Language Learning Strategies (Direct Strategies)MEMORY STRATEGIES
Remember that language learning strategiesare…“Specific actions taken by the learner to makelearning easier, faster, more enjoyable, moreself-directed, more effective, and moretransferrable to new situations." (Oxford, 1990,p. 8).
A) DIRECT STRATEGIES •I. Memory oA. Creating mental linkages oB. Applying images and sounds oC. Reviewing well oD. Employing action •II. Cognitive oA. Practicing oB. Receiving and sending messages strategies oC. Analyzing and reasoning oD. Creating structure for input and output •III. Compensation strategies oA. Guessing intelligently oB. Overcoming limitations in speaking and writing
B) INDIRECT STRATEGIES •I. Metacognitive Strategies oA. Centering your learning oB. Arranging and planning your learning oC. Evaluating your learning •II. Affective Strategies oA. Lowering your anxiety oB. Encouraging yourself oC. Taking your emotional temperature •III. Social Strategies oA. Asking questions oB. Cooperating with others oC. Empathizing with others
MEMORY STRATEGIES They arrange very simple principles, such as arranging things in order or making associations. These associations must be personally meaningful to the learner. Memory strategies allow learners to store vocabulary and then retreive it when needed for communication.
Hello. My name is Julián, and I am a Mexican university student. Mydays are usually full of activities and obligations, so I don’t have enough timefor myself. The university is very far from my house, so I usually have to getup at 6:15 in the morning. At 7:00 I have a very fast breakfast and then Ileave home as soon as I can to catch the bus at 7:15. My classes start at8:00 and finish at 12:50 p.m. I also have classes in the afternoon, but I don’thave lunch at the university. I Have a friend who lives very near theuniversity, so I often have lunch at his house. After that, I go back to theuniversity and start my English classes at 2 p.m. The classes finish at 7 p.m.When I get home, I have tea with my family and then I study or do my Nouns Verbs Frequency Adjectiveshomework. I finally go to bed at about 11 p.m. after a long and busy day. adverbs
Placing new words into context“Take CARE of your memory, and your memory will take CARE of you”.CARE stands for: creating mental linkages, associating, reviewing well, employing action.“TOGETHER, WE GET STRONG.”STRONG stands for: Self-esteem,Trust, Responsibility,Options, Needs, Goals.
Applying Images and Sounds Using Imageryfriendship – hope – evil – shout – file
Representing Sounds in Memory7 and 7 went down the line to capture number 49; 8 and 4 made some stew and gave it to 32.
Employing Action Using Physical Response or Sensation Touch the floor, put your notebook in your backpack, come here, take out a pencil. Put the pencil in your bag. Laugh, giggle, snap your fingers, take a walk, shout, sneeze.
Using Mechanical Techniques- Use flashcards (write the word on one side and the definition on the other)- Devide your notebook into sections
Bibliography• Oxford, Rebecca. Language Learning Strategies: What every teacher should know, Heinle & Heinle: Boston. 1990