Ron wilkinson cx for new and exist bldgs


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Ron wilkinson cx for new and exist bldgs

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  4. 4. When people ask me what I do for a living, I don’t tell them “commissioning.” The fact is that even the originators of the term, the original ASHRAE guideline committee meeting in the late 1970’s, could not agree 1970 s, on a suitable name. I tell people I provide quality assurance services for buildings. This is what commissioning is. Other Definitions: ASHRAE Guideline 0-2005, “The Commissioning Process”, 2005: A quality-focused process for enhancing the delivery of a project. The process focuses upon verifying and documenting that the facility and all of its systems and assemblies are planned, designed, installed, tested, operated and maintained to meet the Owner’s Project Requirements. p j q USGBC LEED-NC Version 2.2 Reference Guide, E/A Prerequisite 1, 2005: A planned, systematic quality control process that involves the owner, users, occupants, operations and maintenance staff, design professionals and contractors to reduce energy use, lower operating costs, reduce contractor callbacks, provide better building documentation, improve occupant productivity and verify that the systems perform in accordance with the owner’s project requirements. GSA Public Buildings Service, 2005: The process for achieving validating and documenting that the performance of the total building and its achieving, systems meet the design intent and requirements of the owner. Historically, the term “commissioning” has referred to HVAC systems. GSA commissioning recognizes the integrated nature of building systems which impact sustainability, workplace productivity, occupant safety and security and requires Total Building Commissioning, beginning with planning and concluding with the post occupancy evaluation. USDOE, “Model Commissioning Plan & Guide Specs”, 1998: A systematic process of ensuring that building systems perform interactively according to the design intent and the owner’s operational needs. 4
  5. 5. Although definitions for Cx vary, certain words appear over and over and convey the philosophy of commissioning. Cx is planned. It creates a consciousness of quality and checks for patterns of quality through the project planning, design and construction stages. Cx is collaborative in that it is a team process. It assumes that all members of the team want the building to work. The CA is the Cx team captain, the champion for quality. Cx is a systematic process that is integrated into the process of design-bid-build, design-build or another construction d li th t ti delivery process. It applies t all construction processes j t as quality li to ll t ti just lit assurance applies to a manufacturing process. Cx includes drawing reviews during design. It also includes functional performance testing that tests equipment and systems with actual operating sequences in the “as-installed” condition. Although FPTs are the oldest and most established part of Cx, there is much more to the process that begins in planning and ends after some period of occupancy. The operational needs of the building occupants are translated into the Cx document known as the p g p Owner’s Project Requirements. This document follows through the entire design and installation process and provides the eventual model against which the building’s operation is judged. Operation and maintenance are the critical considerations in the sustainability of a building’s indoor environment. Cx prepares the O&M staff to operate and maintain the building at a top notch level for the life of the structure. 5
  6. 6. America’s buildings are high performance buildings--much more is required than was required 25 years ago Buildings must be energy efficient, secure and universally conditioned to a fixed ago. efficient temperature at every point inside the structure; interior zones as well as window spaces. This means multiple zones, complex variable air temperature and variable air volume systems, a sealed envelope (no operable windows) and computer controlled boilers, chillers, dampers, coils and thermostats. Like any complex machine, there is no substitute for testing the completed building in the “as-installed” condition. Cutting edge building equipment is being redesigned constantly. New micro-processors and new software are devised for HVAC controls and equipment daily All of these intermixed daily. systems must work together. What happens when a new software upgrade is made on your desktop PC? Is that transition a smooth one? This same thing happens when new digital and thermal systems are put together for the first time. They must be tested after they are installed. There is no substitute for testing in the final “as installed’ condition. There are no trained experts on site to de-bug the building after it is complete, occupied and the contractor’s retainage has been paid. Even if the experts are available, how can they trouble-shoot the building while it is occupied? Commissioning identifies the problems early, allowing for efficient and effective correction while contractors are on site and familiar with the project. Today’s O&M staffs have no more ability to fix complex digital and thermal interactions than the average person has of “fixing” their computer software or the computers in their car. They lack the Th l k th specialized t i i and equipment and th d not h i li d training d i t d they do t have th ti the time. If th the building is built broken, it stays broken. Commissioning finds the problems before the walls are sealed and the ceiling covers up the equipment. This is the only time the problems can be fixed economically, reliably, without a loss of occupant productivity. 6
