JupiterSubmitted to:Gloria G. SemblanteSubmitted by:Dela Cruz, Ryan T.Villaver, Precious E.Concilliado, Princess C.
Mythology• The planet Jupiter has been known since ancient times. It is visible to the naked eye in the night sky and can occasionally be seen in the daytime when the sun is low.• The Romans named it after Jupiter (Latin: Iuppiter, Iūpiter) (also called Jove), the principal god of Roman mythology, whose name comes from the Proto-Indo- European vocative compound *Dyēu-pəter (nominative: *Dyēus-pətēr, meaning "O Father Sky-God", or "O Father Day-God").
• Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the Solar System. It is a gas giant with mass one-thousand that of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in our Solar System combined.Jupiter is classified as a gas giant along with Saturn,Uranus and Neptune. Together, these four planets are sometimes referred to as the Jovian or outer planets. 1. What are these four planets that referred to as the Jovian or outer planets.
When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2.94, making it on average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus.2. What is the 3rd brightestobject in the night sky afterthe Moon and Venus?
• Jupiter is the most massive planet in our solar system, more than twice as massive as all the other planets combined, and had it been about 80 times more massive, it would have actually become a star instead of a planet. Its atmosphere resembles that of the sun, made up mostly of hydrogen and helium, and with four large moons and many smaller moons in orbit around it, Jupiter by itself forms a kind of miniature solar system. All told, the immense volume of Jupiter could hold more than 1,300 Earths.
Jupiters mass is 2.5 times that of all theother planets in our Solar Systemcombined—this is so massive that its barcenter with the Sun lies above the Sunssurface at 1.068 solar radii from the Sunscenter. Although this planet dwarfs theEarth with a diameter 11 times as great, itis considerably less dense
Jupiters Moons• Jupiter has at least 63 moons, which are often named after the Roman gods many lovers. The four largest moons of Jupiter, now called Io, Europa, G anymede, and Callisto, were discovered by Galileo himself, and are appropriately known today as the Galilean satellites. 3. What are these four Galilean satellites?
• Ganymede is the largest moon in our solar system, larger even than Mercury. It is also the only moon known to have its own magnetic field. 4. What is the largest moon in our solar system?
• Io is the most volcanically active body in our solar system. The sulfur these volcanoes spew out gives Io a blotted yellow- orange appearance that is often compared to a pepperoni pizza. As Io orbits Jupiter, the planets immense gravity causes tides in Ios solid surface that rise 300 feet (100 meters) high, generating enough heat for volcanic activity. 5. Whatis the most volcanically active body in our system?
• The frozen crust of Europa is made up mostly of water ice, and it might hide a liquid ocean holding twice as much water as Earth does. Icy oceans might also exist beneath the crusts of Callisto and Ganymede.• Callisto has the lowest reflectivity, or albedo, of the four Galilean moons. This suggests that its surface might be composed of dark, colorless rock. 6. What moon is made up mostly of water ice? 7.What moon that it’s surface might be composed of dark, colorless rock?
• Jupiter spins faster than any other planet, taking a little under 10 hours to complete a turn on its axis, compared with 24 hours for Earth. 8. Jupiter has _____ to complete a turn on it’s axis.
• The best known feature of Jupiter is the Great Red Spot, a persistent anticyclonic storm that is larger than Earth, located 22° south of the equator. It is known to have been in existence since at least 1831,and possibly since 1665. Mathematical models suggest that the storm is stable and may be a permanent feature of the planet. The storm is large enough to be visible through Earth- based telescopes with an aperture of 12 cm or larger.
The Great Red Spot, a giant hurricane-like storm seen formore than 300 years. At its widest, the Great Red Spot isthree times the diameter of the Earth, and its edgespins counterclockwise around its center at a speed of about225 miles (360 kilometers) per hour. The color of the storm,which usually varies from brick red to slightly brown, maycome from small amounts of sulfur and phosphorus in theammonia crystals in Jupiters clouds. Every now and again,the Great Red Spot seems to fade entirely.
Composition & Structure• Atmospheric composition (by volume) 89.8 percent molecular hydrogen, 10.2 percent helium, minor amounts of methane, ammonia, hydrogen deuteride, ethane, water, ammonia ice aerosols, water ice aerosols, ammonia hydrosulfide aerosols• Magnetic Field Nearly 20,000 times stronger than Earths
• Chemical composition A dense core of uncertain composition, surrounded by a helium-rich layer of fluid metallic hydrogen, wrapped up in an atmosphere primarily made of molecular hydrogen.• Internal structure A core less than 10 times Earths mass (Tristan Guillot, "Interiors of Giant Planets Inside and Outside the Solar System." Science Vol. 286 (5437), p. 72-77, October 1, 1999.), surrounded by a layer of fluid metallic hydrogen extending out to 80 to 90 percent of the diameter of the planet, enclosed in an atmosphere mostly made of gaseous and liquid hydrogen.
Orbit & Rotation• Average Distance from the Sun English: 483,682,810 miles Metric: 778,412,020 km By Comparison: 5.203 times that of Earth• Perihelion (closest) English: 460,276,100 miles Metric: 740,742,600 km By Comparison: 5.036 times that of Earth• Aphelion (farthest) English: 507,089,500 miles Metric: 816,081,400 km By Comparison: 5.366 times that of Earth
Jupiters Rings• Jupiters three rings came as a surprise when NASAs Voyager 1 spacecraft discovered them around the planets equator in 1979. Each are much fainter than Saturns rings.• The main ring is flattened. It is about 20 miles (30 kilometers) thick and more than 4,000 miles (6,400 kilometers) wide. 9. What are these three Jupiter’s ring?
• The inner cloud-like ring, called the halo, is roughly 12,000 miles (20,000 kilometers) thick. The halo extends halfway from the main ring down to the planets cloud tops and expands by interaction with Jupiters magnetic field. Both the main ring and halo are composed of small, dark particles.
• The third ring, known as the gossamer ring because of its transparency, is actually three rings of microscopic debris from three of Jupiters moons, Amalthea, Thebe and Adrastea. It is probably made up of dust particles less than 10 microns in diameter, about the same size of the particles found in cigarette smoke, and extends to an outer edge of about 80,000 miles (129,000 kilometers) from the center of the planet and inward to about 18,600 miles (30,000 kilometers).
Possibility of Life on the Planet Jupiter• If one were to dive into Jupiters atmosphere, one would discover it to grow warmer with depth, reaching room temperature, or 70 degrees F (21 degrees C), at an altitude where the atmospheric pressure is about 10 times as great as it is on Earth. Scientists have conjectured that if Jupiter has any form of life, it might dwell at this level, and would have to be airborne. However, researchers have found no evidence of life on Jupiter. 10. Is there any evidence of life in Jupiter?