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Fundamentals of photography module


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The "Fundamentals of photography" module is focused to adults learners interested in exploring the possibilities of managing digital photography.

This module is part of a set of materials designed and developed in the project Telecentre Multimedia Academy (Lifelong learning - Grundtvig (2012-2014)) project.

The Telecentre Multimedia Academy is a project where Fundación Esplai worked with a consortium of 8 partners from Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Serbia and Hungary, whose coordinator is Telecentre Europe.

You can learn more about the Telecentre Multimedia Academy project in:

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Fundamentals of photography module

  2. 2. BASIC COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY AUGUST 2014 AUTHOR Authors: Skaidrite Bukbãrde, Žarko Čižmar,Antra Skinča, Ivan Stojilović. Partners: Telecentre Europe, DemNet, Fundatia EOS - Educating for An Open Society, IAN,Telecentar, LIKTA, Langas ateit, Fundación Esplai. Coordination of the content development: Alba Agulló GRAPHIC DESIGN AND DESIGN Fundación Esplai ( & Niugràfic ( Under Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial - CompartieIgual (by-nc-sa) To obtain permission beyond this license, contact Access to Multimedia Toolkit LEGAL NOTICE This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
  3. 3. Index 1FUNDAMENTALS OF PHOTOGRAPHY MODULE 1.1 Introduction P.4 1.2 Visual communication P.4 1.2.1 What is a photograph? 1.2.2 History 1.2.3 The significance of photos 1.2.4 The role and use of images 1.2.5 To be at the right time, at the right place… Press photography 1.2.6 The photo as an objective tool 1.2.7 Computerised image 1.2.8 Multimedia 1.3 Image composition P.8 1.3.1 The Rule of Thirds 1.3.2 Lines 1.3.3 Framing 1.3.4 Background and image depth 1.3.5 Symmetry, patterns and Rule of Odds 1.3.6 View in different angles 1.3.7 Let’s make experiments 1.4 DSLR camera P.12 1.4.1 Lens 1.4.2 Viewfinder 1.4.3 Aperture 1.4.4 Memory card 1.4.5 Battery 1.5 Camera Exposure P.15 1.5.1 Automatic exposure 1.5.2 Scene presets 1.5.3 Manual and automatic modes 1.5.4 Manual exposure 1.5.5 Camera’s controls 1.6 Colour control P.21 1.6.1 White balance 1.6.2 Saturation 1.6.3 Colour processing 1.7 Light P.22 1.7.1 Natural light 1.7.2 Studio light 1.7.3 Flashlight 1.8 Photography projects P.25 1.8.1 When does one become a good photographer? 1.8.2 Portraits – people in the pictures 1.8.3 Landscape photography, or the beauty of the world in a single photo 1.8.4 Event photography, or how to capture a never returning mo- ment 1.8.5 “Street photography”, or when the theme is out in the street 1.8.6 Sports photography for beginners 1.8.7 Building photography, or houses we live in 1.8.8 Photo processing, post-produc- tion 1.8.9 Finally, what should I do with my photos? 1.9 Image editing P.33 1.9.1 Cut and resize 1.9.2 Exposure & color 1.9.3 Color 1.9.4 Image formats 1.10 Activities P.38 1.11 Bibliography P.40
  4. 4. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 4 1.1 Introduction The sight is the most important human sense, at least the one that we give more value. Generally, humans perceive what is around them by processing images. That is why since the beginning of human consciousness we have tried to capture what we see to retain it and be able to see it again. Photography appears to solve that necessity and through the years it has become an important communication and artis- tic tool. A picture is worth a thousand words. We can explain everything better with image because it is a faithful reproduction from reality. Along the decades we've perfected the skills and the technique of photography and, thanks to science, creativity and investiga- tion, we've got colour, better resolution and a easier way to take pictures since nowadays when everybody have a camera in our cell phones. But what skills distinguish a common picture from a good picture? Everyone can take a picture but not everyone can take a good picture. Where is the difference? Obviously the pictures content is important but the way that you capture that content has the same or more importance than the content itself. There are rules, and these rules are there to be learned. In this module we're going to explain the essential content to became a good photographer and make yourself proud of your pictures whether portraits, landscapes, models or whatever you want. 1.2 Visual communication 1.2.1 What is a photograph? A photograph is the (negative) image of a person or a thing print- ed onto photosensitive paper; it is the product of an optical and chemical process. The name originates from the Greek words φως phos (“light”), and γραφις graphis (“graphic”), which together make “drawing with light” or “light-sketch”.
  5. 5. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 5 1.2.2 History Even in the Stone Age, people attempted to document specific moments, objects or things. An example is the 20 thousand-year- old buffalo sketch on the wall of the Altamira cave in Spain. These works of art were mostly created for religious reasons or were used as warning signs, memorials. Then, with the appearance of writing (2nd millenary BC.) a stronger cause-effect relation occu- rred in relation to the creation of paintings. Later, in the Renais- sance age, aesthetics became important. The turning point occurred in the middle of the 19th century, with technical images which already were, practically speaking, pro- ductions of photography. Here the physical relationship between image and its maker became evident. The photograph served as a real evidence of a once existing person, object, or an event. At first, there was an effort to make photos with the look of paintings, then the differences between photos and paintings were recogni- sed, and the aim had become to achieve a photographic effect. 1.2.3 The significance of photos The significance of photos is hardly debatable in our age. Their absence would certainly make a difference, as they are practi- cally present in every field of our daily life. They have become an integral part of our routine. Try to picture a newspaper without photos or an internet portal without photographs… The influential conservative German daily paper called Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, which has been published since 1949, was selected as the third best newspaper of the world in an internatio- nal survey at the millennium (following Financial Times and New York Times). The paper was, however, only published in black-an- white until 2007, and it very rarely featured a picture on its cover. After 2007, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, as a reaction to the challenges of the market, significantly reshaped its appearan- ce; coloured photos and modern font have been used in it since.
  6. 6. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 6 1.2.4 The role and use of images Just like linguistic symbols, other social and visual signs are also part of the communication environment that surrounds social hu- man life. It would be hard to think of an age or a culture in which pictures did not have a role in social life; they were always used in religion, art, ideologies or communication, or – just like today – they were also daily commodities. The most famous work of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) is Mona Lisa. This is one of the most perfect female portraits in which the strict discipline of the triangular composition is resol- ved by the imaginary landscape fa- ding into mist in the background. The half serene, half stern facial expres- sion is made lifelike by the delicate effects of light and shade. It is only possible to make credible statements about the use of photo- graphs if one is familiar with its func- tions. Based on the practice of photo research, we see that other than its function to attract attention, it has the role to call for contempla- tion or to give pleasure. The artistic works of photography inspire meditation, whereas photos in newspapers meant for mass “con- sumption” are only intended for one viewing. Furthermore, there are pictures for private use with their relevant functions. 1.2.5 To be at the right time, at the right place… Press photography Press photography is about press news photos meant for the public. Its aim is to give information, to report on something or to introduce social, political, business, cultural or art life. Its other goal is to give quick visual information for daily use which can be perceived and interpreted in a moment. Press photography considers the meaning of images and image use with the mind- set of a sociologist, knowing that the interpretation of pictures depends on the aspects of those who participate in using and understanding the picture, and who ascribe meaning to it. All of us can recall such well-known press photos, image “icons” which, in the eyes of the geographically, cultu- rally distant beholder became iden- tical with the event; and the pictures themselves represent the whole event. These photos were published in daily press, in their own news context, and the same pictures seen in retrospect have become historical documents of their age. A photo of a euphoric moment at the opening of the Austrian-Hungarian bor- der in 1989.