  7. 7. In the last thirty years the cost of buildings has tripled but the complexity has increased tenfold. Thirty years ago buildings were still being built with boilers, radiant heat and operable windows. Huge internal loads due to voice-data equipment were unheard of. Buildings were built 95% complete and the O&M staff finished the job. Occupants complained, but they lived with the buildings. If they were too hot or stuffy, windows were opened. High ceilings, large thermal mass and less concentrated occupancies helped simple buildings work sufficiently well. Modern buildings have low-mass walls with large glazed areas, high occupant loads, relatively low ceilings and a broad variety of uses and h i f d heat gains. i Because of fixed fees and increasing complexity, engineers have come to rely more on sales representatives and manufacturers. Manufacturers are very protective of their designs and are constantly changing them and using the public as the “beta testers.” Coordination is i h C di i i a nightmare. A simple variable air volume (VAV) b requires the coordination of i l i bl i l box i h di i f no less than five trades: sheet metal, electrician, plumber, controls and test adjust and balance (TAB). Combined with the other equipment in the system, how can a complete understanding of the system be obtained from the design engineer’s office? There is no way to completely foresee the interactions of modern equipment and systems without testing the systems in the as-installed condition. This is commissioning. In the late 1970s the federal Bonneville Power Administration observed that new technology being applied to buildings was not working as well as anticipated. They needed a quality assurance process for buildings, which use nearly 40% of Americas total energy consumption. This was the birth of new building commissioning. ASHRAE guidelines followed in 1989, 1996 and 2005. 7
  8. 8. Commissioning creates clear design goals by the collaborative effort between the design team and the owner in creating the Owner’s Project Requirements document. This is the equivalent of the architect’s programming document, but applied to functional, energy using building systems. The agency O&M staff should have a big part in this document. What went well in past jobs? What went wrong? Commissioning follows through with design reviews to make sure that instrumentation for testing and maintenance is included, and that design sequences are clear. Many “mistakes” by contractors are actually unclear designs that force the contractor to guess about the intent. Because of changing equipment, the factor of safety through experience may be gone. Interference between disciplines are checked during the design review. This avoids re-routing and other field changes that impact the quality of the resulting installed system. Clear design and lack of field changes results in occupancy on schedule and a healthy work environment. Reduced call-backs to the job site is a must. They waste O&M staff time and are disruptive to the agency employees in the new building The building must have a “dry run before occupancy to building. dry run” confirm that the coordination of many prime contractors has occurred on the job site. 8
  9. 9. Commissioning gives project managers an inside look at complex building systems. Too many construction problems that should be discussed are swept under the rug. Some of these are not problems if they are understood and accepted. For example, if a museum relies on community steam heating for reheat to de-humidify in the summer, the design team will be blamed when the steam goes down for routine maintenance. This is an actual example of a miscommunication that was avoided through commissioning. In the existing design-bid-build process who is it that has no purpose other than quality design bid build process, and is capable of unbiased system evaluation? Nobody except the independent Commissioning Agent/Authority. They do not compete with the design team or with the contractors; and they don’t work for the General Contractor and so are not “under their thumb.” They are independent quality assurance engineers and technicians who follow a fixed procedure to demonstrate that the building works, before the occupants arrive. Performing Cx tasks as sub-systems are completed allows commissioning to take place simultaneously with construction. Problems are headed off before they multiply, helping to y y p y, p g keep the project on schedule. Open discussions about how building systems work help train the agency O&M staff. They also make the using agency feel like one of the team, instead of an outsider who is being kept in the dark. The fact is, the new building will be commissioned, one way or the other. It will either be commissioned during design and construction by the CA, or it will be “commissioned” at a far greater cost by complaints from the client agency. And once th “ i i d” t f t tb l i t f th li t A d the occupants are sensitized to poor indoor air quality, they require more service than if the building had worked correctly from the start. 9
