Systems and Proposal Engineering Company
“A methodology for rapid, cost-
effective system engineering
and architecture dev...
Overview of presentation
• Why yet another “methodology?”
• What is KBAD?
• What theory underlies KBAD?
• What kind of too...
Why Yet Another Methodology?
• We have the DoD Architecture Framework …
– But DoDAF isn’t a methodology, its just a descri...
Knowledge-Based Analysis and
Design
• KBAD combines system engineering and program
management disciplines to enable the de...
Knowledge-Based Analysis and
Design
5
@2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering
Company. All Rights Reserved.
• The KBAD proc...
What makes up KBAD?
• Technique
– Modified Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE)
• Process
– SPEC Innovations’ Middle-Out ...
The technique: refined MBSE
• Various forms of model-based system engineering
have been developed
• SPEC Innovations uses ...
AND
3.1.1
Produce Collision and
Crash Avoidance Data
System Function
3.1.2
Carry-out Safety
Analysis
System Function
3.1.3...
Models are based on language
9
Language
Elements
English
Equivalent
KBAD Schema Example
Element • Statement
• Action
• Ass...
We modified Vitech’s schema
10
KBAD Element CORE Elements Rationale
Action Function/Operational Activity Provide overall c...
We related all the KBAD schema elements
11
Reduced number of elements from 21* to 12, while adding time, location and cost...
A key attribute – type
• We added a “type” attribute to all classes
• Each “type” attribute contains different
designators...
Benefits of the KBAD Schema
• Reducing the number of primary data elements
means less complexity for analysts to deal with...
MBSE Describes Behavior
• Typical data/activity modeling
only works in the data
dimension (e.g. IDEF0 or Data
Flow Diagram...
Why is sequencing important?
• In software the mantra is: data, data, data
– Why? Because a tremendous amount of software
...
Current MBSE provide a robust set of
constructs
16
SERIAL
PARALLEL SELECTIVE
MULTIPLE-EXIT
ITERATIVE
REPLICATE
Action A Ac...
Simplified KBAD Constructs
SEQUENTIAL
CONCURRENT (And)
DECISION POINT (Exclusive OR)
REPLICATE
Action A Action B
+
/Action...
AND
3.1.1
Produce Collision and
Crash Avoidance Data
System Function
3.1.2
Carry-out Safety
Analysis
System Function
3.1.3...
MBSE also diagrams the physical
elements
19
Physical Hierarchy
Physical Block
Diagram
VS-MCVS Interface
RS-MCVS Interface
...
Traceability is a key to success
documents documents documents documents documents
allocated to causes causes results in r...
21
Current tools support the technique and process
Software Design
Tools
(e.g. Rational Suite)
Test & Evaluation
Tools (e....
Tools used: CORE
• CORE's system engineering
tools maintain an integrated
design repository that provides
traceability bet...
Tools used: MD Workbench
Eclipse-based IDE for code generation
and model transformation, devoted to
implementing MDA/MDE s...
Tools used: MS PowerPoint
Voice Request
to SL Assistant
SL Assistant Calls Non SL
Assistant
Pages Non SL
Informing a SL is...
SPEC Innovations processes – full
lifecycle
25
Architecture
Development
System
Design
Hardware/Software
Acquisition
Integr...
Design and analysis phase
26
Architecture
Development
System
Design
Hardware/Software
Acquisition
Integration
and Test
Ope...
SPEC Innovations’ middle-out process
27
Requirements
Analysis
Functional
Analysis and
Allocation
Synthesis
System Analysis...
Middle-out timeline with products
28
15. Conduct Trade-off Analyses
1. Capture and Analyze Related Documents
4. Capture Co...
People Considerations
• Large teams make organization and focus on a
vision very difficult
• You need people with a wide v...
How Do We Move from Drawing Pictures
to Building a Knowledgebase?
• Apply a proven, model-based technique that
results in ...
Questions & Discussion
@2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering
Company. All Rights Reserved.