  7. 7. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 7 1.2.6 The photo as an objective tool Through the years, photography has been applied in various fields. From hundreds of thousands of amateur photographers who preserved memories and impressions with their cameras, it is worth remembering the photographers of magazines, and the pictures taken by them. The Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung alone comes out in 2 million co- pies every week. The very existence of magazines is based on the opportunities offered by photographs. By today, a certain form of image reportage has developed, which reports on events brie- fly and comprehensively. One look is enough for us to grasp the situation, because it gives the essence of things and people in its outward appearance. The photo helps us see the state of affairs objectively. Due to the fact that the photo is the best means of documentation, it has become an indispensable tool of medicine and crime investigation. Today we can’t name a field of knowledge which does not use photography; within some sciences it has even opened completely new fields. Let us consider X-ray photography, mi- cro-photography, or the potentials of mo- tion-capturing. Finally, photography even offers a solution for the reproduc- tion of arts, promoting them more effi- ciently than with originals or etchings. of Standards asked himself, what if the computer was able to see pictures. Kirsch and his colleagues, who developed the Stan- dards Eastern Automatic Computer (SEAC), the first American programmable computer, went on to edit a drum scanner, and wrote a programme with which it was able to read pictures. The first scanned image of the world depicts Russel Kirsch’s newborn son, Walden. The computer-generated photo was 50 x 50 mm, with a 176 x 176 pixel resolution. In the digitisation of visual culture, the most remarkable landmark was not related to the work of artists, but it was a major transfor- mation on the side of receivers (and distributors). It was the mas- sive spreading of PCs, which, among many other things, made the public accessing of pictures or the exchanging of images possible on the internet. And, what is more important in the light of our topic, is that thanks to the image editing
  8. 8. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 8 1.2.7 Computerised image The first image made with the help of a computer was born in the spring of 1957. As the story goes, Russel Kirsch, a researcher of the National Bureau programmes, people have experienced that the optically recorded image is not an unalterable, given thing, but it can be reshaped or manipulated, as required. This is the fun- damental difference between analogous and digital optical ima- ges, between photography and digital image-making: although photographs can also be manipulated, it is a rare phenomenon. However, in digital image creation, manipulation and interfering with the image is the basic situation. Not manipulated, “original” images in a digital image environment are, so to speak, not appli- cable, since “the same” picture will be different in terms of size and colours according to our settings and how big a monitor we are using to view them. 1.2.8 Multimedia The multimedia, in the wider sense of the word is a creative en- vironment. It is a system which provides the individual or groups with the interactive access of digital information captured in va- rious structures (picture, graphics, motion picture, sound, written text, data files, etc.) not necessarily in the same data base; it is the recording of that information at the place of its utilisation, its restructuring and expansion. This means that the goal is to supply information at a high level, with the simultaneous stimulation of all senses, for the sake of efficiency. As we see in the description, photography also forms an impor- tant part of multimedia contents; that is why we must bear in mind that pictures appearing there should be made with such care as if they were intended to appear elsewhere. The photos must be legitimate (our own). Today no magazines, newspapers, or internet portals exist without photos. And I believe that however fast technology is developing, the photograph will always have a place of its own. 1.3 Image composition Composition is one of the fundamental as well as easiest ways to creating better images. You will not need any extra equipment neither expensive camera with sophisticated controls. Just follow a few simple rules, and your pictures will look much better and more interesting. In other hand, almost all defects of photos taken can be later co- rrected by software, including exposure, contrast, colour balance, but unsuccessful composition of objects taken can‘t be repaired. Most modern cameras have no optical viewfinder and user have to use LCD display to compose picture. This causes inconve-
  9. 9. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 9 nience due a flat view (it is difficult to understand the environment using it), but you can see exact image of future picture. In addi- tion, the display can be accompanied by various guidance grids and indicators.Professional cameras are usually equipped with optical viewfinders in addition to LCD displays. Shutter button is off. Camera stands by and continuously adjusts to the scene. Shutter button is pressed half-way. Camera is ready to take picture. Focus and exposure are locked, and you can continue to compose scene with the settings unchanged. Shutter button is pressed full-way. Camera takes photo with the focus and exposure settings made above. Be careful to keep the camera stable, without shaking. 1.3.1 The Rule of Thirds Let divide image into nine equal parts by grids. A human eye nor- mally focuses into objects that are placed in the intersections of the grids and such images look more pleasant. A grid of the Rule of Thirds A grid of the Golden Ratio Most of modern digital cameras have grid of thirds on the viewfinder or screen. More advanced sort of that rule is Golden Ratio rule, which states that any human and nature beauty is ba- sed on the aspect ratio 1:1.618. Similar to Golden Ratio are so called golden triangles, along which cor- ners and lines can be oriented ob- jects in the image. You can google for it and see practical examples.
  10. 10. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 10 1.3.2 Lines Most of images have some leading lines that catch the eye and indicate the path of the visual perception. The lines can be real (geometric) or imagined and go vertical, horizontal, diagonal or even curved. If image has no clear lines, the observer can’t find easily starting point in the image and lose any interest to it. Orientation objects along curves Several points of interest It is considered that the horizon- tal lines and landscapes make peaceful and restful impression. In contrast, vertical lines, poles, tall trees and skyscrapers cause activity and a sense of worry. Diagonal lines and curves can create impression of change and dynamism. They also are useful to make extra depth to your scene. The similar rules recommend making several points of interest in the image. Having visited the main object, the eye goes to se- condary objects, which have to be placed in suitable points and in required order. It is very important to keep horizontal and vertical lines as much in line with the sides of your image as possible. 1.3.3 Framing Framing images by objects Images look better when objects of interest are framed by other, secondary objects. The eye ea- sier finds a focus point and stays there for a longer time. In practice framing can be used when shooting sky, water, forest, mountains, and other large natu- ral objects. 1.3.4 Background and image depth Almost in any cases you need to avoid busy backgrounds and fo- reign things or even colours in the scene that can divert attention from main objects. The image has to be as simple as possible to percept it easily. Human eye tends to reject any chaotic in place- ment or colours images. Filling images One of the methods is to fill ima- ge by your object as much as possible leaving less space for background. On example, a por- trait looks more interesting when person’s head fills almost all ima- ge frame, and boring if the per- son competes with other surroun- ding objects - a chair, a lamp or even his own boots.