  10. 10. Performing Cx tasks as sub-systems are completed allows commissioning to take place simultaneously with construction. The drawing review portion of the Cx process identifies unclear project instructions that lead to requests for information, time delays, equipment re-orders and expensive field change-orders. Through d i reviews and fi ld i Th h design i d field inspections and testing at the earliest possible time, i d i h li ibl i problems are headed off before they multiply, helping to keep the project on schedule and within budget. Serious problems are identified in the first few weeks after initial equipment installation, not in the crucial last few weeks of the project when everybody is scrambling to get the building occupied. Experience has shown that problems identified at the end of construction are usually corrected by the agency during occupancy, if at all. This leads to disruption and a loss of productivity for agency staff.. 10
  11. 11. Through the documentation of the design intent, owner expectations are recorded in writing. This prevents the misuse of spaces and subsequent blaming of the design team for improper design. Commissioning is likely to result in a structure that operates in accordance with the owner’s expectations as documented in the OPR. The owner may still want to change the building, but they are less likely to mistakenly blame the design team when there is proof that the building meets the goals of the OPR. Quality assurance on the job is improved through the objective identification of observed flaws in system operation. All parties participate in the solution to the problems. The Owner is given an improved “window” into the construction process and a better perspective on the final operation of the building. Because the CA participates in the drawing review process, a better design will result. The CA does not second guess the design team. Rather, the CA checks the design to ensure that the installed system can b tested in an objective manner to prove correct operation. h h ll d be d b This provides a clear expectation for the design. When the O&M staff understands the intent of building operation and have been a part of verifying the correct operation according to that intent, there is less likely to be false call- backs and complaints about incorrect building operation. 11
  12. 12. The Cx process is organized and executed by the commissioning authority (CA), who is independent and contracted directly to the owner. Responsible only for checking, testing and documenting that the building operates as described in the Design Intent. The CA is the Owner’s “Window” into the construction process. Employee time is spent on task rather than complaining about the indoor environment. There is increased system up-time, fewer outages, less sick leave and less time spent taking breaks out of the building Union requirements for temperature control are met more building. uniformly. Because public buildings are frequently visited and occupied by the elderly, children and people with special needs, indoor air quality is more important than ever. Members of the general public using the buildings feel better when they are in the buildings and good IAQ increases their patience and ability to concentrate. More preventive maintenance when the O&M staff doesn’t have to fix construction problems means b bl better reliability and l l bl d longer l f f equipment. O&M staff is b life for ff better trained. System is explained and tested by a neutral third party not preoccupied with defending either design or installation. O&M documents are complete and organized. Increased building value for the dollar result from less change-order litigation during construction. Indoor air quality litigation is reduced as is “sick building syndrome.” Best p possible energy efficiency means better budget management. Equipment started-up and gy y g g q p p run correctly results in the longest possible life. 12
  13. 13. Evan Mills, Ph.D. “Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Report Prepared for California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research (PIER), July 21, 2009. For a downloadable version of the report and supplementary information, visit: Sponsored by the California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program, through the U.S. Department 13
