language items through context clues and background knowledge.  5. There are large quantities of input. 28
  29. 29.  Meaning-focused Output: Learning through Speaking and Writing  The same kinds of conditions apply to meaning-focused output as apply to meaning-focused input: 1. The learners write and talk about things that are largely familiar to them. 2. The learners’ main goal is to convey their message to someone else. 3. Only a small proportion of the language they need to use is not familiar to them. 4. The learners can use communication strategies, dictionaries, or previous input to make up for gaps in their productive knowledge. 5. There are plenty of opportunities to produce. 29
  30. 30. Swain’s (1985) output hypothesis clarifying the role of speaking and writing in second language learning. A reaction to Krashen’s (1985) input hypothesis and its failure in explaining the effects of immersion education. Definition: “Put most simply, the output hypothesis claims that the act of producing language (speaking and writing) constitutes, under certain circumstances, part of the process of second language learning”. Three functions for output: (1) the noticing/triggering function, (2) the hypothesis testing function, (3) the metalinguistic (reflective) function. 30
  31. 31. Three functions for Output  1. The noticing/triggering function: when learners are attempting to produce the second language and they consciously notice gaps in their knowledge. That is, they do not know how to say what they want to say. The effect on acquisition of noticing a gap through output could be significantly greater than the effect of noticing through input in two ways:  First, productive learning involves having to search for and produce a word form, whereas receptive learning involves having to find a meaning for a word form. Productive learning typically results in more and stronger knowledge than receptive learning (Griffin and Harley, 1996).  Second, generative use involves meeting or using previously met language items in ways that they have not been used or met before and produces deeper learning than the simple retrieval of previously met items (Joe, 1998) 31
  32. 32. Three functions for Output The full effect of the noticing/triggering function is complete after learners have had the chance to make up for the lack that they have noticed which can occur in several ways:  First, having noticed a gap during output, the learners then notice items in input that they did not notice before. If learners notice that there is something they do not know when writing, they later “read like a writer” giving attention to how others say what they wanted to say.  Second, having noticed a gap during output, learners may successfully fill that gap through a lucky guess, trial and error, the use of analogy, first language transfer, or problem solving.  Third, having noticed a gap during output, learners may deliberately seek to find the item by reference to outside sources like teachers, peers, or dictionaries. 32
  33. 33. Three functions for Output  2 . The hypothesis-testing function involves the learner trying out something and then confirming or modifying it on the basis of perceived success and feedback. The function is particularly important in interaction when learners negotiate with each other or a teacher to clarify meaning. The feedback provided in negotiation can improve not only the comprehensibility of input, but can also be a way for learners to improve their output.  3. The metalinguistic (reflective) function involves largely spoken output being used to solve language problems in collaboration with others. Common classroom applications: activities like the strip story, and dictogloss where learners work together to construct or reconstruct a text, communication tasks (explicit structure-based tasks) involving learners in solving grammar problems through meaning-focused output with grammar structures being the topic of communication 33
  34. 34. Language-focused Learning  Various names—focus on form, form focused instruction, deliberate study and deliberate teaching, learning as opposed to acquisition, intentional learning, and so on  Involving deliberate learning of language features such as pronunciation, spelling, vocabulary, grammar, and discourse.  The ultimate aim: To deal with messages  The short-term aim: To learn language items.  Typical activities: pronunciation practice, using substitution tables and drills, learning vocabulary from word cards, intensive reading, translation, memorizing dialogues, and getting feedback about writing and deliberate learning of strategies such as guessing from context or dictionary 34
  35. 35. Language-focused Learning  Conditions for language-focused learning:  1. Deliberate attention to language features  2. Processing the language features in deep and thoughtful ways  3. Having opportunities to give spaced, repeated attention to the same features  4. The features focused on should be simple and not dependent on developmental knowledge that the learners do not have.  5. Features studied in the language-focused learning strand should also occur often in the other three strands of the course. 35
  36. 36. Language-focused Learning Language-focused learning possible effects: it can add directly to implicit knowledge it can raise consciousness to help later learning it can focus on systematic aspects of the language it can be used to develop strategies. 36