  11. 11. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 11 The similar rule says to leave some spare space (negative space) in image to rest. The space could be piece of blue sky, water, grass or simple dark shadow. In the worst case it is possible to set focus only to particular ob- jects by using camera controls, and leave background in a fog out of focus. 1.3.5 Symmetry, patterns and Rule of Odds Images can look impressive when objects here have strict ver- tical or horizontal symmetry, for example object and it’s reflec- tion on the water. Symmetric geometric shapes and patterns can be used to. They could be found widely both in the man made surroundings and the nature. Symmetry and patterns give image harmony and sen- se of order. You can often play with colour and texture patterns obtaining special rhythm in the image too. Rule of Odds says that scenes with odd elements are more appea- ling than similar with even objects. For example, group of three or five birds look more interesting than two or four. The explanation of this phenomena is that eye tends to find centre of scene and focus on the central figure. In case of even objects, eye focuses on empty space between objects. 1.3.6 View in different angles When you take photos of close things, you can choose various viewing angles – from bottom to top. Viewing angles can drama- tically change accents in the image, and objects or people in the scene will have enhanced upper or bottom parts. By selecting the viewing angle you can visually reduce some parts of the ob- ject and enlarge another, changing perspective and perception of image. Different view angles
  12. 12. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 12 1.3.7 Let’s make experiments As you see some rules are similar and some even conflicting. In fact you can combine several rules and even break them when you feel it is worth. You can take one, two or hundreds digital photos with no cost at all and have endless possibility for experi- ments. Therefore, always take a few photos instead one changing composition. Later you will select the best image. Another tip. If possible, take larger scene than necessary, leaving extra spaces. Later you can select best framing and finally cut images using photo editing software. Modern digital cameras have tremendous number of pixels, 14 million and more and this means that your even landscape pic- tures taken on that camera have dimensions over 1 m high on screen and A3 size on good colour printer. So you have enough quality reserves and can safely cut the pictures for a better com- position. 1.4 DSLR camera Nowadays everybody has the possibility to afford a digital photo camera… But, are we totally familiarized with them? In this unit we are going to present the DSLR cameras basic skills for better throughput and, therefore, better pictures. This is a DSLR camera model. A Canon 300D in this case. Source:
  13. 13. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 13 DSLR or Digital Single Lens Reflex camera, are cameras whose captured pictures are storaged in an electronic sensor not in a celluloid reel. In their most remarkable skills are also the option of automate all of their procedures almost. Both focus, shooting devices and even flash. The essential parts are the following: 1.4.1 Lens The lens is the part of the camera that directs the light source to the camera and also let you focus the image and zoom it. There are many kind of lenses with many focus, distance and aperture skills. They are essential to collect the information of outside and transmit it to the camera electronic sensor, becoming a picture. For a right fitting of the lens you should match the lens and camera body indicators and rotate the lens until you hear the fastening sound. One of the basic function of this part of the camera is performed by the focus. This tool, placed inside the lens, is used to highlight an object or an area of the photo above the rest by increasing her sharpness. That is known as "to focus" and you can do that by moving the focus switch to the left or to the right. This is the effect that you get when you focus different objects or areas in the same picture. 1.4.2 Viewfinder Is the peephole through we look at the area that we want to take a picture. Usually also appears, at the down part of the viewfinder, the camera configuration that we have at the moment and which the photo is going to be taken. We can also find the guide lines to help us with the picture elements distribution and composition. Is the physical structure of the camera. Its stiffness facilitates us holding the camera. It's also the mounting where the lens and other complements, like flashes or tripods, are changed.
  14. 14. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 14 This point it's quickly explained. The shutter release is the button that makes the photo when we push it. We may regulate it at diffe- rent speed, modifying the exposure time. 1.4.3 Aperture The aperture is formed by a little tabs that, when they bound, they form an opaque circle interrupting the light access. Circular device placed between the camera mirror and the lens. It has the function of allowing the light input to the sensor. We can open and close it. The more open it has more light are going to get in. It is the modern substitute of the photographic film (reel). It's a chip with thousands of light sensors which transform incoming light to information, creating the picture. 1.4.4 Memory card Storage device of all DSLR cameras. The captured images are all saved in it, and the card keeps them until you don't erase the pictures, individually or formatting the whole card. With this devi- ce we can view the pictures by the camera screen or move them into our computer. There are many types of memory card, but the most common in DSLR cameras are SD cards (the little ones) and the Compact Flash cards (the big ones). We must make sure which card is compatible with our camera. Such cards may have different storage capacity. The cameras used in this grade use the Compact Flash card. The holes of the card must match the pistons inside the camera. It's essential to take great care with this devices and trying not to break it or get dirty. 1.4.5 Battery Essential element for the camera operation by providing it with energy and allowing it to turn on and do all functions correctly. You must be forehanded and keep the battery always charged if we are going to make a photo session. We can't take pictures without battery, We can se here a viewfinder example. Take a look at the guide lines in the middle and the camera configuration at the bottom. As we can see in the picture, the body camera shape fits perfectly in the photographer hands.
  15. 15. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 15 1.5 Camera Exposure The exposure in photography refers to the amount of light ente- ring the camera and acting on film or digital sensor. When more exposure is used or in other words when more light enters the camera, then the brighter picture is taken, and vice versa. Nowadays all cameras have automatic exposure control and usually it works well enough to produce nice pictures. Of course, in certain cases with bad light conditions or experimenting with light effects manual exposure could be preferable. Even most ex- pensive cameras can’t take all range of light as eye can see, and by setting exposure we are choosing suitable light interval and contrast of the image. 1.5.1 Automatic exposure Almost all modern digital cameras have several automatic expo- sure settings such as centre weighting average, spot metering or multi zone metering. Centre weighting average usually is default setting. Camera mea- sures light of all scene but most important is centre of the frame. With spot metering, the camera will only measure a very small area of the scene (only few per cent of the viewfinder area). Spot metering is very accurate and is commonly used to shoot very high contrast scenes (for example, moon in the dark sky) or sce- nes with strong backlight. Using both exposure settings you can point camera to the darkest object to be taken in photo, “lock” exposure and focus by pres- sing and holding shutter button halfway and continue composing scene pointing camera to lighter objects. This method enables better pictures of scenes with shadows and backlight. Multi zone metering estimates light conditions in several (7, 9 or even hundreds) points of scene. This sophisticated metering of- ten takes into consideration other camera settings and measu- rements such as focus, distance from the object, its colour and works quite well with all automatic settings. When you need change metering mode: Press button or look for metering mode menu, Select metering mode by pressing button, Then press
  16. 16. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 16 In Canon EOS cameras often are used some other titles of mete- ring modes: or Evaluative metering means multizone metering, or Partial metering means spot metering, is for centre weighting averaged metering. 1.5.2 Scene presets Most cameras have exposure presets for basic scenes, setting optimal values of aperture size, ISO and shutter speed. Scenes easily can be set using camera‘s controls, on example by dial ring in Canon EOS cameras. Manual settings are available only in so called Creative zone. Portrait. This mode blurs background and makes subject stand out. Landscape. Wide scenic views, night scenes. Close-up. Flowers, small objects using minimal focusing distance. Sport. For fast moving subjects when you want take sharp image. Night portrait. For shooting peoples in dark environment. The flash illuminates person and then environment is captured using low shutter speed.