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  15. 15. Tso et al, “The Cost-Effectiveness of Commissioning Public Buildings in the Pacific NW.” Presented at the National Conference on Building Commissioning, May 20- 22, 2003 15
  16. 16. Jewell, Mark. 2004. “Understanding the Value of Commissioning in Income-Producing Office Buildings.” Proceedings of National Conference on Building Commissioning, Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. 16
  17. 17. Specific New Jersey requirements include: •Executive Order #24—Governor James McGreevey •NJSCC Design and Construction Bulletin #22—Commissioning •NJSCC Design and Construction Bulletin #24—LEED •NJSCC Design and Construction Guidelines—November, 2003 •NJSCC 21st Century Schools Design Manual –Bulletin 51—September 30, 2004 San Francisco Green Building Ordinance Takes effect in September, 2004 and requires that all, city-owned facilities and leaseholds will need to achieve at least a LEED Silver certification including the LEED basic commissioning and extra commissioning credit as well. The ordinance requires the Director to adopt a Compliance Guide that will specifically include instructions on compliance with the basic commissioning requirement of the LEED program and also Credit 3, Additional Commissioning. For buildings over 5000 square feet in floor area an Independent CA must be appointed during the design phase. 17
  18. 18. All buildings get commissioned one way or the other. The best way is for a trained team to wring out the errors through systematic testing. The other way is for occupants to commission the building. America is in a constant international struggle to maintain the best productivity in the world, and we will not win easily. Moral is critical. If the average agency employee wastes 15 minutes each week discussing or complaining about being too hot, too cold, in a draft, etc. This is one quarter of one hour out of one single eight-hour day. Doesn’t sound like a lot, does it? d D ’t d lik l t d If the average employee is paid about $25/hour, this is about $325/year wasted per employee. If the building has an occupancy density of 200 sf per employee and Cx cost is about $1.00/sf, then a typical building costs about $200 per employee to commission. If commissioning costs about $200 per employee and avoids $325/year in otherwise wasted time complaining about the HVAC system, the Cx process pays for itself in a little over 7 p g y p p y months---not counting litigation, medical costs or sick leave resulting from IAQ problems. Nor does it count energy savings, improved O&M or extended equipment life. Absenteeism is the ultimate penalty for bad indoor air quality and too hot / too cold complaints. Sick leave and medical claims not only cut into productivity, they raise insurance rates as well. The worst cases go to court and the firm involved makes the headlines. headlines Can any employer afford NOT to have that building commissioned? 18
  19. 19. In a controlled test, professional researchers varied office temperature to document the effects on productivity. d Cornell University ergonomics professor Alan Hedge conducted the study at Insurance Office of America's corporate headquarters in Altamonte Springs, Florida. He presented the results above in the summer of 2004 at the annual Eastern Ergonomics Conference in New York City. Data based on article October 19, 2004, AP. 19
  20. 20. The CxA may be termed either the Commissioning “Agent” or “Authority.” These terms each have different legal connotations depending on the state and local laws. They also have different meaning depending on the Standard or Guide used, For example, Cx “Authority” means something different in the SMACNA standard than it does in the LEED requirements. Ideally the CA works directly for the owner and relies on the owner, through agents, to enforce the findings of the Cx process. Another term that is heard is the term “commissioner.” Although this term may be a helpful moniker, its use has little to do with the Cx quality assurance process. 20
  21. 21. Commissioning is the process applied the first time. Re-Commissioning is the process applied again throughout the life of the building. Leading facilities across the USA are beginning to periodically re-commission buildings to contain energy costs and stop IAQ litigation. The Th upcoming ASHRAE Guidelines 0 2 and 1 2 will use only the terminology i G id li 0.2 d 1.2 ill l h i l “commissioning existing buildings’ and “commissioning existing building systems” in lieu of the older “retro-commissioning” term. Commissioning existing buildings is not retro-commissioning in the sense of commissioning to past requirements. It is recognizing the current use and intent of the building and commissioning to those requirements. 21
