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Glycosides

  1. 1. Glycosides Presented by- Md. Imran Hossain Batch:20th Roll:573 Reg:WUB14/18/20/573 Department of Pharmacy World University of Bangladesh
  2. 2. Glycosides Definition: Glycoside are compounds which upon hydrolysis give rise to one or more sugar (glycone) and a compound which is not a sugar (aglycone). In a glycosidic compound a sugar residue is linked to (C-1) through oxygen (O- glycoside),Nitrogen (N- glycoside) or Sulphur (S-glycoside) moiety.
  3. 3. Glycosides Example: β-D glucose is the most common sugar found in glycosides, rhamnose, cymarose,digitoxose.
  4. 4. Glycosides Characters: i. Most of the glycoside are colorless, crystalline compounds. ii. Anthracene glycosides are red or orange colored compounds and flavone glycoside are yellowsits in color. iii. They are soluble in water and alcohol but insoluble in organic solvent like petroleum ether, chloroform, carbon tetra chloride etc. iv. Glycosides are optically levorotatory.
  5. 5. Glycosides Classification: On the basis of linkage of sugar molecule to aglycone glycoside are divided as, i. Oxygen glycosides: In these glycosides the sugar combinds with alcoholic or phenolic hydroxyl function of aglycones. e.g: Digitoxin ii. Nitrogen glycosides: In these glycosides Nitrogen of amino group is condensed with a sugar. e.g: Nucleoside
  6. 6. Glycosides iii. Sulphur glycoside: In these glycoside a sugar moiety attached to a sulfur of the aglycone. e.g: Isothiocyanat glycosides. iv. Carbon glycoside: Condension to a carbon atom gives rise to carbon glycoside. e.g: Aloin, Cascaroside etc
  7. 7. Glycosides #Classification on the basis of chemical nature: i. Steroidal glycosides: These glycoside contain a sterol as an aglycone. e.g: Diosgenin ii. Flavanoid glycosides: A flavanoid aglycone is present in this glycosides. e.g: Rutin iii. Anthracene glycosides: In these glycosides sugar moiety is attached to an anthracene agycone. e.g: Barbaloin, frangulin
  8. 8. Glycosides iv. Cyanophoric glycosides: Cyanogen is the aglycone part. They eyld hyrocyanic acid on hydrolysis. e.g: Amygdalin, Paunasin v. Triterpenic glycosides: A triterpenic molecule is condence with a sugar component. e.g: Glycyrrhizin vi. Alcohol glycosides:e.g: Salicin vii. Lactone glycosides:e.g: Hydroxy coumarin viii. Isothiocyanate glycosides:e.g: sinigrin, sinalbin ix. Saponin glycosides:e.g: Dioscin
  9. 9. Glycosides Saponin glycosides Saponin are highly complex glycosides. Which are widely distributed in the higher plants, saponins from coloidal solution in water. Which give a soap like forth on shaking. They have the property of causing hemolysis of RBC, event at great dilution. On hydrolysis they yield and aglycone known as sapogenin. They have high molecular wait and are purified with deficalty. e.g: Senega, Guillaia.
  10. 10. Glycosides Cardiac glycosides These are steroidal glycosides and show highly specific and powerful action upon the cardiac muscle. The sugar part is attached at carbon-3(C-3) of the steroidal nucleus. The steroid aglycone are of two types: i. Cardenolides: Which are C23 steroids having α,β unsaturated five membered lactone ring at 17β position.
  11. 11. Glycosides ii. Bufedienolides: Which are C24 steroids having double unsaturated six membered lactone ring at 17α position Cardiac glycosides increase the force of systolic contraction and decrease the heart rate.
  12. 12. Glycosides Pharmaceutical uses of glycosides: i. Cardiac glycosides are used as cardiac stimulant. e.g: Digitoxin, Stropanthus, Squill digoxin. ii. Anthraquinone glycosides: Exert laxative effect. e.g: Senna, Aloe, Cascara etc. iii. Singrin glycosides: A glycoside from black mustered, upon hydrolysis yield alyisothiocyanate that act as powerful local irritant.
  13. 13. Glycosides iv. Glycoside has analgesic properly. v. Glycoside used as bitter tonic and protect the damage of the liver. vi. Glycosides has expectorant property.
  14. 14. Glycosides Chemical test used to detect glycoside: i. Killer-killiani-test: To an extract of the drug in glacial acitic acid few drops of Ferric chloride(Fecl3) and concentrated H2SO4 are added a reddish brown colour is fromed and the junctions of two layers and the uper layer turns bluish green. This test indicates the presence of glycosides.
  15. 15. Glycosides ii.Borntrager test: Leabs are boiled with dilute sulphuric acid filtered, the filtered is extreated with chloroform or ether. On addition of ammonia in organic phage pink red color is formed due to the presence of anthaquinon glycosides iii. A little drug extracts treated with 5N sodium hydroxide and sodium hyposulphite. On heating red color appears.
  16. 16. Thank You

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