1. General Vocabulary- consists of words
with acknowledged meanings in common
2. Specialized vocabulary- is made up of
words from everyday life, general
vocabulary that takes on specialized
meanings when adapted to a particular
3. Technical Vocabulary- consists of words
that have usage and application only in a
particular subject matter field.
Words are labels for concepts however;
a single concept represents much more
than a single word.
What does it mean to know a word?
Depends on how well we understand the
relationships among direct
experiences, concepts, and words.
Learning is much more intense and
Meaningful when it develops through the
child’s first hand experience.
Concepts create a mental image, which
may represent anything that can be
grouped together by common features
or similar criteria:
objects, symbols, ideas, processes and
events. Common Element or
Concepts are similar to schemata!!
For EVERY concept there is an
A graphic organizer is a diagram that
uses content vocabulary to help students
anticipate concepts and their
relationships to one another in the
Analyze the vocabulary and list the
Arrange the list of words
Add to the Scheme vocabulary terms that
you believe the students understand.
Evaluate the organizer.
Introduce students to learning tasks
As you complete the learning task, relate
new information to the organizer
Graphic organizers can be used to
activate the student’s prior knowledge
of the vocabulary words in the given
assignment or study unit and also clarify
their understanding of concepts as they
To show the relationship in a thematic
unit in a chapter or chapter subsection
To build a frame of reference for
students as they approach new material
Activate prior knowledge of the
vocabulary words in a text assignment or
unit of study
Clarify their understanding of concepts
as they study text
Word exploration is a writing to learn
strategy that works well as a vocabulary
A word exploration activity invites
students to write quickly and
spontaneously, a technique called free
› The purpose of free writing is to get down on
paper everything a student knows about a
topic in just a few minutes. This activity will
activate schema and long term memory.
Brainstorming, List-Group-Label, Word
Sorts, Word Walls and Knowledge Ratings
are also great activities to activate what
students know about words.
Word walls provide
easy access to words
students need. The
of the word wall will
match the teacher's
The most helpful word
walls grow and
the year and are used
as a learning
about the topic.
Sometimes students have a hard time
knowing what certain words mean and
how they are used in the materials they
are reading. There are two strategies
that help with clarifying what words
mean and how they are used.
Promotes long term acquisition of
language in an academic discipline.
Divide the class into teams of two
Present the word each team has
selected to the class ( where it’s found,
what team thinks it means, why the team
thinks class should learn it)
provides a framework for
information in the
process of defining a
CD word map instruction
supports vocabulary and
concept learning by
internalize a strategy for
defining and clarifying
the meaning of unknown
Students need many experiences, real and
vicarious to develop word meaning and
concepts. They need to use, test, and
manipulate technical terms in instructional
situations that capitalize on reading, writing,
speaking, and listening.
In having students to do these things, you
create the kind of natural language
environment that is needed to extend
vocabulary and concept development. There
are many activities that can be used to
develop these skills.
RTI framework helps
teachers plan lessons so
that students can learn
vocabulary concepts as
they relate to their
understanding of the text.
RTI supports thoughtful
vocabulary instruction that
allows each student to
There are also some
activities examples that
help extend and reinforce
Semantic Feature Analysis
(SFA) – establishes a
meaningful link between
students’ prior knowledge
and words that are
conceptually related to
one another. As a
teaching activity, SFA is
easily suited to before or
after reading instructional
Showing learners how to construct meaning
for unfamiliar words encountered during
reading helps them develop strategies
needed to monitor comprehension and
increase their own vocabularies.
Demonstrating how to use context, word
structure, and the dictionary provides
students with several basic strategies for
vocabulary learning that will last a lifetime.
Constructing meaning from context is one
of the most useful strategies at the
command of proficient readers.
Showing readers who struggle how to make
use of context builds confidence and
competence and teaches the inquiry
process necessary to unlock the meaning
of troublesome technical and general
vocabulary encountered during reading.
Typographic Clues, Syntactic and Semantic
Clues, Logographic Cues are helpful tools
to help struggling readers.
Readers who build and use contextual
knowledge are able to recognize fine
shades of meaning in the way words are
used. They know the concept behind the
word well enough to use that concept in
Modified Cloze Passages
Students pair off into groups but they
complete a sentence exercise individually
and once completed, convince their word
choice is the best.
The best choice must have a reasonable
OPIN reinforces the role of prior knowledge
and experiences in the decisions the group
EX- Charts and graphs are used to _____
In addition to emphasizing context as a
vocabulary building strategy, showing
learners how to approximate word
meaning through word structure is another
important aspect of vocabulary building.
A word itself provides information clues
about its meaning. The smallest meaning in
a word is called morpheme. Analyzing a
words structure, morphemic analysis, is a
secondary vocabulary building strategy
that students can use to predict meaning.
The uses of context and word structure are
strategies that give struggling readers insight
into the meanings of unknown words. Rarely
does context or word structure help learners
derive precise definitions from keywords.
When a reader doesn’t understand the
meaning of a word, the dictionary is a great
resource for students.
One way to make a dictionary functional
resource is to use it to verify educated guesses
about word meaning revealed through
context or word structure.
Help students determine the “best fit”
between a word and its definition.
If you assign a list of words to look up in
the dictionary, list them selectively.
Help students with the pronunciation key
in the glossary or dictionary as the need