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Robotic Exoskeletons: becoming economically feasible


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These slides use concepts from my (Jeff Funk) course entitled analyzing hi-tech opportunities to analyze rapid improvements in the economic feasibility of robotic exoskeletons. These exoskeletons can be worn by workers in harmful environments and physically disabled people. By sensing a person’s nerve impulses, these exoskeletons can activate motors that help people move and lift heavy objects. Improvements in biosensors, ICs, materials, batteries, and other components have enabled dramatic reductions in cost and weight, and improvements in response time

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Robotic Exoskeletons: becoming economically feasible

  1. 1. Opportunities in Robotic Exoskeletons Hybrid Assistive Limb SUIT (MT5009) Group Members: Phyoe Kyaw Kyaw A0098528M Khin Sandar A0049731A Mohammad Khalid A0098544R Wang Juan A0098515W Yuanbo Li (Michael) A0119085A Zhongze Chen (Frank) A0119239B 1
  2. 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  How it Works  Applications  Evolution of Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL)  Developments of the HAL suits  Future improvements for the HAL suits  Robotics Market  Future Entrepreneurial Opportunities  Summary and Conclusion 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Founded in 24 June 2004  Headquarters in Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan  R&D of equipment & systems in medical, rehabilitation, elderly assistance, rescue support, heavy labor supports in factories and plants. Production, lease, sales and support of HAL.  Well known for Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL-5) suit Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) Suit Prof. Yoshiyuki Sankai (山海 嘉之) University of Tsukuba, Japan Founder of Cyberdyne Systems Corporation  A cyborg-type robot that can supplement, expand or improve physical capability. Source: Cyberdyne Corporation,
  5. 5. HOW IT WORKS: HYBRID CONTROL SYSTEM Hybrid Control System (Cybernic Autonomous Control + Bio-Cybernic Control) Cybernic Autonomous Control System Two control algorithms to provide physical support to wearers in various conditions. Bio-Cybernic Control System Control system that sense wearer’s motion and activities using bioelectrical signal including myoelectricity Wearer receives physical support directly from the bioelectrical signals driven motors
  6. 6. HOW IT WORKS: BIO-CYBERNIC CONTROL 1. Brain sends ‘Myoelectrical’ signal to muscles. 2. Bioelectrical sensor detects the signal and activates Biocybernic Control 3. Biocybernic Control reads data and activates the suit’s motors
  7. 7. APPLICATIONS  Next generation rehabilitation o Enhance and support physical capabilities of the user. o Accelerate wearer’s daily activities and improve recovery. o Support self-physical training  Disaster Relief activities o Rescue support at disaster sites o Accelerate disaster recovery activities and save lives o Lifting heavy obstacles, victims and elderly o Disaster cleanup 7
  8. 8. APPLICATIONS  Heavy industries o Support carrying heavy machines and parts o Reduce injury due to improper handling of heavy items o Help ease the workers and increase productivity • Hospitals and nursing homes o Improves the mobility of elderly and disabled o Carry patients effortlessly by nurses and hospital staffs o Nurse-free walking and other physical activities
  10. 10. APPLICATIONS  For robot-assisted therapy: Testing on stroke patients shows that robotassisted therapy is as good as intensive comparison therapy. Statistical Analysis on HAL vs. other care for the recovery of stroke patients Reference: The New England Journal of Medicine, Downloaded from on August 25, 2013.