31
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Knowledge-Based Analysis and Design (KBAD): An Approach to Rapid Systems Engineering for the Lifecycle

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Knowledge-Based Analysis and Design (KBAD): An Approach to Rapid Systems Engineering for the Lifecycle

  1. 1. Systems and Proposal Engineering Company “A methodology for rapid, cost- effective system engineering and architecture development” Knowledge-Based Analysis and Design (KBAD): An Approach to Rapid Systems Engineering for the Lifecycle
  2. 2. Overview of presentation • Why yet another “methodology?” • What is KBAD? • What theory underlies KBAD? • What kind of tools work with KBAD? • What process does KBAD implement? • What kind of people do we need to execute KBAD? • How do we move from drawing pictures to building a knowledgebase? 2 @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Why Yet Another Methodology? • We have the DoD Architecture Framework … – But DoDAF isn’t a methodology, its just a description of necessary products • We have UML … – But UML is only a software engineering technique. You have to come up with the process and tools for implementing it • We now have SysML … – But SySML is just another technique and still needs more definition to create complete, executable designs • What’s missing? – A complete, coherent technique, process, and tool set that results in a knowledge base that can be used for full lifecycle decision making 3 @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Knowledge-Based Analysis and Design • KBAD combines system engineering and program management disciplines to enable the development of a knowledgebase that can enable cost-effective decision making • KBAD spans the acquisition lifecycle enabling support for design, development, integration, test, operations and sustainment • KBAD focuses on using a variety of techniques and tools, brought together in a common database using special software to migrate data between tools 4 @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Knowledge-Based Analysis and Design 5 @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved. • The KBAD process links the technique and tools together in an executable, cost-effective way to support decision making at all levels • KBAD reduces costs and increases speed of delivery by simplifying the data captured and focusing on the analyses needed for design. • The result: a knowledge-base for decision making.
  6. 6. What makes up KBAD? • Technique – Modified Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) • Process – SPEC Innovations’ Middle-Out Process for Architecture Development and System Engineering • Tools – A variety of COTS tools tailored to the MBSE modifications and special needs of DoDAF • People – Trained, experienced professionals who bring a wealth of different backgrounds and knowledge in architecture, system engineering, modeling & simulation, physics, computer science, test & evaluation, operations & support 6 KBAD was developed over the past 15 years and brings lessons learned from those years of experience. @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. The technique: refined MBSE • Various forms of model-based system engineering have been developed • SPEC Innovations uses the one developed by TRW in the late 1960s, which has been successfully used since then • SPEC Innovations has refined this technique by simplifying the information collected (entities, relationships and attributes) and adding a number of key elements missing from the original development • In addition, we are looking at the necessary logical constructs and simplifying them 7 @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. AND 3.1.1 Produce Collision and Crash Avoidance Data System Function 3.1.2 Carry-out Safety Analysis System Function 3.1.3 Process Vehicle On-board Data System Function AND collision_data Digital safety_data Digital vehicle_action_ requests Digital position_ warnings Digital emergency_ vehicle_priority Digital intersection_ collision_ avoidance_data Digital safety_ warnings Digital vehicle_and_ driver_safety_ status Digitalfbv-vehicle_ data Digital vehicle_ location_for_ probe_data Digital roadway_and_ obsticle_data Digital fov-safety_ msg_data_ from_other_v... Digital tag_numbers Digital vehicle_status_ data Digital vehicle_traffic_ probe_data Digital tov-safety_ msg_data_to_ other_vehicles Digital Date: Thursday, February 07, 2008 Author: Administrator Number: 3.1 Name: Monitor Vehicle Status MBSE Models 8 1. Logical architecture (behavior) model • Functional sequencing • Data flow and size • Resource model • Evolution in time 2. Physical architecture (asset) model • Interface definition (bandwidth and latency) • Actions allocated to Assets • Data allocated to interfaces VS-MCVS Interface RS-MCVS Interface 83 Maintenance and Construction Vehicle System 20 Vehicle System 13 Roadway Subsystem Subsystem Date: Friday, February 08, 2008 Author: Administrator Number: Name: MCVS Subsystem @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Models are based on language 9 Language Elements English