  17. 17. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 17 1.5.3 Manual and automatic modes P Program AE mode. Almost the same as auto- matic mode, but you have ability to change ISO, exposure compensation, shutter speed and some other settings, while maintaining the same exposure value. Tv Shutter priority AE mode. You can change desirable shutter speed, and camera will adjust aperture value automatically. Shutter speed makes influence to sharpness or blurri- ness of moving objects in image. Av Aperture priority AE mode. You can chan- ge desirable aperture, and camera will ad- just shutter speed automatically to keep the same image brightness. Large aperture re- sults background blur, and small apertures give deep images. M Manual Exposure mode. You can change both aperture and shutter speed manually. You may need exposure level indicator to set proper values. A-Dep Automatic field-of-depth mode. Camera will check both near and far objects to be in the focus. Automatic mode. All exposure settings are set automatically. 1.5.4 Manual exposure Many cameras don’t take good images of low light scenes becau- se their automatics can’t see objects clear enough to make pro- per decision on exposure settings. Most cameras tend maximizing sensitivity to light (ISO) which increases the noise in the image, instead getting more light by exceeding shutter speed over 0.5-1 sec. If you have tripod, you easily can manage low light scenes with manual shutter speeds as long as minute or more. Main terms of exposure controls Shutter speed means exposure time when camera is open and collecting light from scene you take. Exposure begins with full pressing shutter button. Shutter speed usually is indicated in se- conds and fractions of seconds like 1/250. The higher the num- ber, the more light enters the camera. Shutter speeds less than 1/1000 s are used for fast motion photos in excellent light, and as long as 1/8 s and more usually are used for static low light scenes and with tripod.
  18. 18. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 18 In various photography literature you often can find a term “stop” of camera exposure, ISO, shutter speed etc, what actually means some standard value of corresponding parameter only. Aperture means how wide camera is open for light from scene you take. In practice term f-number is used, which is roughly a ratio of the lens's focal length to the diameter of aperture hole, for example f/5.6 or f/16 (f/5.6 and f/16 are “stops” i.e. standardised values). A lens with a greater f-number has smaller aperture hole and produces darker images. f/1.4 f/1.4 f/1.4 f/1.4 Relationship between aperture size, f-number and picture exposure ISO means sensitivity of film to light or nowadays the sensitivity of digital imaging systems. Modern digital cameras have ISO range from 100 up to 1600 or even more. The higher the ISO number, the less light is required to produce photo with the same image brightness. And low-sensitive camera needs longer exposition. In both digital and film photography, higher ISO generally leads to reduced image quality (bigger noise appears in the image). Exposure value EV is a number that represents a combination of a camera's shutter speed and f-number. Different shutter speeds and f-numbers combinations can produce the same exposure value. Theoretically brightness of photos with the identical EV will be the same but sharpness and depth of images may differ very much. F-NUMBER EV 2.8 4.0 5.6 8.0 11 16 2 2 4 8 15 30 60 3 1 2 4 8 15 30 4 1/2 1 2 4 8 15 5 1/4 1/2 1 2 4 8 6 1/8 1/4 1/2 1 2 4 7 1/15 1/8 1/4 1/2 1 2 8 1/3 1/15 1/8 1/4 1/2 1 9 1/60 1/3 1/15 1/8 1/4 1/2 10 1/125 1/60 1/3 1/15 1/8 1/4 11 1/250 1/125 1/60 1/3 1/15 1/8 12 1/500 1/250 1/125 1/60 1/3 1/15 13 1/1000 1/500 1/250 1/125 1/60 1/3 14 1/2000 1/1000 1/500 1/250 1/125 1/60 15 1/2000 1/1000 1/500 1/250 1/125 16 1/2000 1/1000 1/500 1/250 Dependency between f-number and shutter speed (shutter speed is shown in intersections)
  19. 19. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 19 Sunny 16 rule makes it easy to determine the exposure in a good daylight. It says that correct exposure will be obtained on a sunny day by using an aperture of f/16 and the shutter speed closest to the one second divided by ISO used. For example, if you set camera ISO to 100, then optimal shutter speed will be 1/100 s. Depth of field increases with f-number. This means that in photos taken with low f-number objects in focus only will be clear, and rest nearer and farther elements will seem blurred. If you use lar- ge f-numbers, almost all elements in photo will look sharp. If you prefer most informative documentary photos, you’ll find aperture f-number f/8 should be the best in most of cases. Typical exposure values EV for various light conditions when ISO equals 100 are shown in the table. Lighting Condition Ev Daylight High contrast scenes such as snow or sand 16 Full sunlight or little shadows, clear sky background 15 Heavy overcast, scenes in shadow during clear sunlight, at sunset 12 Just after sunset 9–11 Outdoor, Artificial Light Neon, fire 9–10 Bright street scenes 8 Night street scenes, fairs, parks and window displays 7–8 Night vehicle traffic, Christmas tree lights 5 Lighted buildings, monuments, and fountains 3–5 Distant views of lighted buildings 2 Indoor, Artificial Light Galleries 8–11 Sports events, shows 8–9 Ice shows, floodlit 9 Offices and work areas 7–8 Home interiors 5–7 Exposure compensation is a simple to use camera control to ob- tain lighter or darker image. Usually this control looks like a slider with several marks from negative to positive. Negative marks give darker and positive give more brighter image. -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
  20. 20. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 20 Actual EV can be obtained by subtraction of exposure compen- sation value from EV value that camera indicates. For example, if camera settings give EV value 8 and selected EV compensation is 1, then actual AV will be 7. If you're not sure what settings to apply, it is possible to set up a series of exposures by automatically increasing settings by 1, this is called bracketing. Aperture or shutter speed priority lets you control camera’s f-num- ber or shutter speed without worrying about the other settings that camera then automatically selects according light of the scene. 1.5.5 Camera’s controls ISO speed usually is set between 100 and 400 automatically. In creative zone modes you can set ISO speed to other values, usually to 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600. Press button. ISO speed menu will be displayed. Select ISO speed by pressing button, then press The shutter speed can be changed in interval from seconds to milliseconds by turning the dial in shutter priority mode. The actual shutter speed is indicated on the LCD screen as de- nominator of fraction in seconds. On example, ‘125’ on the screen means 1/125 seconds. The aperture value can be changed by turning the dial in aperture priority mode. Aperture depends on lens attached to the camera. The actual aperture is indicated on the LCD screen as denominator of fraction. On example, ‘5.6’ on the screen means f/5.6. In manual mode aperture settings you can reach by holding button. Exposition indicator should be near the zero mark to achieve standard exposure level. To decrease it you should increase shutter speed or select smaller aperture.