  11. 11. CONTENTS  Introduction  How it Works  Applications  Evolution of Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL)  Improvements of the HAL suits  Future improvements for the HAL suits  Robotics Market  Future Entrepreneurial Opportunities  Summary and Conclusion 11
  12. 12. EVOLUTION OF HAL SUITS Discovery - Mapping out neurons governing leg movement 1993 Designs and Creation - Prototype hardware design, HAL-3 - Attached to computer 1996 Design and Creation - Prototype HAL-1 - Support only lower half limb 1997 Technology and Designs - Prototype hardware designs, HAL-5 - Attached computer directly to the suit for limb control system 1999 2003 2005 Safety and Conformance - certified for European Conformity (EC Certificate) in Medical Device Directive (MDD) 2011 2012 Scale and Weight Commercialization Scale and Weight - Released HAL-5 - Commercialized - Released HAL-3 Prototype for Trail HAL-5 to hospitals Prototype for Trial - Waist strapped and rehab centers - Backpack battery battery and - Operate in and weighted 22kg weighted 10kg Fukushima cleanup
  13. 13. HAL IMPROVEMENTS MADE 350 300 1200 300 1000 1000 Suit Weight (Kg) Operating Time (mins) Weight Lifting (kg) 250 800 240 800 200 600 160 150 500 400 100 50 60 60 50 30 23 0 70 200 20 15 0 HAL-3 (1999) HAL-5 (2005) HAL-5 (2008) HAL-5 (2011) 200 0 Response Time (ms)
  14. 14. IMPROVEMENTS: HAL-3 TO HAL-5A  Comparison of HAL-3 VS HAL-5 Type A Suit Type HAL-3 (1999-2005) HAL-5 Type A (2005) Weight (Lower Body) 22kg 15kg Power Storage Lead-Acid Rechargeable Battery Li-Poly Battery Rechargeable battery < 60 mins < 160 mins Operating time Improvement (%) HAL 3 (1999-2005) 32% weight reduction 266% more operating time Motions Daily Activities (sitting down and standing up from a chair, walking, climbing up and down stairs) Operation Cybernic Autonomous Control (CAC) Hybrid Control System (CAC + Bio-Cybernic Control) Processing Microcontroller Microprocessor Tungsten / Aluminum Nickel molybdenum and aluminum alloy 10% more Strength/Weight University Research Clinical Trial First Clinical Trail with HAL Construction (S/W) Price 53% faster response time HAL 5-A (2005)
  15. 15. IMPROVEMENTS – BIOELECTRICAL SENSING Bio-Cybernic Control System - HAL exoskeleton moves according to the thoughts of its wearer. - Muscle movements are based on nerve signals sent from the brain to the muscles – signals that are registered in very weak traces on the surface of the skin. - HAL identifies these signals using a sensor, sends a signal to the suit’s power unit and computer control the movement of the robotic limbs along with the human limbs
  16. 16. IMPROVEMENTS: HAL-5A TO HAL-5C HAL 5-A (2005)  Comparison of HAL-5 Type A VS HAL-5 Type B VS HAL-5 Type C Suit Type HAL-5 Type B (2008) Weight HAL 5-B (2008) HAL-5 Type A (2005 – Ref) Lower body 15kg Full Body Weight (< 23kg) Power Storage Li-Poly Rechargeable battery HAL-5 Type C (2011) Full Body Weight (<20 kg) 13% weight reduction Li-Ion Battery Rechargeable battery Operating time Approx. 2 hrs 40 mins Motions Daily Activities (sitting down and standing up from a chair, walking, climbing up and down stairs) Operation Agility HAL 5-C (2011) Improvement (%) Approx. 3 hrs 166% more operating time Hybrid Control System (CAC +Bio-Cybernic Control) N/A Hold and lift heavy objects up to 60 kg Processing Microprocessor Construction (S/W) Nickel molybdenum, aluminum alloy Price (Lease) Approx. 5 hrs Clinical Trial Hold and lift heavy objects up to 70 kg Intel Atom USD 2,500/mth 16% more agility to lift 6% more response time Carbon Magnesium Alloy Nil USD 2,300/mth 5% lower lease price
  17. 17. DEVELOPMENT – RESPONSE TIME 1. Natural movement 2. Avoid accident 3. Move faster 3 2.5 2.5 2.4 2 1.5 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.5 Up to 7.5X 1 1 0.8 0.5 Reduce Response Time 0.5 0.2 0.15 0.1 0 Microcontroller (1999-2005) Microprocessor (2005-2008) Intel Atom (20082011) Intel Atom (2011Present) Intel Atom (Future) HAL 3 HAL 5 (2005) HAL 5 (2008) HAL 5 (2011) HAL 5 (FG) Response Time (s) Frequency (GHz) TDP (Watt) Factor affecting in Response time are classified as 1. Software algorithm, 2. Processor speed, 3. Sensor’s sensitivity and its feedback.