Equivalent KBAD Schema Example Element • Statement • Action • Asset • ... Noun Relationship • Statement is the basis of an Action • An Action is performed by an Asset • ... Verb Attribute • Description • Type (e.g., Operational Activity is a type of Action • ... Adjective Attribute of Relationship • amount of Resource consumed by an Action • acquire available (hold partial) Resource for Action • ... Adverb • Graphic Views: Behavior, Hierarchies, Physical Block Graphics/D rawings Structure Enables Executability @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. We modified Vitech’s schema 10 KBAD Element CORE Elements Rationale Action Function/Operational Activity Provide overall class for actions Artifact Document Recognized not just documents Asset Component/Operational Element Provide overall class for assets Characteristic type of Requirement Way to capture metrics and other characteristics of an element Cost attribute of Component Broadens capture of costs Input/Output Item/Operational Information Clearer name Issue Issue Same Link Link/Needline Provide overall class for transmission Location none Captures geolocation information Risk Risk Same Statement type of Requirement Clearer name Time attribute of Function Broadens capture of times The goal was to simplify and clarify the language. @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. We related all the KBAD schema elements 11 Reduced number of elements from 21* to 12, while adding time, location and cost *CORE’s DoDAF schema Action Cost Characteristic Artifact Asset Input/Output Link Statement Issue Risk Time Location CORE Equivalent DoDAF Equivalent Action decomposed by incurs specified by documented by performed by utilizes inputs outputs triggered by - based on generates resolves occurs located at Function Operational Activity/ System Function Cost incurred by decomposed by specified by documented by incurred by incurred by incurred by based on generates incurred by occurs located at New N/A Characteristic specifies specifies decomposed by documented by specifies specifies specifies based on generates causes occurs located at New N/A Artifact documents documents documents decomposed by documents documents documents source of generates causes occurs located at Document N/A Asset performs utilized by incurs specified by documented by decomposed by - connected by based on generates causes occurs located at Component Operational Node/ System Node Input/Output input to output from triggers incurs specified by documented by - decomposed by transferred by based on generates causes occurs located at Item Operational Information/Data Link - incurs specified by documented by connects transfers decomposed by based on generates causes occurs located at Link Needline/Interface Statement basis of basis of basis of stated in basis of basis of basis of decomposed by generates causes occurs located at Requirement N/A Issue generated by generated by generated by documented by generated by generated by generated by generated by decomposed by causes occurs located at Issue N/A Risk caused by resolved by incurs caused by documented by caused by caused by caused by caused by caused by decomposed by occurs located at Risk N/A Time occurred by occurred by occurred by occurred by occurred by occurred by occurred by occurred by occurred by occurred by decomposed by located at New N/A Location locates locates locates locates locates locates locates locates locates locates occurs decomposed by New N/A @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. A key attribute – type • We added a “type” attribute to all classes • Each “type” attribute contains different designators for the parent class • Examples: – Assets can have types that include: • Operational Node, System, Component, Resource, Subsystem, System of Systems, Component, … – Actions can have types that include: • Operational Activity, System Function, Task, Mission, … • You can expand these lists to characterize anything in that class • When we display the element, we use the type 12 Using the type attribute we reduce the complexity and ease changes in perspective from requirements to implementation. @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Benefits of the KBAD Schema • Reducing the number of primary data elements means less complexity for analysts to deal with – Less complexity enables quicker capture and presentation of the information for analysis and decision making • Covers programmatic, as well as technical, elements of information – Enables the trade off between cost, schedule and performance necessary for good design and decision making • Eliminates overlap between similar data elements – Reduces potential for duplication of information which cuts the time and cost of data gathering 13 The result is a more cost-effective means for describing an architecture or system design. @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. MBSE Describes Behavior • Typical data/activity modeling only works in the data dimension (e.g. IDEF0 or Data Flow Diagrams) • For simple systems with sequential flow, this is sufficient • However, for more complex