Nyikos Strategy Presentation07


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  • Note: This slide show has been posted without my permission and without attribution to its original source. It seems to have been taken by M. Sajid us Salam and posted as if it were his/her own. For all future references to this slide show, please contact me.

    --Dr. Martha Nyikos, Indiana University
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Nyikos Strategy Presentation07

  1. 1. Language Learning Strategies M.Sajid us Salam M.Phil Linguistics The Islamia University Bahawalpur [email_address]
  2. 2. Using Learning Strategies to Overcome Affective Barriers to Efficient Learning Affective: Motivation; Anxiety; Willingness to communicate; Attitudes and Beliefs toward language learning. But what are strategies? 
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>Learning strategies are &quot;operations…to aid the: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>acquisition, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>storage, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retrieval, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use of information. . .” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Oxford, 1990, p.8) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Definition <ul><li>LLS are the specific actions…to make learning </li></ul><ul><li>easier, </li></ul><ul><li>faster, </li></ul><ul><li>more enjoyable, </li></ul><ul><li>more self-directed, </li></ul><ul><li>more effective, and </li></ul><ul><li>more transferable to new situations. </li></ul><ul><li>(Oxford, 1990, p. 8). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Operational Definition <ul><li>LLS are the [purposeful steps] used by language learners to </li></ul><ul><li>comprehend and process new information more deeply, </li></ul><ul><li>to help to recall old information, and </li></ul><ul><li>apply knowledge and skills to facilitate problem-solving. </li></ul><ul><li>(Nyikos, 1991/[2003], p.25). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definition <ul><li>LLS are &quot;behaviors or thoughts that a learner engages in during… the learner's encoding process.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>These strategies &quot;are the techniques for the learner's conscious construction of language rules, vocabulary, pronunciation, discourse, and sociocultural understanding. (Weinstein & Mayer, 1986, p. 315).   </li></ul>
  7. 7. Definition <ul><li>Language learning strategies are </li></ul><ul><li>steps the learner takes to: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate the  Storage  Retrieval ---  Use </li></ul><ul><li>of language. What about stress, anxiety, lack of motivation? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Common Elements <ul><li>Conscious </li></ul><ul><li>Planful/Purposeful </li></ul><ul><li>Task-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Not readily observable </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on cognitive functions </li></ul><ul><li>Coupled with social and affective needs during communication </li></ul>
  9. 9. Focus on the Learner <ul><li>Students are rarely shown HOW to learn and study (modeling) </li></ul><ul><li>Just told: “ You must learn +memorize ” </li></ul><ul><li>In reality, they must </li></ul><ul><li>listen and read meaningfully, </li></ul><ul><li>speak and write… so others can understand </li></ul>
  10. 10. Oxford’s strategy types in taxonomy (1990) <ul><li>Memory Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Affective Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Strategies </li></ul>
  11. 11. Direct Strategies <ul><li>I. Memory strategies </li></ul><ul><li>A. Creating mental linkages </li></ul><ul><li>B. Applying images and sounds </li></ul><ul><li>C. Reviewing well </li></ul><ul><li>D. Employing action </li></ul><ul><li>II. Cognitive strategies </li></ul><ul><li>A . Practicing </li></ul><ul><li>B. Receiving and sending messages </li></ul><ul><li>C. Analyzing and reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>D. Creating structure for input and output </li></ul><ul><li>III. Compensation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>A. Guessing intelligently </li></ul><ul><li>B. Overcoming limitations in speaking and writing </li></ul>
  12. 12. Indirect Strategies <ul><li>I. Metacognitive strategies </li></ul><ul><li>A. Centering your learning </li></ul><ul><li>B. Arranging and planning your learning </li></ul><ul><li>C. Evaluating your learning </li></ul><ul><li>II. Affective strategies </li></ul><ul><li>A. Lowering your anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>B. Encouraging yourself </li></ul><ul><li>C. Taking your emotional temperature </li></ul><ul><li>III. Social strategies </li></ul><ul><li>A. Asking questions </li></ul><ul><li>B. Cooperating with others </li></ul><ul><li>C. Empathizing with others </li></ul>
  13. 13. Learner Autonomy <ul><li>By using selected, task-appropriate strategies, language students are viewed as being: </li></ul><ul><li> in transition to be autonomous, </li></ul><ul><li>self-regulated learners, that is, </li></ul><ul><li> learners who take significant responsibility for their own learning. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Research has demonstrated <ul><li>That learners are actively involved in their learning </li></ul><ul><li>Use different kinds of strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Have different beliefs about strategy use and learning approaches </li></ul><ul><li>That several factors have powerful influence on strategy choice/use: </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation, proficiency, years of study, sex, major, if requirement </li></ul>