  18. 18. DEVELOPMENT – WEIGHT LIFTING 1. Possible more applications that require heavy lifting such as heavy labour industry, warehouse, rescue, nursing, etc. 80 70 Up to 60 Kg 2.6X 50 More weight can be lifted 40 30 20 10 0 Lower Limb Lower and Upper Limb Full Body Suit Full Body Suit HAL 3 HAL 5 (2005) HAL 5 (2008) HAL 5 (2011) Agility (kg) Source: Cyberdyne, Japan,
  19. 19. DEVELOPMENT – MATERIAL 950 1.5 X Reduce Weight* 10% Up S/W Hal 3 (50kg) 450 300 Hal 5 (2011) (15kg) Hal 5 (2005 – 2008) (23kg) 1. Quicker Mobility 2. Needs less motor torque to drive the body 3. Easy to wear * Maintain Strength to Weight Ratio
  20. 20. DEVELOPMENT – MATERIAL IMPROVEMENT IN WEIGHT OF HAL SUIT AND STRENGTH/WEIGHT RATIO 60 20.2 20 50 1. Quicker Mobility 2. Needs less motor torque to drive the body 3. Lighter to make a suit and easy to wear 40 30 20 19.8 19.6 19.4 19.2 19 18.8 10 18.6 0 18.4 1 HAL-3 (Tg-Al Alloy) 2 HAL-5 (2005) Ni-Mo-Al Alloy Weight (Kg) Source: Cyberdyne, Japan, 3 HAL-5 (2008) Ni-Mo-Al Alloy Strength/Weight (Mpa/Kg) 4 HAL-5 (2011) C-Mg Alloy
  21. 21. DEVELOPMENT – ENERGY STORAGE Comparison of Energy Density for battery materials Battery storage used for HAL 160 350 120 5X Energy density (Wh / kg) Hal-5 C (2011) Energy Density 100 5X 250 Operating Time 200 Hal-5 B (20052008) 80 Up to 300 Up to Operating time (min) 140 150 100 60 50 40 20 0 Hal-3 (19992005) HAL-3 0 lead acid Ni-Iron NiCa NiMH li-ion li-polymer 1. More usage time and less charging 2. Compact and portable battery pack is possible 3. Improve suit’s form factors Source: HAL-5 B HAL-5 C
  22. 22. CONTENTS  Introduction  How it Works  Applications  Evolution of Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL)  Improvements of the HAL suits  Future improvements for the HAL suits  Robotics Market  Future Entrepreneurial Opportunities  Summary and Conclusion 22
  23. 23. FUTURE IMPROVEMENT OF HAL SUITS Strength/Weight Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton (BLEEX) Future HAL Rewalk HAL 5 (2011) HAL 5 (2005) Current Standing of HAL suit and expectation for future HAL
  24. 24. FUTURE IMPROVEMENT OF HAL SUITS Low Cost Material Enhanced Sensor Performance Low Cost Production Cost Improve Operating Time (Power Storage) Performance Consideration for Our Next Generation Hal Suit for future opportunities of HAL Market Opportunities, Market Shares and Types of Applications
  25. 25. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT – POWER STORAGE Current situation: • Battery pack weighs 3kg. • Continuous usage lasts less than 3 hours. • Battery type: Lithium-Ion Alternatives in the future (7-10 years later) • IMPROVE OPERATING TIME Li-S Prototype Lithium-Sulphur (Li-S) Batteries
  26. 26. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT – POWER STORAGE High Energy Density in Li-S enables HAL more operating time for less weight (Wh/Kg) Future HAL (Li-S) Current HAL (Li-Ion) Source: Tarascon, J , 2010. Key Challenges in future Li-battery research. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 368: 3227-3241
  27. 27. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT – POWER STORAGE Future HAL Up to x2 Energy Density Future Opportunities for Future Applications for HAL with • Higher power and energy density • Lighter and longer cycle times • Cost effective and competitive • Easy to Manufacture for productivity Current HAL