systems, which all architecture are, it can be very misleading • We need to be able to predict how system will behave 14 “3”-Dimensions of Behavior Analysis FunctionalSequencing Time Data Flow Architecture Behavior Architecture Behavior The missing dimensions: resources, physical sizes of data and interfaces OV-5 SV-4 OV-6 SV-10 @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Why is sequencing important? • In software the mantra is: data, data, data – Why? Because a tremendous amount of software programming has to do with input/output, hence the need to understand the data very well – The functional sequencing for individual software modules is relatively simple and many algorithms exist for complex methods (e.g., sorting algorithms) • In architecture development (or system engineering or business process modeling …) sequencing is actually more important than the data – We want to know how the data affects the functional sequencing – we call these triggers – We want to control the behavior to avoid having significant failures – We also need sequencing for the human side 15 Hence the real answer is we need both if we are to develop systems and services with predictable behavior. @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Current MBSE provide a robust set of constructs 16 SERIAL PARALLEL SELECTIVE MULTIPLE-EXIT ITERATIVE REPLICATE Action A Action B … Action A … Iteration Set + /Action A Action B Action C Exit 1 Exit 2 Action A Action B + Action A Action B / / /Action A Exit 1 Exit 2 LOOP Action B Action A Domain Set with coordination ©2004–2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company & Vitech Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Simplified KBAD Constructs SEQUENTIAL CONCURRENT (And) DECISION POINT (Exclusive OR) REPLICATE Action A Action B + /Action A (Decision Point) Action B Action C Path1 Path 2 Action A Action B LOOP (or Iterate) Action B Action A Range with coordination for n Instances of Action A Action A Action C (Exit Criteria) Action C (Synch Point) Action A Action A(1) Range Action A(2) Action A(n) Range 1 to n (iterate) Until r < z (loop)
  18. 18. AND 3.1.1 Produce Collision and Crash Avoidance Data System Function 3.1.2 Carry-out Safety Analysis System Function 3.1.3 Process Vehicle On-board Data System Function AND Date: Thursday, February 07, 2... Author: Administrator Number: 3.1 Name: Monitor Vehicle Status One diagram gives many products 18 position_warnings vehicle_action_ requests safety_warnings vehicle_and_ driver_safety_ status tov-safety_msg_ data_to_other_ vehicles vehicle_status_ data vehicle_traffic_... emergency_ vehicle_priority intersection_ collision_ avoidance_data 3.1.1 Produce Collision and Crash Avoidance Data collision_data 3.1.2 Carry-out Safety Analysis safety_data fbv-vehicle_data fov-safety_msg_ data_from_othe... roadway_and_... tag_numbers vehicle_location... 3.1.3 Process Vehicle On-board Data Date: Thursday, February 07, 2008 Author: Administrator Number: 3.1 Name: Monitor Vehicle Status 3.1 Monitor Vehicle Status Operational Activity 3.1.1 Produce Collision and Crash Avoidance Data System Function 3.1.2 Carry-out Safety Analysis System Function 3.1.3 Process Vehicle On-board Data System Function Date: Thursday, February 07, 2008 Author: Administrator Number: 3.1 Name: Monitor Vehicle Status IDEF0: lacks constructs N2 Chart: lacks constructs Hierarchy: only parent to child FFBD: lacks dataText EFFBD: complete and executable OV-6c; SV-10c OV-5; SV-4 AND 3.1.1 Produce Collision and Crash Avoidance Data System Function 3.1.2 Carry-out Safety Analysis System Function 3.1.3 Process Vehicle On-board Data System Function AND collision_data Digital safety_data Digital vehicle_action_ requests Digital position_ warnings Digital emergency_ vehicle_priority Digital intersection_ collision_ avoidance_data Digital safety_ warnings Digital vehicle_and_ driver_safety_ status Digitalfbv-vehicle_ data Digital vehicle_ location_for_ probe_data Digital roadway_and_ obsticle_data Digital fov-safety_ msg_data_ from_other_v... Digital tag_numbers Digital vehicle_status_ data Digital vehicle_traffic_ probe_data Digital tov-safety_ msg_data_to_ other_vehicles Digital Date: Thursday, February 07, 2008 Author: Administrator Number: 3.1 Name: Monitor Vehicle Status vehicle_traffic_probe_data vehicle_status_data vehicle_location_for_probe_data vehicle_and_driver_safety_status vehicle_action_requests tov-safety_msg_data_to_other_vehicles tag_numbers safety_warnings safety_data roadway_and_obsticle_data position_warningsintersection_collision_avoidance_data fov-safety_msg_data_from_other_vehicles fbv-vehicle_data emergency_vehicle_priority collision_data 3.1.1 Produce Collision and Crash Avoidance Data 3.1.2 Carry-out Safety Analysis 3.1.3 Process Vehicle On-board Data Date: Thursday, February 07, 2008 Author: Administrator Number: 3.1 Name: Monitor Vehicle Status OV-5; SV-4
