Islamic ethics 2

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Islamic ethics 2

  1. 1. Islam and Ethics 2 Ghiath Alahmad
  2. 2. ‫اإلسالمي‬ ‫العصر‬ ‫في‬ ‫األخالق‬ •‫الجاهلي‬ ‫العصر‬ ‫في‬ ‫األخالق‬ •‫والنثر‬ ‫الشعر‬ –‫المروءة‬ –‫الشجاعة‬ –‫الكرامة‬ –‫الحلم‬ –‫الملهوف‬ ‫إغاثة‬ 6/22/2014 2 Islamic Priniciples of Bioethics Ghiath Alahmad
  3. 3. The Goal of Bio-Medical Ethics ‫الطبية‬‫األخالقيات‬‫دراسة‬ ‫من‬ ‫الغاية‬ • Generally: to provide a systematic answer to the question of how we should behave in the bio-medical dilemmas?
  4. 4. •‫الطبيعة‬ ‫وراء‬ ‫ما‬ Meta •‫ة‬ّ‫ي‬‫النظر‬ Normative •‫ة‬ّ‫ي‬‫العمل‬ Applied
  5. 5. Introduction to Ethical Theory • “our focus will be on normative medical ethics, i.e., how people should behave in medical situations”
  6. 6. Theory 1. Moral Objectivism ‫المعيارية‬‫األخالق‬ • What is morally right or wrong doesn’t depend on what anyone thinks is right or wrong. 'Moral facts' are like 'physical' facts in that what the facts are does not depend on what anyone thinks they are. They simply have to be discovered. – E.g., Divine Command Theory – what’s right is what God commands; what’s wrong is what God forbids
  7. 7. Theory 2. Moral Relativism • What is morally right or wrong depends on the prevailing view in the society or culture we happen to be dealing with. • Often presented as a tolerant view: ‘if moral relativism is true, no one has a right to force his moral views on others.’
  8. 8. Arguments for Moral Relativism The 'Cultural Differences' Argument – Claim: There are huge differences in moral beliefs from culture to culture and era to era. • E.g., Some cultures endorse the killing of elderly members of the tribe, we condemn such actions.
  9. 9. Why is the Cultural Differences Argument Weak? • I. Controversy regarding how much fundamental disagreement about morality there really is • II. Differing opinions regarding an issue don’t prove there is no fact of the matter about that issue – Imagine relativism about the shape of the earth (e.g., in the 1400s)
  10. 10. Ethical Theories Consequentialism Deontology
  11. 11. Problems • Deontology: What if doing your duty has repugnant consequences? – Kant on telling lies • Consequentialism: What if you have to do something that seems wrong in order to produce the best consequences? – Convicting the innocent
  12. 12. Ethical Theories Consequentialism Deontology Principilism
  13. 13. Four Principles • 1. Autonomy • 2. Beneficence • 3. Non-maleficence • 4. Justice – 1 & 4 are Deontological – 2 & 3 are Consequential • It is really possible to have it both ways?
  14. 14. Alternative Approaches • Virtue Ethics • Ethics of Care