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  23. 23. An accurate and comprehensive Design Intent (DI---also known as the Owner’s Project Requirements) document describes what the building occupants need the new building to provide, including building construction and occupancy, air temperature, humidity, purity, type of lighting, space pressurization, special systems, reliability, emergency operation and O&M. The DI is best developed by the architect and comes directly from the programming documents. It is written in lay language and simply states required building performance from the owner’s (and O&M staff’s) point of view. The Preliminary Commissioning Plan (CxP) is developed by the CA and indicates which building systems will be commissioned. For example, the CxP might indicate that all AHUs, boilers and chillers will be tested but elevators and envelope hardware will not. The plan indicates if the building is to be commissioned to any program requirements, such as the USGBC LEED program. It also lists key persons in the project, describes the Cx process step by step and defines the deliverables of commissioning. It is finalized during the final stages of design and the early stages of construction g g g g y g when the system configurations are completely known. During the design stage the CA checks the design documents to make sure the design is consistent with the DI. The owner should restrict this checking to "commissionability" only. This means checking that system layout and operation can be tested to confirm conformance with the commissioning plan. This includes maintenance access, clearance for coil and other removals and cleaning and checking for the inclusion of instrumentation such as thermometers, pressure gauges and “PT” taps. It also includes clear and functional control specifications that match the DI and the drawings. The CA also develops the Cx plan into firm requirements and includes these in the Specifications divisions 1, 15, 16, 17, 17 or others. These specifications include the requirements for the contractors to assist in the commissioning process others process, so it is imperative that these requirements be included in the bid documents. If Cx is started during construction and no Cx specifications have been included during bidding, this almost guarantees complaints and change order requests from the contractors. Cx costs no more if the requirements are included up front. During the bid process the CA attends the Pre-bid Conference (walkthrough) and notifies all contractors that the project will be commissioned. The CA introduces the Cx firm and gives a brief overview of their experience. During this period of time the CA answers questions from contractors and generally eliminates as many mysteries as possible about commissioning. The pre-bid walkthrough is the start of team formation. The CA needs to include the contractor as part of the team and avoid inflated bids that might come about as a result of misunderstanding the Cx process. Commissioning aspects of the specifications should be highlighted at this time. These include special O&M manual requirements such as requiring a preliminary O&M manual 60 days after the last piece of equipment has been delivered to the site, so that the O&M manual can be used for the best possible training of the O&M staff. 23
  24. 24. CA Reviews Submittals and uses this information to finalize the project commissioning plan based on the actual requirements for the specific equipment to be installed. This plan finalizes a sequence of inspection and testing and states the support required from the sub-contractors on the job. During Static Inspection the equipment is inspected for correct installation according to manufacturers’ requirements. This is done by the contractors filling out and submitting checklists that are developed and verified by the CA. These checklists should be on the schedule of values and payment withheld until they are completed. Pipe and duct pressure tests and cleaning are part of the inspection phase. After equipment is inspected it is Started-Up for the first time. Contractor personnel are present at the start-up as well as factory representatives (if required). The CA witnesses the correct start-up of the equipment and also verifies and collects all of the required d f the C report. If equipment i not started up correctly, f d ll ll f h i d data for h Cx i is d l functionality and lif i li d life span can be decreased significantly. Moreover, making CDs or DVDs of start-up procedures will allow portable and easy access to information for training and trouble-shooting systems quickly. Without O&M information, systems will be bypassed and efficiency and economy will be reduced. Acceptance includes in-depth “Functional Testing” of major pieces of equipment and their connected systems in the as-installed condition. Operating conditions are simulated and the systems are observed to react in the correct manner. Should include actual performance verification such as chiller capacity and efficiency. Includes testing the building automation and control system (BAS) and checking all BAS addresses. Also includes confirming the air and water balancing (TAB) of the finished system. During the construction the CA reviews the O&M Manuals, which will be used for training the O&M staff. The organization of these manuals should have been a part of the owner’s design intent document. The CA documents Training that is usually conducted by factory-trained vendor personnel. The CA then completes and submits the commissioning report. The Cx report contains copies of all documents accumulated through the job and lists outstanding issues existing at the time of occupancy. New ideas in O&M training include burning CDs or DVDs of video recorded training and start-up sessions. Including the O&M manuals on CD allows quick and focused access to information for new employees and employees performing e e ge cy trouble-shooting o wee e s w t out u emergency t oub e s oot g on weekends without full access to conventional hard copy information. An independent co ve t o a a o at o . epe e t O&M consultant can help assure reliable future building operation 24