  21. 21. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 21 1.6 Colour control The actual colours are most important problem in photography. The first, most modern cameras have still non-linear image sen- sors and therefore there are used sophisticated colour proces- sors which complex algorithms to improve colour quality. And the result of such processing often differs from original. The second, you must have very good PC screen to reproduce actual colours. Most of LCD monitors give only approximately colours and often even monitor colour pre-sets can’t help. One option is to consider each photo as a piece of art, which mustn’t be an exact copy of reality. In this case automatic colour control is enough. But other option is smart use available came- ra settings and get result you need. 1.6.1 White balance Adjusting the white balance basically means making sure that a white or any grey shadowed part of the picture is really white or grey, not with any red, blue or green tones. It the colour of white or grey parts corresponds to original colours, we are sure that all other colours are correct. Most modern cameras have an AWB (automatic white balance) setting. In the most cases can be let switched on, especially out- doors when light is strong. Ever if your photos have wrong colour balance, it can be easily corrected in the computer. If you take photos indoors without flash, artificial light (bulbs, luminescent tubes, candles etc) may give strong colour tone on your images. To avoid it cameras can have various pre-sets of white balance such as ‘tungsten bulb’, ‘white fluorescent’ etc. If you prefer use your own white balance settings, various op- tions can be found in the table. Colour Temp Light source Setting icon 1000K Candles 2500K Household light bulbs 5000K Average daylight, electronic flash, industrial lights 6000K Bright sunshine with clear sky 7000K Slightly overcast sky 8000K Hazy sky 9000K Open shade on clear day 10,000K Heavily overcast sky
  22. 22. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 22 If you need to make sure yourselves how exact is your camera’s white balance, you can take few photos of known grey object, on example newspaper page, open them in the photo editing sof- tware and look how much colour tone differs when you make them “black white”. 1.6.1 Saturation Most cameras have colour saturation control, e.g. less saturated, normal and vivid options. Vivid colours are ideal when you need to emphasize primary colours such as fashion, lights, fruits and flowers. Monochromatic option gives non-colour (black – white) images. If you use high contrast settings, such images will look more in- teresting. Sepia option makes your image look like as old fashion black – white photo with light brown tones. Many cameras have various colour filters and pre-sets which give your image particular colour tone, balance or saturation. 1.6.3 Colour processing It is recommended in all cases to keep the same colour repre- senting standard – sRGB. This option should be set in both your camera and photo processing software. Alternative standard CMYK often is used in colour printers. To make CMYK image from RGB always better and easier than vice versa. 1.7 Light Usually in photography we use three main types of light: natural light, studio light and flash. The light is most important in black and white (monochrome) pho- tography, where interpretation of image depends mainly on sha- dows and highlights. There are some useful rules of light in photography:  The broader the light source, the softer the light. The narrower the source, the harder the light.  The closer the light source, the softer the light. The farther the source, the harder the light.  The brighter sky, the darker shadows. Clouds reduce sha- dows, and fog eliminates them at all.  The light falls off as the square of the distance. If you bring light far as twice, the lightness on object surface will decrease four times.  Light from side emphasises object’s texture. Frontlight masks roughness.  Shadows create volume in image. And, of course, remember that light has a colour. Daylight colour in the morning differs from daylight in the afternoon.
  23. 23. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 23 1.7.1 Natural light Natural daylight has quick changing intensity, colour temperatu- re, shadows and angle of light. Also we can’t choose position of light source but can change point of viewing getting various inte- resting light and shadow effects. During only rare periods (e.g. bright winter and early spring days) sunlight gives strong contrast between object front and shadows, acting like key light in studio. But in most cases sunlight is dis- sipated in the atmosphere and creates a smooth backlight, with soft shadows. When the sun is behind object, the main attention goes to outline of object and light effects on it, increasing separation between the object and surrounding. Framing images by objects Some additional tools may be used to reduce shadows or highlight par- ticular areas of the object, on exam- ple reflector. The reflector reflects light like a mirror in the desired di- rection, and it is easy to manage li- ght with it. As a reflector you can use light-colored wall of the house or other bright objects too. Handy reflector is easy to make from a white paper sheet, alumi- nium foil or even white plastic or linen. 1.7.2 Studio light Studio lights Light can be used to enhan- ce or hide particular objects in the image. In the studio usually three lights are used for key (main) light, fill light and backlight. Various com- binations of these lights can produce different light effects. On example, using only key light you can enhance contours and particular areas of object, achieving very high object/back- ground contrast ratio. Using extra key lights, on example 3 or 5 instead one, presence of shadows will be minimised and you will be able to shoot quic- kly series of photos with only minimal adjustments, but result will have less contrast and details.
  24. 24. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 24 1.7.3 Flashlight Flash is a device producing short impulses of artificial light to help illuminate a scene. Duration of such impulses is approximately 1 millisecond (1/1000s). Flashlight is used usually for:  illuminating dark scenes  key lighting and adjusting light intensity or temperature  capturing quickly moving objects. Most cameras have built-in flashes and professional ones have ability to mount more powerful external flash units. In the studio or even event or party you can use additional separate standing flash devices that ignite remotely by camera internal flash light or various infrared, radio or cable technologies. Kind of external flash Flash reflector Each flash device can be described by two parameters-duration and intensity. The duration often described as a number like t.5 or t.3. The greater is number, the shorter duration is. The intensity usually is marked in fractions (like ½ or ¼) or numbers (like 9 or 8). The greater number means larger intensity. In most cases the flash is used as main light source when environ- ment light is insufficient, on example indoors or after sunset. Nor- mally, built-in flash can illuminate scene in 3-4 meters distance. The illumination falls off as the square of the distance. If the scene far as twice, the illumination of scene will decrease four times. But in short distances flash is too bright to take quality images. The minimal flash distance usually is 1 meter. Otherwise, the flash is used as front light to control contrast and highlight object areas like in studio. Flash adjusts foreground and background luminance ratio
  25. 25. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 25 Standard direct flash produces hard light making sharp shadows. Professionals try to avoid this hard light by dispelling the flash light with different filters and reflectors. If you have no expensive equipment, you can cover the flash by light dissipating film, use white umbrellas or even usual paper cards to reflect light. In Canon EOS series cameras the flash can be used fully automa- tically in the Basic zone modes. But in Creative zone you can use the flash whenever you want. Built-in flash will pop up automatically if necessary in low light and backlight conditions, except landscape, sport and flash-off modes. In the Aperture priority (Av) mode the foreground of scene is ex- posed shortly using flash, and darker background is exposed longer according shutter speed. So in the dark environment using Av mode you need a tripod even you use the flash. When flash is used in dark environment, people’s and animals’ eyes can look red in the image because the light refracts from eye’s retina. Most of cameras have “red eye reducing” flash mode when auxiliary lamp or pre-flash illuminates the eyes causing them to shrink the iris. Red eye reduction works better in lighter conditions or in shorter distances. 1.8 Photography projects 1.8.1 When does one become a good photographer? Since digital cameras (including the popular smart phones) be- came so widespread, photography is one of the world’s favou- rite hobbies. As a matter of fact, everybody has a camera, our limit is only set by our level of interest and the size of our wallet. Some people are contented with the photography functions of a mobile phone, while others want to make the most of their talent and creativity with the help of their mirror reflection photo device and focus variations. Even though video cameras are especially popular, people often take time to look at magnified still images; perhaps because we can take these anywhere in our pockets or purse or we can put them on our wall so that a person or an event can always be near us. But it’s also possible that photography, the capturing of a moment has such a mystic quality that motion picture (or reality) cannot reflect. Presumably, the latter can be the main reason for anybody’s affection for photography.