  37. 37. Becoming Fluent in Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing The fluency development strand is meaning-focused i.e. the learners’ aim is to receive and convey messages  Certain conditions needed for The fluency strand : 1. All of what the learners are listening to, reading, speaking or writing is largely familiar to them. That is, there are no unfamiliar language features, or largely unfamiliar content or discourse features. 2. The learners’ focus is on receiving or conveying meaning. 3. There is some pressure or encouragement to perform at a faster than usual speed. 4. There is a large amount of input or output. 37
  38. 38.  Balancing the Four Strands  Integrating the Four Strands  Principles and the Four Strands:  1. Provide and organize large amounts of comprehensible input through both listening and reading.  2. Boost learning through comprehensible input by adding a deliberate element.  3. Support and push learners to produce spoken and written output in a variety of appropriate genres.  4. Provide opportunities for cooperative interaction.  5. Help learners deliberately learn language items and patterns, including sounds, spelling, vocabulary, multi-word units, grammar, and discourse.  6. Train learners in strategies that will contribute to language learning. 38
  39. 39. 7. Provide fluency development activities in each of the four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. 8. Provide a roughly equal balance of the four strands of meaning focused input, meaning-focused output, language-focused learning, and fluency development. 9. Plan for the repeated coverage of the most useful language items. 10. Use analysis, monitoring and assessment to help address learners’ language and communication needs. 39
  40. 40. Learning Goals (1) language items such as sounds, vocabulary and grammatical constructions, (2) the content or ideas of the subject being studied such as geography, English literature, (3) language skills such as listening, writing, fluency in using known items, and strategies for coping with language difficulties, (4) the organization of discourse such as rhetorical features and communication strategies 40
  41. 41. Beginning to Listen and Speak in Another Language The aims of a beginners course in listening and speaking: (1) to help the learners to be able to cope with meaning-focused input and meaning focused output as soon as possible; (2) to motivate them in their language study by getting them to engage in successful listening and speaking; (3) to make the early learning as relevant as possible to their language use needs. 41
  42. 42. What Should Beginners Learn? A set of learning priorities for a type of beginners: 1. Using a New Alphabet 2. Phrases for Talking about Yourself 3. Phrases and Vocabulary for Everyday Life 4. Sight Vocabulary 5. Classroom Expressions 6. High Frequency Words 42
  43. 43. How Should the Teaching and Learning be Done?  Five Principles for Teaching Beginners: MINUS 1 Meaning Focus on meaningful and relevant language 2 Interest Maintain interest through a variety of activities 3 New language Avoid overloading learners with too much new language 4 Understanding Provide plenty of comprehensible input 5 Stress-free Create a friendly, safe, cooperative classroom environment 43
  44. 44. Activities and Approaches for Teaching and Learning in a Beginners’ Course Memorizing Useful Phrases and Sentences The following list is ranked in order of importance. 1. The learners think of things they want to be able to say and the teacher provides the second language phrase to say this. 2. The teacher thinks of the uses the learners need to make of the language and thinks of useful phrases to meet these needs. In some cases this may involve the teacher talking to the learners about their language needs and observing their daily use of the language. 3. The teacher consults lists of useful and frequent phrases that researchers have developed. 4. The teacher follows a course book. 44
  45. 45. Practicing Sentence Patterns Guiding Listening and Speaking through Techniques:  What is it?  Listening grids  Surveys  Interview  Quizzes  Puzzles  Listen and do  Bingo  Listening to pictures  Information transfer 45
  46. 46. Techniques for Early Meaning-focused Speaking Descriptions Stage one, two and three questions: Stage one questions ask for an answer that can be pointed to either in a picture or a reading passage Stage two questions make the learners think Stage three questions ask learners to use their imagination Ask and move Twenty questions walk and talk the same or different odd one out 46
  47. 47. Teaching Speaking CLT: highlighted speaking as a central skill. In all communicative models: Speaking as a medium rather than a target skill to be considered The problem Space: Major questions: 1. How does a stretch of speech provide evidence of a speaker’s proficiency? 2. What can be done to go beyond a specific level of proficiency? 47
  48. 48. 1. How does a stretch of speech provide evidence of a speaker’s proficiency? - The quality of the language repertoire used by the speakers including the aspects of language needed to complete a task: phonological, morpho-syntactic, lexical, collocational, discoursal, and pragmatics evidence  - The ability to use the data to evaluate speaker’s capacities (that depends on the evaluator’s capacity to detect differences in grouping the features)  - The ability to distinguish between the proficiency levels People assessing speaker’s proficiency might be affected due to:  Their own data-based experience of the task  Checking the presence of features likely to correlate with a specific level of proficiency  Knowing the circumstances of performance  48