  15. 15. Major findings related to successful language learning : Adapted from Naiman et al (1978), p. 103 <ul><li>The learner must be active in learning and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>must begin to view the language as a system. </li></ul><ul><li>must use the language in real </li></ul><ul><li>communication. </li></ul><ul><li>must monitor his interlanguage. </li></ul><ul><li>must come to terms with the affective demands of language learning. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The good language learner: Rubin, 1975, p.45-47 <ul><li>is guesser, but an accurate guesser! </li></ul><ul><li>has a strong drive to communicate. </li></ul><ul><li>is not often inhibited (a risk-taker). </li></ul><ul><li>focuses on communication, but also attends to form. </li></ul><ul><li>practices—and creates opportunities to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>knows what is appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>monitors his own and the speech of others. </li></ul><ul><li>attends to meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively participates (aloud and silently). </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>All Learning VARIES with </li></ul><ul><li>TASK (Skehan) </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>LEARNING STYLE (Reid) </li></ul><ul><li>GENDER (Nyikos) </li></ul><ul><li>CULTURE (Peacock & Ho) </li></ul><ul><li>MOTIVATION (Dornyei) </li></ul><ul><li>PROFICIENCY (Oxford & Nyikos) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Key Theories Guiding Learning Strategy Research <ul><li>Information Processing Theory – </li></ul><ul><li>Associative Learning (associate personally meaningful links, e.g. Keyword mnemonic), </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of Processing (longer engaged the student, the deeper the processing and thus, memory) </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocognitive Theory -(esp, in cooperative learning) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Research approaches to discover students’ strategies through tasks <ul><li>TASK- Must Memorize Given List </li></ul><ul><li>While memorizing ask ss. to write down what they notice they are doing to memorize. </li></ul><ul><li>(1) in a NARRATIVE form; and </li></ul><ul><li>(2) in STEP-BY-STEP fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>OR: Diagram the process graphically (picture, arrows). </li></ul>
  21. 21. Research Approaches to discovering learner strategies <ul><li>Oral interviews and Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Report via Think Aloud </li></ul><ul><li>Diaries and dialogue journals </li></ul><ul><li>Retrospective studies via interviews or stimulated recall </li></ul>
  22. 22. Oral Interviews and Questionnaires Number  of respondents <ul><li>too much information </li></ul><ul><li>too individualized, therefore difficult to determine patterns </li></ul><ul><li>too simplistic </li></ul><ul><li>may suggest a “preferred” response </li></ul>Disadvantages <ul><li>respondents free to pursue personal interest </li></ul><ul><li>lends itself to statistical analysis </li></ul>Advantages Low High Degree of Structure  <ul><li>difficult to generalize unless a large number are gathered </li></ul><ul><li>responses influenced by social desirability or shyness </li></ul><ul><li>may not transfer well from one setting to another </li></ul>Disadvantages <ul><li>more detail </li></ul><ul><li>useful insights </li></ul><ul><li>time and cost </li></ul><ul><li>potential for generating and testing hypotheses </li></ul>Advantages Low (e.g., case study) High (e.g., group interview or questionnaire)
  23. 23. Observation <ul><li>inability to produce descriptions of internal or mentalistic strategies </li></ul><ul><li>likely to derive data only on more verbal students </li></ul><ul><li>bias inherent in an observer’s description </li></ul><ul><li>student behavior may change with observer’s presence </li></ul>Disadvantages <ul><li>impartial, objective </li></ul><ul><li>likely to be more quantitative </li></ul>Advantages
  24. 24. Verbal Report (e.g. Think-aloud protocol) <ul><li>cognitive processing is inaccessible because it is unconscious, therefore researchers must raise respondents’ level of awareness or only measure consciously accessible processes </li></ul><ul><li>probes may force the subject to produce a verbal response not closely related to actual thought processes because of a lack of verbal skills or L2 ability </li></ul><ul><li>intrusive effect </li></ul><ul><li>take too much time, e.g., 20 minutes to explain 1.5 second of thought </li></ul>Disadvantages <ul><li>dependent on the information processing model as a framework </li></ul><ul><li>works best as a complement to other means of research </li></ul><ul><li>has a strong, historical foundation of use </li></ul><ul><li>high correlations with subsequent behavior </li></ul><ul><li>reveal what information is attended to while performing tasks </li></ul>Advantages
  25. 25. Diaries & Dialogue Journals <ul><li>volume of data </li></ul><ul><li>potentially random nature of the entries </li></ul><ul><li>ss. may not mention language learning strategies at all </li></ul><ul><li>small number of subjects restricts generalizability </li></ul>Disadvantages <ul><li>find out what is significant to learners </li></ul><ul><li>information may be inaccessible through other research techniques </li></ul><ul><li>can be kept anywhere by anyone </li></ul>Advantages
  26. 26. Retrospective Studies <ul><li>memory deterioration between the experience and the study, therefore should be considered anecdotal </li></ul><ul><li>individualistic and possibly distorted </li></ul>Disadvantages <ul><li>more objective because of distance from experience </li></ul><ul><li>more likely to be summary </li></ul><ul><li>students can gain important personal insights about language learning strategies that worked for them </li></ul>Advantages