  28. 28. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT – RESPONSE TIME Current situation: • • Slow synchronization between limb nerve, motion sensor and driver. Room for improvement in speed of signal processing and energy consumption from the processor Alternatives in the future • • Shrink, SoC Atom Processor for low cost, power consumption with multi-core processing capability. Scaling in Bioelectronic IC fabrication enables packing of transistors required in a single IC and creates additional room for other components. Sensors Enhanced Sensor Performance
  29. 29. FUTURE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT – RESPONSE TIME Pack more cores into a single SoC (low power and heat, high speed processing) 2010 2008 2011 2013 2014 and beyond Intel’s Future Atom Architecture Future Opportunities for Future Applications for HAL with • • • Low power multicore processor enables quicker response time for lag free movement Help synchronization quicker Reduce in Chip size enable low energy consumption and space required Source:
  30. 30. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT – RESPONSE TIME WITH SCALING BIOELECTRICAL (MUSCLE) SENSOR ICS Muscle Sensor v1 (HAL-5A) Muscle Sensor v2 (HAL-5B) Scaling Pack more transistors into a single IC and thus increase freq. (speed), allow low power and heat 9 Dimension (inxin) 8 Function of BioElectronic sensor IC Future Opportunities for Future Applications for HAL with • • 6 Up to 5 2X 4 Size and Power 3 2 • 1 0 Lower power consumption Reduce no. of ICs and size of sensor create extra room for other components Improve gain setting for better sensor accuracy and response time Muscle sensor v1 Muscle sensor v2 Muscle sensor v3 HAL 5 (2005) HAL 5 (2008) 60 Gain Setting (kW) 50 Voltage Used (V) 7 Muscle Sensor v3 (HAL-5C) Price (USD) 40 30 Up to 20 4X 10 Gain Setting 0 Muscle sensor v1 Muscle sensor v2 Muscle sensor v3 HAL 5 (2005) HAL 5 (2008) HAL 5 (2011) HAL 5 (2011)
  31. 31. FUTURE TRENDS FOR MEMS SENSOR Source: MEMS market grows as prices decline, semiconductors/ mems-market-grows-as-prices-decline/1058
  32. 32. ENTREPRENEUR OPPORTUNITIES WITH LOW COST MATERIAL Current situation: • Base material used: • Carbon Magnesium alloy - Weighted 15kg - US $40-65/kg LOW COST MATERIAL • Base material cost: • Approx. US $600-975/suit Alternatives in the future • Magnesium Reinforced Polycarbonate • US$20-50/kg, Est. US$300-750/suit • Pro: Low Cost Material Future Opportunities for Future Applications for HAL with - Reduction in cost creates greater market share - Polycarbonate enable easy molding for quick production and increase productivity
  33. 33. COST REDUCTION IMPROVEMENTS – MATERIAL Other material consideration for suit and casing given the cost vs. strength chart below: Future Now Polycarbonate, aluminum or magnesium alloys seems more viable material to strike a balance between cost and strength.
  34. 34. Prices of HAL 5 Half Suit VS Full Suit HAL 5 – Half Suit HAL 5 – Full Suit - Indicative prices for Hospitals and Rehab centers. Leasing option is available from US$2,300 per month. - At this moment, can’t be bought-off the shelf. 34
  35. 35. CONTENTS  Introduction  How it Works  Applications  Evolution of Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL)  Improvements of the HAL suits  Future improvements for the HAL suits  Robotics Market  Future Entrepreneurial Opportunities  Summary and Conclusion 35
  36. 36. ROBOTICS MARKET 1. Service Robots - For domestic tasks Entertainment Handicap assistance Personal transportation Home security Medical robots Defense, rescue & security applications Humanoids 2. Industrial Robots - Manufacturing Line assembly Bio-industrial In 2012, about 3 million service robots for personal and domestic use were sold, 20% more than in 2011. The value of sales increased to US$1.2 billion.