  49. 49. The Construct of Spoken Language  Second Language Speaking construct: 1. The repertoire: the range of features and combinations of features that it manifests, in addition to their respective probabilities 2. The range of conditions that explain the occurrence of these features 49
  50. 50. The Spoken Repertoire The condition of production affecting the shape of speaking Three main subgroups of linguistic features: Phonological: segmental and super-segmental) Lexico-grammatical: morphological and syntactic resources, a lexical store, formulaic and pragmalinguistic units Discourse: socio-pragmatic features, pragmatic discourse structures 50
  51. 51. Macro socio-pragmatic purposes determine the use of these features to carry out a particular local social and informational purpose. Hierarchy of linguistic abilities based on the above mentioned account: Micro level: Phonemes serve the purpose of instantiating lexicogrammatical items Mezzo level: Lexico-grammatical items in turn serve the purpose of conveying meaning Overarching macro level: achieving human convergence 51
  52. 52. Data from corpus studies confirming two main dimensions: Fragmentation / integration Involvement / detachment Fragmentation: Relative lack of group modification and subordination, the relative frequency of sub-clause level units or fragments, and the occurrence of overt editing features  Overt editing, paratactic utterance construction, Involvement: features signaling personal identity and group membership, features conveying personal feelings and attitudes to the interlocutor or the content of dicourse  Turn taking, adjacency pairs, exchanges, repairs, 52
  53. 53. Conditions of speech Fragmentation and involvement are restricted by conditions of speech Presence condition: speech is used in the presence of interlocutor Two conditions due to the presence of interlocutor:  Reciprocity: reflects the interlocutor’s speaking rights i.e. the speaker should consider interlocutor’s knowledge, interests, and expectations and his/her understanding and participation  Time-pressure: the need to allow the interlocutor time to speak 53
  54. 54. Processes of oral language production Four main phases of processing (usually called Intrapersonal and information-oriented): Conceptualization:  Access of long term memory, tracking of the discourse, tracking of interlocutor knowledge and expectations, overall pragmatic purpose, and specific pragmatic-conceptual content of utterances Formulation  Principally lexico-grammatical selections, sequencing, phonological priming Articulation  The physical process of segmental and super segmental processing Covert and overt monitoring 54
  55. 55. Two important aspects within this model: 1. The dimension of automated versus controlled modes of processing  Controlled is associated with conceptual and formulation phases of processing, and effective speech monitoring  Automated is associated with articulation and to some extent to formulation, is associated with fluency, complexity and accuracy 2. If the control and automation are gradable or categorical conditions 55
  56. 56. Construct of Oral Language Development Based on cognitive psychology and cognition of language:  Declarative knowledge: factual (knowing that)  Semantic memory (memory for concepts)  Episodic memory (memory of events)  Procedural knowledge: how to do something (knowing how) Much declarative knowledge is needed and accompanied with procedural one to function in communication The other perspective considers a distinction between repertoire (declarative knowledge) and the person’s capacity to use it (procedural knowledge) 56
  57. 57. Three major issues in development of approaches to teaching oral language 1. Range of types of knowledge required for learners: (declarative and procedural) including linguistic, pragmatic, and discourse patterns 2. The ways in which procedural abilities can be developed in classroom:  How best to distribute pedagogical activities  How best to use particular activities 3. The place of declarative work in managing oral language development and the role of explicit instruction 57
  58. 58. Teaching Speaking (Richards & Renandya) Speaking is a hard task for EFL learners: appropriate use of language in social interaction Factors affecting adult EFL learners’ oral communication 1. Age or Maturational Constraints  Beginning learning a second language at an early age through natural exposure different from learning at a later age (fluency and native like concerns) 2. Aural Medium  Speaking feeds on listening  Speaking is interwoven with listening 58
  59. 59. Teaching Speaking  3. Sociocultural Factors  Pragmatic perspective: lang. a form of social action i.e. linguistic communication happens in the context of structured interpersonal exchange, and meaning socially regulated  Nonverbal communication 4. Affective Factors  -self-esteem  -empathy  -anxiety  -attitude  -motivation 59
