UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL EXPERIMENTAL “ FRANCISCO DE MIRANDA” COORDINACIÓN DE APRENDIZAJE DIALÓGICO INTERACTIVO UNIDAD CURRICULAR: COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE DELGADO GUSTAVO DI CUONZO ANDREA MAHMUD JOSIMAR ROJAS CLAUDIA LACLE GABRIELA
What makes listening difficult? 1.- Clustering: Pick out manageable clusters of words, avoid not retaining long constituents or losing the idea paying attention to every word in a utterance. 2.- Redundancy: Take advance of redundancy in conversation to pay attention just to the sentences with new information. Be aware of insertions of “I mean” and “you know”.
What makes listening difficult? 3.- Reduced forms: As redundancy, reduced forms are very common in native conversation. Reduction can be phonological (“Djeetyet” for “Did you eat yet”), morphological (contractions like I´ll), also syntactic and pragmatics. 4.- Performance variables: casual speech by native speakers contains hesitations, pauses, and corrections commonly. Also will include ungrammatical forms, some of these forms are simple slips for example “We arrived in a little town that there was no hotel anywhere”
What makes listening difficult? 5.- Colloquial Language: Learners who have been exposed to standard written English language sometimes find it surprising and difficult to deal with colloquial language (idioms, slang, reduced forms and shared cultural knowledge) 6.- Rate of Delivery: Learners will nevertheless eventually need to be able to comprehend language delivered at varying rates of speed and, at times, delivered with few pauses.
What makes listening difficult? 7.- Stress, rhythm and intonation: English is a stress-timed language, English speech can be a terror for some learners. Also, intonation patterns are very significant not just for interpreting straightforward elements such as questions, statements but for understanding more subtle messages like sarcasm, endearment, insult, solicitation, praise, etc 8.- Interaction: To learn to listen is also to learn to respond and to continue a chain of listening and responding.
Retain chunks of Language of different lengths in short term memory
Recognize English stress patterns, reduced forms of words and grammatical word classes
Process speech containing pauses, errors, corrections and other performance variables
Distinguish between literal and implied meaning
Use facial, kinesic, body language and nonverbal clues
Develop and use a battery of listening strategies Guessing Detecting Appeal for help
Several decades of research and practice in teaching listening comprenhesion have yielded some practical principles for designing techniques that include aural comprehension. These principles are summarize below. The first two apply to any technique; the others are more germane to listening. Principles For Designing Listening Techniques
In an interactive, four-skills curriculum, make sure that you don`t over look the importance of techniques that specifically develop listening comprenhesion competence. Principles For Designing Listening Techniques
<ul><li>Use techniques that are intrinsically motivating </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the listeners` personal interests and goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Design the lessons accornding to the abilities of the students. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize authentic language and contexts . </li></ul><ul><li>The use of authentic language real-worl task enable students to see the relevance of classroom activity to their long-term communicative goals. </li></ul>Principles For Designing Listening Techniques
<ul><li>Consider the form of listeners` responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Design techniques in such a way that students`responses indicate whether or not their comprenhension has been correct. Lund (1990), offered nine different ways that we can check listeners` comprenhension. </li></ul><ul><li>Doing : the listener responds physically to a command. </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing : the listener selects from alternatives such as pictures, objects and texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Transffering : the listener draws a picture of what is heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Answering : the listener answers questions about the message. </li></ul>Principles For Designing Listening Techniques
Principles For Designing Listening Techniques <ul><li>Condensing: the listener outlines or takes notes on a lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Extending: the listener provides an ending to a story heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Duplicating: the listener translates the message into the native language. </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling: the listener orders a meal, for example, after listening to a model order. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversing: the listener engages in a conversation that indicates appropiate processing of information. </li></ul>
Principles For Designing Listening Techniques <ul><li>Encourage the development of listening strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for key words. </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for nonverbal cues to meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting a speaker`s purpose by the context of the spoken discourse. </li></ul><ul><li>Associating information with one`s existing cognitive structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Guessing at meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking clarification. </li></ul><ul><li>Listening for the general gist. </li></ul><ul><li>Various test-taking strategies for listening comprenhension. </li></ul>
With hundreds techniques for teaching listening skills, the teachers should use it in terms of several kinds of listening performance in their students.
REACTIVE: Improves pronunciation: Listen and repeat back to the instructor. Doesn’t require much meaningful processing. Can be a legitimate aspect of an interactive classroom. Example Brief groups or individual drills that focus on pronunciation.
INTENSIVE: Pronunciation techniques whose only purpose is to focus on components (phonemes, words, intonation, discourse markers) of discourse. Single out certain elements of spoken language. Include the bottom-up skills Example a.) Students listen for cues in certain groups or individual drills. b.) Teacher repeats a word or sentence several times to imprint it in the students’ minds. c.) Teacher asks the students to listen to a sentence or longer discourse and to notice a specific element such as intonation, stress, a grammatical structure.
RESPONSIVE Process : information and respond. A significant amount of classroom activity is devoted to this. The teacher speaks for a short time and a response is expected. Student must immediately process what the teacher said and respond appropriately. Example a.) Asking questions – what did you do last night? b.) Giving commands – Please turn to page 20 c.) Seeking clarification – what was the word you said? d.) Checking comprehension – so, how many people were at the restaurant?
SELECTIVE: scan for details. In longer monologues, student must not process everything said, but must ‘scan’ the material for certain information. Have to find important info amongst a lot of distracting info. Example: speeches, media broadcast, stories, conversations where eavesdropping. Techniques promoting selective skills could ask students to listen for Example people’s names; dates; certain facts or events; location, situation, context; main ideas/conclusion
EXTENSIVE: Unlike the Intensive processing , here the aim is to develop a top-down approach a global understanding of what’s spoken. Example (listening to long lectures) This may require the students to use other interactive skills such as note-taking and discussion for understanding. INTERACTIVE: It is a listening performance that include all five of the above types mention it in communicative exchange. Example learners actively participate in discussions, debates, conversations, role plays, pair and group work.