Soo Jin PARK "Fung Su and self-organized landforms: an old but new conceptual framework for sustainable land management"
Fung Su and Self-organized Landforms: An Old but New ConceptualFramework for Sustainable Land Management Park, Soo Jin Department of Geography, Seoul National University
Emerging Issues in SLM research and My Research Question Land degradation processes are results of complex interactions among Human and Environmental variables, and also among internal and external factors. Interactions in a coupled H-E systems cause non-linear and unexpected outputs → complex and adaptive system (e.g. Reynolds et al., 2011; Poulsen, 2013)C) Conventional reductionists’and patch-based approaches are not enough to handle such a complex H-E systems-> Can we learn any lessons from Asian geographical philosophy that has more than 2,000 years history ?
What is Fung Su ( 風水 ) ? 風 水 Feng Shui in Chinese Fung Su in Korean (Wind and Water)"the unique and highly systemized ancient Chinese art ofselecting auspicious sites and arranging harmonious Cstructures such as graves, houses, and cities on them by )evaluation the surrounding landscape and cosmologicaldirections (Yoon, 2006)".Modern interpretation of Fung Su is controversial, varyingwidely from superstition and pseudo-science to aharmonious way of living with nature (Neeham, 1962; Choi,2006).
“A Harmonious Way of Living with Nature” Rugged terrains with strong climatic seasonality and devastating typhoons have certainly been the major threats for agricultural productions and land management. C )Photo: Kangwon Ilbo
“A Harmonious Way of Living with Nature”Harsh climatic and geomorphological conditions require specificland management methods to avoid disastrous results → FungSu is widely considered as an accumulated traditional landmanagement knowledgePhoto: Chosun Ilbo
Structure and Key Elements of Fung SuHuman Dimension Natural Dimension Connection and Multi-scale Donggigameung-ron Interpretation ofresponsibility between generations ( 同氣感應論 ) environmental factors Gan Ryong ( 看龍 ) Active Roles Holistic and 3D (observing dragon) of Land Interpretation of C Owner Landscape Jang Pung ( 藏風 ) ) (storing wind) Sojugilhyoong-ron Hyung Kuk ( 形局 ) Duk Su ( 得水 ) ( 所主吉凶論 ) (form and site) (gaining water) Human intervention to Jeong Hyul ( 定穴 ) make an ideal (locating cave) Hyungkuk Sajumyungri-hak Bi Bo ( 裨補 ) Jwa Hyang ( 坐向 )( 四柱命理學 ) (help to replenish) (setting direction)
Hyung Kuk ( 形局 ): Searching for an Ideal Landscape- The aim of Hyung Kuk is to Peak of Ancesteridentify a three-dimensionallandform shape that guide andaccumulate the Gi ( 氣 ) for anauspicious site; Outer White Tiger Outer White Tiger Azure Dragon-The ideal landform condition Azure Dragonidentified for a cave and bright Cave Water Coursecourt is a place that is Bright courtsurrounded by hills shaped likea horseshoe or an armchair(Yoon, 2011); Table mountain (Red Bird)-The final ideal landforms is adrainage basin with sufficient Homage Mountainflat area inside. Source: Choi, C.J. (1990)
Hyung Kuk ( 形局 ) and Its Environmental Interpretation Black Tortoise: - Inducing water and materials into the bright court - Providing forest products - Preventing cold northwesterly windAzure Dragon and White Tiger:- Inducing water and materials into the bright court- Preventing strong wind from sides;- Maintaining moisture and temperature balance within the bright court- Isolating the bright court from outsideNarrow Water Mouth- Reducing outflow of water and materials from the bright court- Maintaining the groundwater table within the bright court- Accumulating materials within the bright court- Protecting the bright court from outside
Hyung Kuk ( 形局 ) at different spatial scale Village City Grave (Chunghak-dong) (an old map of Seoul) Old SeoulThe proportion of the ideal Fung Su Hyun Kuk is less than5% of the total land surface in Korea (Park, 2009), but ithosted more than 60% of traditional villages in the laterChosun dynasty (Jung, 2008).
Evolution of Ideal Hyung Kuk in Korea Formation of Ideal Hyung Kuk L3 (L1 < L2) L2 L1 L3 L2 L1 plain L3 L2 L1 Before Uplift or sea level change Lowering of base level Formation of Valley (L1 = L2) Korean Landforms are the results of complex interactions between gradual tectonic uplift, bedrocks, and climatic change The formation of Ideal Hyung Kuk is one of typical development pathways of Korean landforms
Evolution of Ideal Hyung Kuk in Korea 3.5 3 2.5 유역수 (Log10) 2 1.5 y = - 1.1203x + 5.2876 2 1 R = 0.9965 0.5 0 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 면적 (log10 km2) The ideal Hyung Kuk is the result of self-organization of landform forming processes, which shows a clear scale-free fractal dimension
Bi bo ( 裨補 ) : Human contribution to complete the Ideal Landscape A perfect Fung Su Hyung Kuk without any shortcomings is extremely rare. Consequently, people remedy minor defects Reservoir and village forest of landscape Bi Bo methods include사진출처 : 이도원 building hills, building symbolic artifacts, changing the direction of water flow, Village forest and assigning geomantically appropriate names to places Reservoir, village forests (Choi (1984), Yoon (2011))
Deterministic Chaos and Fung Su, A New Approach for Sustainable Land Management1. Fung Su has a unique set of multi-scale approaches to classify thehierarchical nature of environmental processes related to landscapecharacteristics.2. The most important aspect of Fung Su is to capture three-dimensionalforms of landscapes to characterize unique combinations of landformforming processes, which shows a close resemblance to theidentification of scale-free, self-organized landforms in currentgeomorphological studies.3. Human interventions are mostly limited to enhance evolutionarypathways of self-organization, which are called Bi Bo (making up for theweak points) or Ab Sung (weakening the strong points)4. Fung Su offers a unique conceptual framework to classify landscapes,to characterize three-dimensional landform processes, and to managelandscapes in a holistic manner, which can easily be transferable toother environmental conditons