  26. 26. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 26 When does one become a good photographer? It happens when you take photos and it gives you pleasure. It is only an additional value if other people appreciate your work, creativity or point of view. You might be at professional level, with a super expensive camera on your shoulder, photography being your bread and butter. You might be a person whose photos win awards, maybe in significant fields of knowledge, and you receive a great amount of money for them. Or you might be someone who makes a selection of your favourite photos to show them to your friends and family, for the purpose of fun. Which one is the good photographer? Someone who gets paid for his work, but it has become nothing more than a daily routine? Or someone whose photo is awarded by a certain professional board, based on their own aspects? Or is it someone who makes himself or his environment happy by capturing some special moments? Che Guevara, Alberto Korda Birth, Ferenc Simicz (f/2.0, 1/45, ISO 800, Leica M9P/Zeiss Planar 50mm) Photographers at work
  27. 27. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 27 1.8.2 Portraits – people in the pictures Head or bust portraits remind most people of school or passport photos. It is not a surprise, then, that many portraits look like they come from the police archives, where people stare into the lens ri- gidly, without expression; and the model would flee from the came- ra if he could. These faces can be old or young, smooth or wrinkled, humorous or strict, happy or sorrowful; capturing these moments is one of the most rewarding experiences in photography. Although in terms of equipment there aren’t any regulations, op- tics of 70-200 mm are the most suitable for portraits. The use of a wide aperture opening ( mi- ght be important, with which we can make the background suffi- ciently dim (, thus highlighting, emphasising our object. For this purpose, it is best to choose AV mode, that is, set the mode dials for aperture priority mode. This way we can regulate the aperture opening and the blurring of the background, that is, the bigger the aperture, the more blurred the background. It might also be an important rule that the sharpest part of the picture should be the eyes, the face. Sikh man, Amritsar/India, Ferenc Simicz (f/3.5, 1/160, ISO 100, Canon 40D, Canon 50/1.8) As we do portrait photography, we may select from various op- tions other than the already mentioned face and bust portraits. We can photograph whole bodies too if we intend to present our object in full form. The reason might be his unique clothes, physi- que or simply his character. The full shot does not mean that our model has to be standing. He can be seated or even lying down. In the case of open air portrait shots one must take the conditions of light into consideration. The colour temperature produces war- mer lights in the morning and in the evening than during the day when the sun is high and its colours are bluish. Strong sunlight might cast a shadow on the face, under the eyes, thus changing our object’s character. Strong light might also cause him to wince or blink, not to mention the fact that we might also cast a shadow on the picture. The best open air portrait photos were born in the shade or in cloudy weather. Unlike when it’s sunny, there is no wincing or blinking in that weather, deep shadows do not appear on the face. If we still happen to take photos in the sun, we must make sure that the light hits the face from the side, that is, the sun shouldn’t shine into our model’s eyes, and there should be no backlight. In the case of portraits we may often use our flash in the so-called filler mode. This way our portraits will look natural, at the same time, shades will not give an aged look to the face, and wrinkles will smooth out. This method works best with side light or backlight, and makes a really professional impression. The selected background can make the quality much worse, but it can also improve it. If the background dominates too much, we might lose the person in the picture. A well-selected background, however, may tell us a lot about our model. In professional stu-
  28. 28. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 28 dios, we can choose from several backgrounds. Of course, a stu- dio is not always available to us, so we have to make do with our own solutions. The most popular option is the white background, for which we only have to find a white wall. With that, we have an improvised studio! It might be an excellent idea to photograph someone while busy at work, thus the proper background is easily provided. This will make the picture atmospheric, not to mention its documentaristic approach. 1.8.3 Landscape photography, or the beauty of the world in a single photo These days we can choose from a colourful selection of travelling possibilities. It can be a summer holiday in a remote country or on a far-away continent, a business trip to a nearby city, or ma- ybe a weekend retreat at the countryside. The point is that we should travel as much as possible, so we can have more and more opportunities to use our camera. We will always meet new themes, landscapes, climates, so the variations are endless. The change of seasons provides us with ample opportunities to take photos. Spring is perfect with its fresh colours and shades, moreover, we don’t have to worry about mist that makes our job so difficult in summer. On a spring day, what we see as photogenic might be faded or of no interest the next day, so timing, planning and nice weather are very important factors. In summer the biggest problem is that the air gets filled with moisture when the sun is high, so our landscape photos might look faded and dull. Even early in the morning, the air has a high content of moisture, which also works against photographers. Of course, this should not discourage us, as there are some special phenomena that we can only capture in this season. Such a thing is the blooming of certain trees and plants. But photographing the clouds before and after a storm can also be exciting. Autumn is the season of colours. This is when we might have the shortest time for photographing, as nature changes from day to day, and the capriciousness of weather can greatly influence our work of photography. The colours of autumn trees are brilliant, especially if we can put them in contrast. For example, a tree with completely yellow foliage looks beautiful if there is an evergreen in its background.
  29. 29. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 29 Winter is a wonderful period for photographers, but it is full of traps which we can easily fall into if we don’t know how our ca- mera reacts in certain situations. The blinding light of snow can often confuse the built-in light meter of our camera, and the pho- tos thus taken look not at all like we intended them. It might help if we switch off the automatic focus on our camera, or we look for such spots for light metering that have medium tone. Then we can return to our theme and take our picture. The winter atmosphere is perfectly suitable for black-and-white photos. For landscape photography, we have to use landscape mode. Pine trees, Ferenc Simicz (f/9.5, 1/500, ISO 160, Leica M9P, Summicron 50mm) 1.8.4 Event photography, or how to capture a never returning moment Events of family life, friends or of other nature are some of the most important themes. Whether it’s a wedding, graduation, birthday or Christmas, they are of the type that can rarely be repeated. So it is quite important how these photos turn out. Think about this: your friend asks you to take a photo of the kiss at his wedding. How will you tell him that it didn’t turn out, because you were fiddling with the white balance, or you were busy replacing the lens? It might be important to know the participants of the event. If we don’t, it might be useful to have a few words with them, or with people who are familiar with the procedure. Smile, Ferenc Simicz (f/2.8, 1/90, ISO 1600, Leica M9P, Zeiss Planar 50mm)
  30. 30. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 30 This way we can also get to know the order of events and which are the moments worth of capturing. Try to focus on moments that faithfully mirror the atmosphere, the magic of the event. Try to be invisible so that you will not influence the mood of the event with your camera. Set your camera in TV, that is, in Shutter Priority mode. The most important thing is that you have to be there at the right moment! 1.8.5 “Street photography”, or when the theme is out in the street Besides events and organised functions, there is a lot going on in the street, but we don’t always notice an interesting topic right before our eyes. That is why it is a must for an enthusiastic photo- grapher to always carry a camera, not only when he is travelling or when he is on his way to document an important event. Let’s just try it! Next time we go to school or work, let us consider the events of the street with the eyes of a photographer, and we will realise how many things are happening that might be worth do- cumenting. Of course, many people in the street are not there at their own will, but because their life took a turn for the worse. Photographing them might arouse some moral issues. 1.8.6 Sports photography for beginners Sports events are full of extremely exciting moments, whether it is our child’s first swimming competition or the match of a professio- nal football team. At the same time, capturing fast moves, whe- ther they are made by humans or an object, is a great challenge for fans of photography. One of the most crucial aspects of sports photography is choo- sing the right shutter speed. Since most sports happen fast, we must use short shutter speed. I would say that we should use a min. 1/250 shutter speed, but in reality the quicker the exposure, the better; the lesser the chance that the object or the person being photographed will move. Logically, this statement applies even more to technical sports. If possible, we should use a stand with three legs (tripod) or with one leg (monopod). The former is handy if we have a fixed spot for photographing, whereas with the latter we can move about more, we can change our position quic- ker. If we can only take photos from a distance, e.g. at a car race, we must use a telephoto lens. With 100-500mm lenses, excellent sports photos can be made.