  60. 60. Teaching Speaking Components Underlying Speaking Effectiveness 1. Grammatical Competence  Grammar (morphology, syntax), vocabulary, & mechanics (the basic sounds of letters, syllables, pronunciation of words, intonation, and stress) 2. Discourse Competence  Intersentential relationship 3. Sociolinguistic Competence  Knowing what is expected socially and culturally by users of target language, acquiring the rules and norms governing the appropriate timing and realization of speech acts 4. Strategic Competence  The way learners manipulate language to meet communicative goals 60
  61. 61. Teaching Speaking 61
  62. 62. Teaching Speaking Interaction as the key to improve EFL learners’ Speaking Abilities Speaking Functions:  Interactional (maintaining social interactions)  Transactional (conveying information & ideas) Small Talk Interactive Activities 62
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  67. 67. Teaching and Testing Reading (Long &.)  Research Foundation  1. Letter-sound correspondences  Beginning readers need to build strong linkages between orthographic forms and the sounds of the language.  All young learners benefiting from explicit instruction in letter-sound correspondence being also very important in L2 reading.  A strong relationship bet. Phonological awareness and text reading efficiency  Good Readers:  Recognize words on average in about 200-250 milliseconds  Move their eyes ahead about 8 letter spaces per focus  Make regressive eye movements about 12 percent of time  Focus on more than %80 of content words and about %35 on function words 67
  68. 68. Teaching and Testing Reading (Long &.) 2. Vocabulary Knowledge Fluent readers (both L1 & L2) have very large recognition- vocabulary knowledge which is highly correlated with reading ability Vocabulary learning can lead to reading comprehension improvement 3. Morphology, syntax, & discourse knowledge Morphological knowledge much more important to advanced word recognition and reading development Strong relationships between syntax and discourse knowledge and reading comprehension 68
  69. 69. Teaching and Testing Reading (Long &.) 4. Strategic Processing Strategic processes ( inferencing, goal setting, ..) and meta- cognition affecting reading comprehension A low to moderate effect existing between strategy training and L2 reading comprehension 5. Extended Exposure to Print Extended Reading over a long period of time improving reading comprehension abilities. 6. Fluency Existing a moderate correlation between word reading fluency and reading comprehension 69
  70. 70. Teaching and Testing Reading (Long &.) L1 and L2 Reading Differences 1. L2 learners having much smaller linguistic knowledge base of the L2 when starting to read 2. L2 learners having much less experience with reading exposure 3. L2 learners experiencing L2 reading differently due to having experiences reading in two languages 4. L2 learners experiencing a range of transfer effects, some interfering while some facilitating 5. L2 learners relying on a different combination of general background knowledge 6. L2 learners facing distinct social and cultural assumptions in L2 texts 70
  71. 71. Teaching and Testing Reading (Long &.)  Implications for L2 Reading Instruction and Assessment The skills and knowledge resources required for RC:  1. The ability to decode graphic forms for efficient WR  2. The ability to access the meaning of a large number of words  3. The ability to draw meaning from phrase- and clause level grammatical info.  4. The ability to combine clause-level meanings to build a larger network of meaning  5. The ability to recognize discourse-level relationships  6. The ability to use reading strategies  7. The ability to set goals for reading  8. The ability to use inferences of various types 71
  72. 72. Teaching and Testing Reading (Long &.)  9. The ability to draw on prior knowledge  10. The ability to evaluate, integrate, and synthesize information from the text  11. The ability to maintain these processes fluently  12. The ability to maintain motivation in persisting reading Teaching Reading A set of more general curricular principles when building a reading curriculum:  1. Integrating four skills and conceptualizing L2 reading instruction including extensive practice and exposure to print 72
  73. 73. Teaching and Testing Reading (Long &.)  2. Reading materials required to be interesting, varied, good-looking, accessible, ..  3. Some degree of reader’s choice  4. No need for special materials to introduce reading skills  5. Lessons including pre-reading, during-reading, and post-reading activities  6. The developmental goals to be followed through curriculum:  a) Developing WR skills  b) Building a large recognition voc.  c) Building awareness of discourse structure  d) Practicing comprehension skills  e) Promoting strategic reading 73
  74. 74. Teaching and Testing Reading (Long &.)  f) Practicing reading fluency  g) Developing extensive reading  h) Developing motivation  i) Combing language learning with content learning 74
  75. 75. Teaching Reading (Richards & Renandya) 26 Nine Dilemma concerning reading research and instructional practices:  1. Many different contexts for L2 reading instruction  2. The irrelevance of much of SLA research for L2 reading research  3. Lack of sufficient formal aspects of language and genre structure contributing to reader’s developing comprehension and inferencing abilities  4. The difficulty with learning large amount of voc.  5. The social context of student’s home environment strongly influencing reading development (e.g. social class)  6. Learning to read by reading a lot (i.e. extensive reading)  7. Using appropriate reading strategies, when and with what combinations 75