  37. 37. ROBOTICS MARKET Current applications of HAL: - Eldercare and rehabilitation - Disaster relief - Heavy industries Future Forecast US$51.7b market size for service & personal robotics - Consumer robotics, entertainment, leisure, military Worldwide Robotics Market Growth 1. Product Strategy • Upper, Lower, Full Body, Rescue & Recovery 2. Pricing Strategy • Lease < US$2000/mth 3. Target Market • US, EU and Japan 4. Sales Strategy • Rental to Hospitals, clinics, Rescue agencies, heavy labour industries and Rehab Centres
  38. 38. FUTURE ENTREPRENEUR OPPORTUNITY HAL-assisted Rehab Centers / Hospitals • • Patients with physical, developmental conditions. Eldercare Training for Hal-Therapists • • New training programs & centers for therapists to use HAL-equipment. Also available to HAL suit customers Manufactures and Suppliers • Increase demand to produce more materials, components and integration parts.
  39. 39. FUTURE ENTREPRENEUR OPPORTUNITY Mobile HAL suit charging stations • Consumers can charge suit or exchange/purchase battery packs. Robot variations for games, sports • Create new market segments for sports and games. Software Development Firms and Developers • Creates apps ecosystem for better Hal suit software like brain-wave control, healthcare feedback, etc. Heavy-lifting services • Existing movers, product assembly lines & warehousing using the HAL suit.
  40. 40. SUMMARY - ROADMAP OF HAL Business Market (Int.) (Ext.) Drivers 2005 2011 Trends: Growth of global ageing population and disabilities Market: Japan Domestic Hosipitals and Rehabitilitation Centre R&D by Tsukuba University Founded Cyberdyne in 2008, Produced 500 units per annum Product Full-body Support Suit Single Joint Suit Technology HAL-5 (2011) Time Trends: Need for Heavy Labour and Rescue Works Market: Heavy industries and Tough labour works 2016 Global Market Collaborate with Intel Inc, Medical Industries in Europe, Heavy industries in Japan Domestic and Global Market HAL-5 (2011-2013) HAL-7 (2016) HAL-5 (2005) Regional Joint Suit Battery Used R&D Present Sensors/ Processor Material Hardware Software Li-Poly Op: 2 hr 40mins Li-Ion Op: Up to 3hrs Acceleration/COG/Angular Sensors/ Muscle Sensor v1, Microprocessor Acceleration/COG/Angular /Bioelectrical (Muscle Sensor v3)/COP Sensors/Intel Atom (Z540) Nickel molybdenum and aluminum alloy Uppler/Lower Limb Suit Hi Capacity Li-Ion Op: Up to 4hrs Full-body Support Suit Carbon Magnesium Alloy Tungsten Made Suit Heavy Industry Suit Lithium-Sluphur Li-Ion Op: > 5hrs MEMS sensors / Bay Trail Processors Magnesium Reinforced Polycarbonate Polycarbonate Suit Cybernic Autonomous Control (CAC) + Hybrid Control System (CAC +Bio-Cybernic Control)
  41. 41. CONCLUSION • HAL suit – The leader in robotics exoskeleton • Showed improvements and commitment to the success of the product. • Developments in key areas that will impact the performance and cost of the HAL suit. • Growing trend in robotics market. • Entrepreneurship opportunities
  42. 42. Lets have Q & A…
  43. 43. REFERENCES [1] F. Ichihashi, Y. Sankai, S. Kuno, Development of Secure Data Management Server for e- Health Promotion System, International Journal of Sport and Health Science,Vol.4, pp. 617627, 2006 [2] H. Toda, T. Kobayakawa, Y. Sankai, A multi-link system control strategy based biologilcal movement, Advanced Robotics, vol.20 no.6, pp. 661-679, 2006 [3] H. Toda, Y. Sankai: Three-dimensional link dynamics simulator base on N-single-particle movement, Advanced Robotics, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 977-993, 2006 [4] H. Kawamoto, Y. Sankai: Power assist method based on phase sequence and muscle force condition for HAL, Advanced Robotics, vol.19, no.7, pp. 717-734, 2005 [5] S. Lee, Y. Sankai: Virtual Impedance Adjustment in Unconstrained Motion for Exoskeletal Robot Assisting Lower Limb, Advanced Robotics, vol.19, no.7, pp. 773-795, 2005 [6] K. Suzuki, G. Mito, H. Kawamoto, Y. Hasegawa and Y. Sankai: Intention-based walking support for paraplegia patients with Robot Suit HAL, Advanced Robotics, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1441 – 1469, 2007