  25. 25. The Cx report contains an Executive Summary, the Design Intent, the Cx Plan, the Issues Data-Base (a list of all identified issues and their disposition), all completed check sheets with comments on equipment operation and all pressure testing and cleaning documents. During the warranty period (generally the first year after substantial completion) the CA coordinates the monitoring of the building systems with the BAS through what is known as “trend logging. Trend logging involves measuring performance parameters at regular intervals for an extended period of time and checking for consistent and stable performance. A year's experience allows interviewing of building occupants to get first- hand information on the operation of the building and allows time for operations and maintenance questions to surface. The CA returns for off-season testing to allow testing of equipment in appropriate outside conditions (boilers are best tested in the winter, chillers in the summer). The CA returns to the site for the last time approximately 10 months into the operation of the building. At this last inspection equipment problems that are subject to warranty coverage are reviewed so that they can be submitted for correction under the installer’s warranty. The O&M staff should be interviewed several times during the first year to identify problems with the systems and assure that access to Systems Manual information is complete and operational. 25
  26. 26. The diagram above shows the tasks associated with commissioning on top of the bar and the traditional “punchlist” shown below the bar. There are three main reasons why the punchlist method of quality assurance has failed to keep pace with the changing face of today’s buildings: The punchlist fails to create a consciousness of quality by forming a quality team and asking the team members to agree on goals for the project. The lack of mutual goals leaves some people out of the process and brings others into the project creating an “us and them project, us them” mentality. The punchlist is completed by the engineer without others involved. The punchlist is reactive, in that it looks for problems, but does nothing to prevent them. Once the problems are identified, the natural momentum and confusion of the job site works to keep the errors in place and works against their correction. The punchlist traditionally comes at the end of the job, when occupancy pressures can be used to justify the l k of corrections. “I ’ too l h lack f “It’s late, we need the b ld d h building...” ” The punchlist fails to build quality into the project by providing an independent check of the design. Checking the design for consistency with the Design Intent heads off major problems before they occur. The design review by the CA ensures that instrumentation is in place to make the measurement needed to confirm quality. The punchlist is of no use if there is no instrumentation in place to show if the systems are working correctly or not. p y g y 26
  27. 27. The Building Commissioning Association (BCxA) was formed in the late 1990s as a northwestern US association of commissioning service providers and recently went national. The BCA has adopted a list of qualifications to be met by member firms and has adopted a peer review system similar to NEBB and AABC to further assure customers of reliable service. The BCA website is located at University of Wisconsin course is taught by Charles E. Dorgan, P.E., Ph.D. and Chad Dorgan, PE, Ph.D. Complete details are available on the internet. UofW also provides training offered through the BCxA and will travel throughout the USA to provide training in-house. Association of Energy Engineers provides Cx training at a variety of locations throughout the USA and Canada. See more at Provide 3 and 5 day courses f ll followed b certification exam. d by ifi i The 11th Annual NCBC is held in May of each year across the USA. Proceedings are available for this and past conferences that provide insight regarding commissioning professionals (see the PECI web site at PECI is the sponsor of the NCBC and provides a variety of in-house training for Cx. They are a good source for Cx training materials and have leads for other organizations nation- nation wide. For news about the next NCBC, contact PECI (see references). ACG website can be found at 27