  15. 15. Islam & ethics Can the Ethics be changed and improved? (َ‫ين‬ِّ‫ن‬ِّ‫م‬ْ‫ؤ‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ال‬ ُ‫ع‬َ‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ت‬ ‫ى‬ َ‫ر‬ْ‫ك‬ِّ‫الذ‬ َّ‫ن‬ِّ‫إ‬َ‫ف‬ ْ‫ر‬ِّ‫ك‬َ‫ذ‬ َ‫و‬[ )‫الذا‬‫ريات‬/55] (َ‫م‬ ‫وا‬ُ‫ر‬ِّ‫َي‬‫غ‬ُ‫ي‬ ‫ى‬َّ‫ت‬َ‫ح‬ ٍ‫م‬ ْ‫و‬َ‫ق‬ِّ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ ُ‫ر‬ِّ‫َي‬‫غ‬ُ‫ي‬ ‫ال‬ َ َّ‫اَّلل‬ َّ‫ن‬ِّ‫إ‬ْ‫م‬ِّ‫ه‬ُِِّ‫ف‬ْ‫ن‬ََِّ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬[ )‫الرعد‬/11] (‫مكارم‬ ‫ألتمم‬ ‫بعثت‬ ‫إنما‬[‫رواية‬ ‫وفي‬:‫صالح‬]‫األخالق‬[ )‫ِلِلة‬ ‫الصحيحية‬ ‫األحاديث‬/45]
  16. 16. Islam & ethics • Criteria of ethical decision – How we will decide who is good and who is bad? • Many ! • Single opinion (Islam) – How we can evaluate the ethical progress? • Conditional • Absolute (Islam)
  17. 17. Islam & ethics • Inheritance (ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ُ‫ت‬َّ‫ي‬ ِّ‫ر‬ُ‫ذ‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬ْ‫ت‬َ‫ع‬َ‫ب‬َّ‫ت‬‫ا‬ َ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ُ‫ن‬َ‫م‬‫آ‬ َ‫ين‬ِّ‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ا‬ َ‫و‬َّ‫ي‬ ِّ‫ر‬ُ‫ذ‬ ْ‫م‬ِّ‫ه‬ِّ‫ب‬ ‫َا‬‫ن‬ْ‫ق‬َ‫ح‬ْ‫ل‬َ‫أ‬ ٍ‫ان‬َ‫م‬‫ي‬ِّ‫إ‬ِّ‫ب‬ْ‫ن‬ِّ‫م‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬‫َا‬‫ن‬ْ‫ت‬َ‫ل‬َ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ َ‫و‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َ‫ت‬ َ‫ب‬ََِ‫ك‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ِّ‫ب‬ ٍ‫ئ‬ ِّ‫ر‬ْ‫ام‬ ُّ‫ل‬ُ‫ك‬ ٍ‫ء‬ْ‫ي‬َ‫ش‬ ْ‫ن‬ِّ‫م‬ ْ‫م‬ِّ‫ه‬ِّ‫ل‬َ‫م‬َ‫ع‬‫ين‬ِّ‫ه‬ َ‫ر‬[ )‫الطور‬/21] • Environment (‫ِوء‬ ‫أرض‬ ‫فإنها‬ ‫أرضك‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫ترجع‬ ‫وال‬[ )‫الصحيحة‬/2640]
  18. 18. Islam & ethics Autonomy ‫اإلرادة‬ ‫حرية‬ ‫جبرية‬ No Autonomy ‫قدرية‬ ‫ة‬ّ‫ن‬‫س‬ ‫معتزلة‬ ‫الفالِفة‬
  19. 19. Islam & ethics (‫رهينة‬ ‫كِبت‬ ‫بما‬ ‫نفس‬ ‫كل‬)[‫المدثر‬/38] (‫رعيته‬ ‫عن‬ ‫مِؤول‬ ‫وكلكم‬ ‫راع‬ ‫كلكم‬)[‫أحمد‬ ‫و‬ ،‫الترمذي‬ ‫و‬ ،‫أبوداود‬ ،‫مِلم‬ ،‫البخاري‬] (‫ي‬ ‫ال‬ ‫بها‬ ‫عمل‬ ‫من‬ ‫أجر‬ ‫ومثل‬ ‫أجرها‬ ‫له‬ ‫كان‬ ‫بها‬ ‫فعمل‬ ‫حِنة‬ ‫ة‬‫ِن‬ ‫ِن‬ ‫من‬‫نقص‬ ‫وو‬ ‫وزرها‬ ‫عليه‬ ‫كان‬ ‫بها‬ ‫فعمل‬ ‫ِيئة‬ ‫ة‬‫ِن‬ ‫ِن‬ ‫ومن‬ ‫شيئا‬ ‫أجورهم‬ ‫من‬‫من‬ ‫زر‬ ‫شيئا‬ ‫أوزارهم‬ ‫من‬ ‫ينقص‬ ‫ال‬ ‫بعده‬ ‫من‬ ‫بها‬ ‫عمل‬)[‫مِلم‬] OTHERs SELF Responsibility
  20. 20. Islam & ethics Responsibility ‫الفعل‬ ‫قبل‬ ‫ما‬ ‫مرحلة‬ ‫اإلجابة‬ ‫مرحلة‬ ‫المحاِبة‬ ‫مرحلة‬
  21. 21. Islam & ethics ‫الرذائل‬ ‫عن‬ ‫نهى‬ ‫و‬ ‫الفضائل‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫اإلسالم‬ ‫دعا‬ (َ‫و‬ َ‫ك‬ِ‫ق‬ُ‫ن‬ُ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬َ‫ل‬ِ‫إ‬ ً‫ة‬َ‫ل‬‫و‬ُ‫ل‬ْ‫غ‬َ‫م‬ َ‫ك‬َ‫د‬َ‫ي‬ ْ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬ْ‫ج‬َ‫ت‬ ‫ال‬َ‫و‬ِ‫ط‬ْ‫س‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ َّ‫ل‬ُ‫ك‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ه‬ْ‫ط‬ُ‫س‬ْ‫ب‬َ‫ت‬ ‫ال‬‫ا‬ً‫م‬‫و‬ُ‫ل‬َ‫م‬ َ‫د‬ُ‫ع‬ْ‫ق‬َ‫ت‬َ‫ف‬ ‫ا‬ً‫ور‬ُ‫س‬ْ‫ح‬َ‫م‬)[‫اإلسراء‬/29] (ِ‫ب‬ َ‫ين‬ِ‫ام‬َّ‫و‬َ‫ق‬ ‫وا‬ُ‫ن‬‫ُو‬‫ك‬ ‫وا‬ُ‫ن‬َ‫م‬‫آ‬ َ‫ِين‬‫ذ‬َّ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ه‬ُّ‫ي‬َ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬َ‫ي‬ِ‫ط‬ْ‫س‬ِ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬)[‫النساء‬/153] (َ‫و‬ ِ‫ان‬َ‫س‬ْ‫ح‬ِ‫اإل‬َ‫و‬ ِ‫ل‬ْ‫د‬َ‫ع‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ِ‫ب‬ ُ‫ر‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫أ‬َ‫ي‬ َ َّ‫اَّلل‬ َّ‫ن‬ِ‫إ‬َ‫ه‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫ي‬َ‫و‬ ‫ى‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ر‬ُ‫ق‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ِي‬‫ذ‬ ِ‫اء‬َ‫ت‬‫ي‬ِ‫إ‬ِ‫ن‬َ‫ع‬ ‫ى‬ ُ‫ظ‬ِ‫ع‬َ‫ي‬ ِ‫ي‬ْ‫غ‬َ‫ب‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫و‬ ِ‫َر‬‫ك‬ْ‫ن‬ُ‫م‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫و‬ ِ‫اء‬َ‫ش‬ْ‫ح‬َ‫ف‬ْ‫ل‬‫ا‬َ‫ون‬ُ‫ر‬َّ‫ك‬َ‫ذ‬َ‫ت‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬َّ‫ل‬َ‫ع‬َ‫ل‬ ْ‫م‬ُ‫ك‬)[‫الن‬‫حل‬/90]
  22. 22. Islam & ethics ‫للخ‬ ً‫ا‬‫مقياس‬ ‫و‬ ً‫ا‬‫منبع‬ ‫ة‬ّ‫ن‬‫الس‬ ‫و‬ ‫القرآن‬ ‫اعتبار‬ ‫على‬ ‫التأكيد‬‫ير‬ (‫هللا‬ ‫كتاب‬ ‫بعدهما‬ ‫وا‬ّ‫ل‬‫تض‬ ‫لن‬ ‫شيئين‬ ‫فيكم‬ ‫تركت‬ ‫قد‬ ‫ي‬ّ‫ن‬‫إ‬‫سنتي‬ ‫و‬) ‫مِتدركه‬ ‫في‬ ‫الحاكم‬
  23. 23. Islam & ethics ‫األمة‬ ‫حياة‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫الفردية‬ ‫الحياة‬ ‫من‬ ‫انتقل‬ ‫مجتمع‬ ‫تنشَة‬ ‫هو‬ ‫الهدف‬ (‫إ‬ ‫الواحد‬ ‫الجسد‬ ‫كمثل‬ ‫وتراحمهم‬ ‫وتعاطفهم‬ ‫توادهم‬ ‫في‬ ‫المؤمنين‬ ‫مثل‬‫ذا‬ ‫والسهر‬ ‫بالحمى‬ ‫األعضاء‬ ‫سائر‬ ‫له‬ ‫تداعى‬ ‫عضو‬ ‫منه‬ ‫اشتكى‬)[‫الس‬‫لسة‬ ‫الصحيحة‬1083]
  24. 24. Islam & ethics •‫القصد‬ ‫و‬ ‫ة‬‫الني‬ •‫ة‬‫الني‬ ‫ِالمة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫حتى‬ ‫الضمان‬
  25. 25. ‫المعتزلة‬ • Wasel ibn Ata`a (80-130) • ‫الخمسة‬ ‫األصول‬ – ‫التوحيد‬ – ‫العدل‬ – ‫الوعيد‬ ‫و‬ ‫الوعد‬ – ‫المنزلتين‬ ‫بين‬ ‫المنزلة‬ – ‫المنكر‬ ‫عن‬ ‫النهي‬ ‫و‬ ‫بالمعروف‬ ‫األمر‬
  26. 26. ‫المعتزلة‬ •‫عطاء‬ ‫بن‬ ‫واصل‬(80–130) •‫مجتمعة‬ ‫الخمسة‬ ‫األصول‬. –‫التوحيد‬ –‫العدل‬ –‫الوعد‬‫و‬‫الوعيد‬ –‫المنزلتين‬ ‫بين‬ ‫المنزلة‬ –‫بالمعروف‬ ‫األمر‬‫و‬‫المنكر‬ ‫عن‬ ‫النهي‬ •‫العدل‬ –‫حكيم‬ ‫هو‬ ‫و‬ ‫عادل‬ ‫سبحانه‬ ‫هللا‬ •‫القبيح‬ ‫يخلق‬ ‫ال‬ –‫على‬ ‫يحاسبهم‬ ‫كيف‬ ‫يخلقوه؟‬ ‫لم‬ ‫شيىء‬ •‫أفعالهم‬ ‫يخلقون‬ ‫الناس‬ •‫عقليان‬ ‫القبح‬ ‫و‬ ‫الحسن‬
  27. 27. Islamic ethics Islamic Ethics Schools Qur’an & Sunnah Sufism Philosophical based
  28. 28. Ethics in Islam & Philosophy PHILOSOPHY ISLAM Purpose To get ethical life Not only to get ethical life but follow God’s orders Human Mind origin Divine origin Different criteria Only one criterion Conditional Criterion Absolute Criterion Conflicts opinions Fixed and clear No disagreement with science No disagreement with science No motivation to ethical life Good motivation
  29. 29. Islamic ethics ‫إذا‬‫كان‬‫اإلِالم‬‫صالح‬‫ألن‬‫تكون‬‫مقياِا‬،‫خلقيا‬‫فما‬‫هي‬ ‫حاجتنا‬‫إلى‬‫البحوث‬‫األخالقية؟‬

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