  31. 31. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 31 1.8.7 Building photography, or houses we live in If you’ve had enough of people, events, sports or nature, what is left is building photography. As the saying goes, it is good to photograph buildings because they never move about. There is something about that. Building photography is such a field where the use of a tripod is indispensable. Not because our building might run away, but so that we can place our device in a perfect vertical position. Our stand will also help us work with little DOF (depth of field), which means that almost every detail of our pictu- re will have proper sharpness. In the case of exterior building photography, we normally use our camera slightly tilted upwards. Except, of course, if it is possi- ble to position ourselves at the required distance. This method in every case results in so-called converging verticals. This means that the building is seemingly getting thinner towards its roof. Thus, mainly in the case of tall buildings and skyscrapers, we can achieve a dramatic effect. The building will look much taller in the photo than in reality. In certain cases, as with cathedrals, it works the opposite way and the picture might not make a good impression. In the case of night or city shots, our photo will have a special look due to the blurred lights of traffic. For building photography, we should use a wide-angle lens: 17- 40mm will be suitable for this purpose. We must assume some geometrical distortions, which usually depend on our lens and the perspective used. This, to some extent, can be corrected at post-production.
  32. 32. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 32 1.8.8 Photo processing, post-production When we have taken the photos with our digital camera, then we have to save them onto the computer from its memory or its me- mory card. Computers have several programmes related to pic- tures or photo processing, but before we start using them, we must save the photos. It is also important that as we save a spe- cific material, the folder needs to be marked in terms of date and name. That way we can find the required photo quickly and easily, even after many years. Cameras are usually equipped with a basic software package which focuses on the following services:  opens the pictures  shows the instructions at the time of exposing  copies material onto the computer  cuts the photos  corrects any smaller faults, e.g. red eye effect  sets tint, saturation, colour temperature, contrast, tone, sharp- ness, noise  makes a projection show  sends images to the printer  prepares the image for sharing (email, Facebook, etc.)  saves images at the proper place These functions are perfectly sufficient for enthusiastic amateurs. Whoever wants to know more about post-production, retouch or manipulation, can check out several programmes. Most of them are available at a price. It is worth working with so-called RAW files on our camera; that way, in the course of post-production we have better chances to make changes to the photos as we finalise them. As a first step, we should try to set the sharpness of the picture, because, besides the colours, this will make our photo professio- nal-looking (not to mention, of course, the theme). Then we can move on to change the colours and the tone. If the automatic white balance is not good, we can overwrite that later. It is re- commended to use Hue/Saturation, Contrast/Level, or occasio- nally Curves settings. With Highlight/Shadow we can correct any burnt, too dark or underexposed bits. If our programme has such functions, we might want to experiment with the so-called filters which can make our photo exciting. Some examples are Cross process, the various Vintage options, and the types of black-and- white filters. 1.8.9 Finally, what should I do with my photos? If we have gone through all these procedures and the memory of our computer is getting full of our photos, there is only one thing left to do, and that is to share our work with the world. This way,
  33. 33. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 33 other people will have a chance to view them; they can marvel at them or give us constructive criticism. The following free internet pages are perfect for this purpose: Feel free to join photo contests: 1.9 Image editing There are many image editing programs. Most of them are able to do practically everything on a picture, but their require a lot of photography knowledge because there are designed for profes- sionals. So, if we are beginners and we just want to make the best of our photos, the modification skills that we shall handle are the ones in this unit. Before we start, we should clarify that for editing images in this unit we are going to use the default Windows editing program already installed in the original system. If you are using a Mac- kintosh system or a Linux one don't worry, because they have, for sure, an equivalent image editing program. You have, for sure, one picture that you love but it need some corrections before you can hang on the wall. So, let’s see step by step how to do it:
  34. 34. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 34 Step 1: First of all we must select the picture we are going to edit by clicking twice on the file. Then, the following interface will appear: We click on "Edit, organize or share". Step 2: We've already opened the edition program. 1.9.1 Cut and resize Sometimes we have a really good picture but there is some object or spot in one size that bothers us. Or maybe we want to select just one person from a group photo. That is why we need the "Cut" tool. On the other hand, if we have taken a picture in high definition and we want to post it on our website or facebook profile we're going to reduce its size with the tool named "resize". Cut Let’s see together how to use te tool called “Cut” and as we did before, let’s work it step by step: Step 1: From the toolbar we choose the option "Cut", and from the options offered in the appearing tab we click on "Proportion". The following tab shows us some predefined cutting options, but, if we want to do in our way, it's advisable to choose "Personalized". Step 2: Then, a nine cell divided framework will appear (those cells will guide us to know where is the picture center after the cu- tting). We can make this framework grow or decrease pulling the pointers on the vertices and center of each one of the framework sides. Thereby all that remains inside the framework will still being part of the photo after the cutting and the rest will disappear.
  35. 35. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 35 Step 3: After deciding how we're going to cut the picture we just need to click again on the "Cut" button in the toolbar and the se- lection will replace the original photo. If the result doesn't convin- ce us we can always click on the option "Undo" up at the let of the screen or pull simultaneously the Ctrl and Z (Ctrl +Z) in our keyboard. Resize How we can resize a picture? Let’s do it step by step but remem- ber, it's easier to make a picture smaller than bigger. If what you want is to print the photo on a big poster you must be sure that you have taken the picture in high definition. Step 1: If we want to give a new size to our picture we shall pulse the "Properties" button, marked in the captured image, and click on "Resize" in the appearing tab. Once we've done this a new win- dow will be opened allowing us to modify the picture size for redu- cing it size and share it or open it with other computer programs. Step 2: We just have to choose the size we wont (from the predefi- ned options or personalized either) and click on "Resize and Save". 1.9.2 Exposure & color Exposure is the amount of light in the picture. It is used to illumi- nate or darken the image the way we need. To modify it, we must go to the right of the screen where is the option "Adjust Exposure", and the program will offer us an amalgam of options. You can use that when you have taken a photo in a room with a few light and you want to see better the people's faces. Very useful to night photos taken without flashlight. Brightness: It seems like Exposure but it's not the same. Exposure increases the light but it needs one light focus at least. We use brightness adjustments to raise or lower the picture general lighting tone (We can try to raise the brightness of a totally dark photo, but, proba- bly it's going to be disastrous). Accordingly, if we move the poin- ter to the left we're going to gain light and vice versa.