  76. 76. Teaching Reading (Richards & Renandya) 8. Schema theory is hardly a theory, very little research indicate how it works and how it helps reading 9. Students must learn transition from learning to read to reading to learn other information 76
  77. 77. Teaching Reading (Richards & Renandya) 27 Teaching Strategic Reading Plans for solving problems faced in constructing meaning A comprehensive Approach (transactional) 1. Embedded in content area 2. Strategies taught via direct explanation, teacher modeling, and feedback 3. Strategies constantly recycled over new texts and tasks 4. Strategy use developing over the long time 77
  78. 78. Teaching Reading (Richards & Renandya) 27 78
  79. 79. Teaching Reading (Richards & Renandya) 27 Analysis of Strategy Use 79
  80. 80. Teaching Reading (Richards & Renandya) 28 Reading (ER) 80 Extensive
  81. 81. Teaching Reading (Richards & Renandya) 28 Students read large amount of material Students usually choose what they want to read Reading materials vary in terms of topic and genre The materials are within their level of comprehension Students usually take part in post-reading activities Teachers read with their students Teachers and students keep track of student progress 81
  82. 82. Teaching Reading (Richards & Renandya) 28 The benefits of ER 82
  83. 83. Teaching Writing (Long & …) Lack of coherent theory of writing, none of the existing ones are comprehensive The focus: L2 writers’ processes L2 writers’ knowledge ( that the writers bring to the writing task) L2 writing needs: Learning an L2 Creating a text Adapting it to a specific discourse community 83
  84. 84. Teaching Writing (Long & …) Cognitive Factors in Learning to Write L2 should be acquired and generated to write into it Writing can help L2 in return 1. Writing as focus on form and pushed output Teacher’s attempt to draw students’ attention to form, however paying attention to form is possible without teacher’s help Attention to form and meaning at the same time is possible Collaborative writing activities (e.g. dictogloss) cause the increase of attention to form Swain believes learners need to complete tasks that helps them go beyond their current levels by producing pushed output. 84
  85. 85. Teaching Writing (Long & …) Planning opportunities causes effectiveness of form focused and pushed output activities 2. Grammar Error Correction Its effectiveness is under question It facilitates language acquisition The Writing Process & Process Approach The expressivists consider writing as a process of discovering 85 meaning and personal voice The cognitive approach consider writing as a problem-solving activity
  86. 86. Teaching Writing (Long & …) Process writing:  an exploratory & recursive, rather than linear, pre-determined process  1. Second Language Learners’ Composing Processes Think aloud protocol (the writers talk about what they are writing as they do it) Writing process after a specific kind of instruction such as Pre-writing (e.g. generating ideas before writing) 2. Teacher Feedback More research on Teacher’s feedback on content and organization Usually students respond to feedback when rewriting their papers Teachers and students should communicate on feedback 86
  87. 87. Teaching Writing (Long & …) 3. Peer Response Attitude: Ss prefer feedback by Teacher’s rather than learner’s, sometimes both preferred The quality of feedback: Learners started negotiations when did not understand the meaning but never corrected grammar Peer response training on the quality of writing: not a great difference between those trained and the ones not trained. Peer response instruction (not the peer response) is beneficial 87
  88. 88. Teaching Writing (Long & …) Post-Process Approaches 1. Genre-based Writing Instruction The early emphasis of process writing on individual voice and self- discovery is objected, due to lack of knowledge on the part of most learners, and also less attention to form  Genres are socially constructed and goal-oriented. Written genres to be only understood within a specific context and are produced for specific social purposes. Different schools:  Some focus on linguistic features (Sydney School & Halliday)  How registers are constructed from linguistic resources  New Rhetoric: language is inherently dialogic connecting the past to the present new texts to previous texts, speakers and writers to their social context,(their audience) 88
  89. 89. Teaching Writing (Long & …) Situated learning approaches: learning is viewed as a social process, embedded in relationships between experts and novices, rather than as the transfer of knowledge Advantages of genre-based over process based  Genre -based is explicit and systematic  The Genres chosen for instruction are based on students’ need Disadvantages:  Genres are so embedded in their contexts that it is too complex to divorce them from these contexts and teach them  Genres are merely recipes. No communicative purposes were given.  Very little research exists in the field. 89