  27. 27. We have looked at research approaches, now let’s look at the research on affective side of learning. <ul><li>Anxiety (Horowitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986) </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation (Naughton, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation (Dornyei, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes and Beliefs toward language learning (Horwitz; </li></ul>
  28. 28. Social Strategies <ul><li>Join the group </li></ul><ul><li>Pretend you understand everything </li></ul><ul><li>Count on your friends to help </li></ul><ul><li>Also called Communication Strategies </li></ul>Used by Children (Wong-Filmore 1976 /79)
  29. 29. More Social strategies <ul><li>Suggestions for the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperating with Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increases performance, fluency awareness and self-concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperate with peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperate with proficient users and native speakers ( who can scaffold, negotiate meaning, provide i+1) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Social/ Affective strategies <ul><li>Ask Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for clarification or verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for correction and support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>- to find out appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>- to find alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Use discourse markers to signal need for assistance : </li></ul><ul><li>“ I wonder if…” “Could you please…” </li></ul>
  31. 31. Affective support strategies <ul><li>Empathizing with Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to develop cultural awareness and understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>become aware of own and others’ feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes off stress and anxiety when empathy gained </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Affective: <ul><li>In the classroom: </li></ul><ul><li>Lower the anxiety level – learner plays music while studying </li></ul><ul><li>Use encouragement – Give the students a social reward (smile, praise, handshake, high 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Have them reward themselves for successfully completing a task </li></ul>
  33. 33. Social + Affective <ul><li>Ask questions  Encourage learners to always ask for clarification or verification </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation and Empathy  Invite students to develop understanding of others </li></ul><ul><li>“ If anyone can do this, you can!” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Good job!” “Nice try!” </li></ul>
  34. 34. Speaking strategies <ul><li>Teacher: “it is OK to make mistakes” </li></ul><ul><li>Model to ss how to say: </li></ul><ul><li>“ please slow down” </li></ul><ul><li>Say that again, please </li></ul><ul><li>Could you repeat that again? </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation Management Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ok, I think you are saying…” </li></ul><ul><li>“ so in other words…” </li></ul>
  35. 35. Metacognitive The KEY! <ul><li>Center the learning –> Show the student how to link new information with already known material </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange and Plan –> Help student to set outlines, goals </li></ul><ul><li>Identify –> Ask the learner “ How did you learn that?” This enables them to know their own learning strategies. </li></ul>
  36. 36. How to find out your students’ language learning strategies <ul><li>Ask ss to write a short essay or simply ask: </li></ul><ul><li>How do you study vocabulary? </li></ul><ul><li>grammar? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you do when you need to talk to a partner in class? </li></ul><ul><li>How often read? What enjoy reading? </li></ul><ul><li>* What are tips for fellow students? </li></ul>
  37. 37. Discover cont. <ul><li>Give a TASK: Ask students to tell you or a partner how they complete the task. memorize vocablary </li></ul><ul><li>Give students a quiz or test, </li></ul><ul><li>when done , ask them to write down next to the item how they remembered the item, </li></ul><ul><li>What did you do to write better or read correctly? </li></ul>
  38. 38. Ask students to reflect on how they completed the task: <ul><li>memorize vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>study grammar </li></ul><ul><li>  jot down next to </li></ul><ul><li>reading passage </li></ul><ul><li>study and/or take a quiz </li></ul>
  39. 39. Strategies promote: <ul><li>Language competence </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-taking + confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Memory and retention </li></ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Good study habits </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of strengths and individual differences </li></ul>
  40. 40. Resources-Websites <ul><li>Prof. Andrew Cohen’s Strategies-based Instruction web page: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.carla.umn.edu/bibliography/strategies.html </li></ul><ul><li>Styles-and Strategies-Based Instruction: A Teachers' Guide </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.carla.umn.edu/resources/ working-papers/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/motivating/strategytable.htm </li></ul>
  41. 41. Further readings on strategies <ul><li>Please see handout with r eferences . </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Questions, please! </li></ul>