  28. 28. The 2.5%/1.5% rule should be used with judgment. Travel, per diem, video taping, test and balance (TAB) and special program certifications are not included. Electrical construction cost may be trimmed of lighting if this is not commissioned. Only half the plumbing portion of mechanical cost may be used as little of the typical plumbing system is commissioned. On a square footage basis, schools and basic office buildings are in the $.50 $.70 range; $.50-$.70 teaching labs and secure correctional facilities in the $.80-$1.20 range; and hospitals and research labs in the $1.20-$1.50 (and up) range (not including extras). Negotiate with the CA on the basis of a detailed proposal. The proposal should reflect the owner’s preliminary Cx plan and list labor hours in a matrix with systems listed down the left-hand column and phases of the project listed across the top. Some organizations use a two-phase negotiation for CA services: •Phase I is for services during pre-design, design and bidding, and •Phase II is for services during verification, acceptance and occupancy As a practical matter, it is difficult or impossible for the CA to provide a fee proposal for the labor-intensive verification and testing activities until the design is complete. g g p 28
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  30. 30. Although commissioning is an important addition to any building project, it has been applied most to the mechanical heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in modern buildings. These system have become increasingly complex over the past two decades and now are universally computer controlled. Because o this association of Cx with HVAC, LEED commissioning requirements have been p ace ecause of t s assoc at o o C w t C, co ss o g equ e e ts ave bee placed in the “Energy and Atmosphere” section of the LEED rating system. Basic commissioning is a prerequisite for any LEED certified project. Credits leading to a higher level of certification can be obtained with additional commissioning. Commissioning contracts with the CNY DDC require that the commissioning services satisfy the LEED requirements for both the prerequisite and the extra point. 30
  31. 31. The intent of the LEED program is to ease the burden on the earth’s ecology and also to create healthy work spaces. Therefore the scope concentrates on energy using systems and systems such as lighting that contribute greatly to indoor environmental quality. 31
  32. 32. The intent of the LEED program is to ease the burden on the earth’s ecology and also to create healthy work spaces. Therefore the scope concentrates on energy using systems and systems such as lighting that contribute greatly to indoor environmental quality. 32
  33. 33. The intent of the LEED program is to ease the burden on the earth’s ecology and also to create healthy work spaces. Therefore the scope concentrates on energy using systems and systems such as lighting that contribute greatly to indoor environmental quality. 33
  34. 34. The intent of the LEED program is to ease the burden on the earth’s ecology and also to create healthy work spaces. Therefore the scope concentrates on energy using systems and systems such as lighting that contribute greatly to indoor environmental quality. 34
  35. 35. The intent of the LEED program is to ease the burden on the earth’s ecology and also to create healthy work spaces. Therefore the scope concentrates on energy using systems and systems such as lighting that contribute greatly to indoor environmental quality. 35
  36. 36. In More Detail: 1. Designate an individual as the CxA to lead, review and oversee the completion of the commissioning process activities. Less independence required than for Credit three. This underscores the necessity to make the commitment to achieve Credit-3 early (or to not try for it at all). 2. The Owner shall document the Owner’s Project Requirements (OPR). The design team shall develop the Basis of Design (BOD). The CxA shall review these documents for clarity and completeness. The Owner and design team shall be responsible for updates to their respective documents. In actual fact, the CxA still usually has a large part of the responsibility to develop the OPR. 3. Develop and incorporate commissioning requirements into the construction documents. This can be problematic since the design team is required to take the CxA’s work and insert it into their documents. Underscores the necessity of reviewing the LEED process with the design team during their interview process. 4. Develop and implement a commissioning plan. This is the CxA’s job but they will need information from others. 5. Verify the installation and performance of the systems to be commissioned. There is a lot here. This might be 75% of the entire fee for the project. 6. Complete a summary commissioning report. Short and sweet. 36
  37. 37. For Credit 3 Enhanced Commissioning, the requirements for independence are more stringent than for the Prerequisite alone. The Commissioning Authority should be hired directly by the Owner and not have previous connections or affiliations with either the contractors or design team. How else can the CxA be unbiased in their approach? 37
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