  90. 90. Teaching Writing (Long & …) 2. Sociocultural Approaches The most important forms of human cognitive activity develop through interaction within these social and material environments Internalization: the process of making what was once external assistance a resource that is internally available to the individual  Assistance is called scaffolding  Collaborative learning precedes and promotes individual development 3. Critical Pedagogy  Previous pedagogies reinforce power relationships and simply teach writers to adopt stances and genres that maintain their powerless positions, however, Critical Pedagogy helps learners get familiar with these relationships, articulate them, and challenge them. Classroom is seen as a social and political context with its own power relationships .  90
  91. 91. Teaching Writing (Richards & Renandya) Ten steps in planning writing course and training teachers of writing 1. Ascertaining goals and institutional constraints 2. Deciding on theoretical principles 3. Planning content 4. Weighing the elements 5. Drawing up a syllabus  1. Structural  2. Functional  3. Topical  4. Situational  5. Skills and processes  6. Tasks 91
  92. 92. Teaching Writing (Richards & Renandya) 6. Selecting Materials Topics, Types of writing, Opportunities for and instruction in methods of generating ideas, instruction on principles of rhetorical organization, opportunities for collaboration, opportunities for revision, instruction in editing and proofreading 7. Preparing activities and roles 8. Choosing types and methods of feedback 9. Evaluating the course 10. Selecting the teacher’s experience 92
  93. 93. Selecting type of feedback (by teachers) 93
  94. 94. The writing Process and process writing 94
  95. 95. A genre-based approach to content writing instruction Teaching students to self-edit 95
  96. 96. Teaching Grammar  Formal grammarians assume a faculty of language must provide  first a structured inventory of possible lexical items  second the grammatical rules or principles that allow infinite combinations of symbols, hierarchically organized  Functional grammarians believe that the USE determines the FORM that is used for a particular Purpose.  Pragmatics and meaning are central  Three types of meaning in grammatical structure:  1. Ideational meaning: how our experience and inner thoughts are represented  2. interpersonal meaning: how we interact with others through language  3. textual meaning: how coherence is created in spoken and written texts  Newer functional and cognitive linguistics focus on the use. These theories are called usage-based holding the idea that grammatical rules do not precede but emerge from language use.  Grammar defined pedagogically which consider both traditional and newer approaches: A system of meaningful structures and patterns that are governed by particular pragmatic constraints. (Form, Meaning, Use) 96
  97. 97. Teaching Grammar Approaches to Teaching Grammar: PPP, Input-processing, Focus on form, grammaring PPP  An understanding of the grammar point is presented  Students practice the grammar structure  Automatic and accurate use of grammar is promoted through communication  Non-interventionist: explicit grammar instruction has very little impact on the natural acquisition process, since studying grammar rules can never lead to unconscious use in fluent communication. So being exposed to comprehensible input in an affectively non-threatening situation is the only way to acquire language. 97
  98. 98. Teaching Grammar Input-processing Due to the problem of difficulty in attending simultaneously to meaning and form, VanPatten believes that learners are guided to pay attention to a feature in the target language input that is likely to cause a problem. Focus on Form Due to the need for awareness to some aspects of L2 to learn them, there is a call for the focus on form within a communicative or meaning-based approach to language teaching such as task-based or content-based language teaching  Input enhancement: attempts to make certain features of the input more outstanding e.g. visual enhamncement 98
  99. 99. Teaching Grammar  Output production: comprehensible input alone is not adequate for L2 acquisition, comprehensible output forces learners to move from semantic processing of input to syntactic processing in order to produce target output. Grammaring: The ability to use grammar structures accurately, meaningfully, and appropriately. Explicit versus implicit revisited Metalanguage Syllabus Design Individual Differences Error Correction/feedback Spoken vs. Written Grammar 99
  100. 100. Teaching Grammar ( Richards & Renandya) Seven Bad Reasons for Teaching Grammar-and Two Good ones 1. Because it’s there 2. It’s tidy 3. It’s testable 4. Grammar as a security blanket 5. It made me who I am 6. You have to teach the whole system 7. Power Two Good Reasons: Comprehensibility 100 Acceptability
  101. 101. Addressing the Grammar Gap in Task Work 101
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  104. 104. Teaching Pronunciation 104
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  106. 106. An Outline of one way to incorporate phonological components into ESL lessons: 1. Speaking involves two or more people who use language for international or transactional purposes. It is not the oral expressions of written language. 2. Spoken language imparts referential and effective meaning. Revealing our interest, attitudes, towards topics or people we talk to via prosodic features: stress, intonation, pitch variation and volume. 3. Native like speech takes time. 4. Not all problems will be at the level of production, some are associated with perception. 5. Learners should have some understanding of the role of phonology plays in language leaning. 106
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