  36. 36. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 36 Contrast: It is, in the picture, the difference between what is dark and what is bright. To the left we'll match bright and shadow and to the right we'll extreme it. Shadows/Highlights: The two following options permit us to oscillate the picture's bright and dark focus. First option controls shadows, so that will raise or lower based on the direction, and the other option will do the same with the highlights or bright points. We must be careful with this tool if we don't want to lose the realistic tone of the picture, because if we force it we can turn the shadows of the picture in highlights and the other way around. You can try it, but it's weird. Automatic We can also change exposure automatically by selecting one of these boxes that appear after displaying the "Exposure" tab in the middle of the toolbar. 1.9.3 Color To modify color automatically we just have to do the same than the exposure, but with the upper tab named "color, and select one of the possible tints. But to do it manually we should go to "Adjust color" at the right of the screen and take a look at the three appearing options. Color Temperature With this bar we can raise the temperature's warm (red) or cool (blue). The image will turn more red or blue in function that we move the pointer to the right or the left respectively. Tint Sliding the pointer trough its line we'll obtain different color tint. It is the same option than the automatic adjustment explained before.
  37. 37. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 37 Saturation This tool is very useful if you have taken pictures in a cloudy day. Image saturation is the power of color. So if the pointer is totally at the left the picture will become in grey scale and if it is totally at the left the colors will win vivacity. When a photo looks gloomy because of the light we can give it some joy increasing the satu- ration. Handling all this basic editing options we may not do miracles, but certainly we could make a good picture better that it was. And remember, the best image edition is the one that photographer makes before taking the picture. 1.9.4 Image formats This is maybe the most boring part, but its necessarily to know it. Formats are made to give a picture different uses, so it is very important to handle them if we don't want to have bothering pro- blems after. The most common image formats are the following: .JPEG. Maybe it is the most common. It's very light weighted and web compatible, but it loses information when you edit it or resize it. .PNG. More used in digital graphics than in pictures, but it not lo- ses information when it become compressed. It's also web com- patible. .TIFF. It can be modified without losing quality or information, but, because of its big weight, its low compatible with web systems. If you plan to edit a picture, it's advisable, to program your came- ra in .RAW mode. This format gives us an high defined resolution non variable after editing. Nevertheless it occupy a lot of space andif we want to share it or upload to the Internet we should con- vert it to .JPEG once the edition has been done.
  38. 38. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 38 Activities1.10 1. Visual communication  Share your favourite photo with the group, and tell why you like it.  Show the group which websites you follow, where you get most of your information from, and why you like these pages. 2. Image composition A. Practice on image composition 1. Take a few images using composition rules such as Rule of thirds, aligning objects according diagonal (vertical, horizon- tal) lines, making two points of interest and using framing. Also please make some “wrong” images to compare with. Demons- trate results on the PC screen and discuss impressions. 2. Try to use symmetry, reflection effects, find some patterns in your environment. Also take object’s photos in different angles. Keep light on the object similar as possible. Please notice how main point of interest changes according viewing angle. 3. DSLR camera B. Practice exercise editing images Put different objects on a table. Place yourself with the came- ra at their same high level and take a photo for each object, focusing a different element on each one. You will get practice with the focus! 4. Exposure C. Exposure practice 1. Take a few images in automatic mode and then using sce- ne presets such as Portrait, Landscape, Sport and Night por- trait. Compare results and explain differences. 2. Take images using shutter, aperture priority as well as ma- nual exposure modes. Try to keep the same exposure level. Dependency between f-number and shutter speed you can find in the table in this section. You can use exposure bracke- ting to achieve best results. Please notice image depth chan- ges according f-number. 5. Colour control D. Colour control practice 1. Find camera’s colour and saturation controls. Take any grey object and take images of it in various light conditions – sunlight, shadow, artificial light (tungsten and luminescence lamp). In the all situations use both automatic colour control as well as fixed 5000K colour value. Compare results. Pure grey tone presence in all the series of images taken using automatic colour control will prove your camera quality. 2. Take series of colour and monochromatic images. Please notice how impression of the monochromatic images depends on contrast and shadow depth. Try to increase them.
  39. 39. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 39 6. Light E. Light practice 1. Make simple 3-point studio light environment. You need at least one bright light and can use even plastic or paper reflec- tors to illuminate object’s front or background. Take series of images using various combinations of lights. 2. Take a few photos using flash in distance from 1 m to 4 m. Make 3-4 shots using dissipated flashlight (point up flash and use paper reflector). Compare results: light distribution in ima- ges, contrast and presence of shadows. 7 Photography projects F. When does one become a good photographer? Bring your favourite photo to class and introduce it based on the following criteria (it can be from the family album, or a photo by your favourite photographer, or a picture found on the internet, or even your own photo): • What is the story of the picture and why did you choose it (who made it, what is the location, who is there, etc.)? • What grabbed you the first time you looked at it? • What does the picture tell you? G. Portraits – people in the pictures Make a portrait (of several people, in many styles, if you like) of a family member, a friend or a man in the street. H. Landscape photography, or the beauty of the world in a single photo Take a landscape photo of a favourite place based on what you have learned. Get out of the city and show the beauty of nature as you see it. I. Event photography, or how to capture a never returning moment Introduce an event in 5-10 photographs from beginning to end. This can be a birthday, a friend’s wedding or a costume party at work. J. “Street photography”, or when the theme is out in the street Take life photos of the settlement where you live. K. Sports photography for beginners Document a sports event. Capture memorable moments, e.g. ovation at a goal, at the finish line, tensed muscles, concen- tration, etc. L. Building photography, or houses we live in Make outside and inside photos of your favourite building. 8 Image editing M. Practice exercise editing images Choose 4 pictures from your image folder and turn them in black and white. N. Practice exercise editing images Choose a picture of a group of people from your image folder and cut it until you have an individual portrait. O. Practice exercise editing images Choose a couple of photos of your image folder and light it up until you have a dark photo. P. Practice exercise editing images Choose a couple of photos of your image folder and enhance the color intensity of the last one.
  40. 40. PROJECT MANEGEMENT MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 40 Bibliography1.11  Basics of photography  Canon EOS 5D Instruction Manual Exif Print. DPOF. PictBridge. Direct Print. Bubble Jet Direct  GRIMM, TOM The Basic Book Of Phtography Fifth Edition Paperback (2003)    phy-tips-for-beginner…   
  41. 41. BASIC COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY Project supported by: This project has been funded with support from the European Commission