  19. 19. MBSE also diagrams the physical elements 19 Physical Hierarchy Physical Block Diagram VS-MCVS Interface RS-MCVS Interface 83 Maintenance and Construction Vehicle System 20 Vehicle System 13 Roadway Subsystem Subsystem Date: Friday, February 08, 2008 Author: Administrator Number: Name: MCVS Subsystem MCVS Subsystem Subsystem 13 Roadway Subsystem Subsystem 20 Vehicle System 83 Maintenance and Construction Vehicle System Date: Friday, February 08, 2008 Author: Administrator Number: Name: MCVS Subsystem OV-2; SV-1; SV-2 @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  20. 20. Traceability is a key to success documents documents documents documents documents allocated to causes causes results in results in results in results in Public Roads July/August 2007 White Paper A Automated ITS Project Program Automated Intelligent Transportation System Context Architecture Loss of Privacy Other Potential Resistance by Organizations Other PR.1 Need for protected, dedicated lanes? S.1 Single car enters roadway Operational Activity PR.2 Driver acceptance? S.6 Single car traveling sudden obstacle Operational Activity PR.3 Vehicle and highway systems that operate at a higher level of reliability and perfo... S.14 Worst case scenario Operational Activity PR.4 Increased liability for manufacturers and owner/ operators of automated systems? Proposed Liability Legislation Policy PR S ch S. M in O @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved. 20
  21. 21. 21 Current tools support the technique and process Software Design Tools (e.g. Rational Suite) Test & Evaluation Tools (e.g. M&S) Operations & Support Tools (e.g. BPEL) Requirements Analysis Tools (e.g. DOORS) Functional Analysis Tools (e.g. Rational System Architect) Program Management Tools (e.g. MS Project) Hardware Design Tools (e.g. CAD) Most Programs Require Tools in All These Domains, but … … they do not interoperate well together. SPEC Innovations’ KBAD methodology uses CORE and MD Workbench to provide the underlying tool interoperability. CORE® MD Workbench PowerPoint @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  22. 22. Tools used: CORE • CORE's system engineering tools maintain an integrated design repository that provides traceability between requirements, functional models and system design elements • CORE's database schema may be modified to customize the tool to support customer needs and facilitate tool integration • Executable diagrams • Special schemas and reports • Powerful scripting language for your own report generation 22 www.vitechcorp.com Version 7.0 released with new SysML representations. @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. Tools used: MD Workbench Eclipse-based IDE for code generation and model transformation, devoted to implementing MDA/MDE strategies. It provides: – code generation (via text template engine and optionally Java) – model manipulation through dedicated languages – (imperative rules, declarative ATL modules to support QVT transformations, Java) – model and metamodel management, including UML support – customizable model connectors (XMI 1.0 to 2.1, XML, Hibernate, COM, etc.) 23 http://www.mdworkbench.com A great way to move data between different tools. @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  24. 24. Tools used: MS PowerPoint Voice Request to SL Assistant SL Assistant Calls Non SL Assistant Pages Non SL Informing a SL is Calling Accepts Call from SL over non secure line Non SL Assistant receives call from SL Assistant Hello Mr. President
  25. 25. SPEC Innovations processes – full lifecycle 25 Architecture Development System Design Hardware/Software Acquisition Integration and Test Operational T&E and Transition Future Operations and Maintenance Demolition and Disposal Program Management Current Operations and Maintenance Design&Analysis Integration&Verification @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  26. 26. Design and analysis phase 26 Architecture Development System Design Hardware/Software Acquisition Integration and Test Operational T&E and Transition Future Operations and Support Demolition and Disposal Program Management Current Operations and Support Design&Analysis Requirements Analysis Functional Analysis and Allocation Synthesis System Analysis and Control @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. SPEC Innovations’ middle-out process 27 Requirements Analysis Functional Analysis and Allocation Synthesis System Analysis and Control Bottom Up Top Down M iddle Out Best Use: “Classical SE” Best Use: Reverse Engineering (As-Is) Best Use: Architecture Development (To-Be) Adapted from EIA-632 @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  28. 28. Middle-out timeline with products 28 15. Conduct Trade-off Analyses 1. Capture and Analyze Related Documents 4. Capture Constraints 3. Identify Existing/Planned Systems 2. Identify Assumptions 8. Derive System Elements 10. Prepare Interface Diagrams 14. Provide Options 12. Perform Dynamic Analysis 13. Develop Operational Demonstration Master Plan 16. Generate Operational and System Architecture Graphics, Briefings and Reports Requirements Analysis Functional Analysis Synthesis System Analysis and Control The middle-out approach has been proven on a variety of projects. AV-1 AV-2 OV-1 OV-2 OV-3 OV-4 OV-5 OV-6 OV-7 9. Allocate Functions to System Elements SV-1 SV-2 SV-3 SV-4 SV-5SV-6 SV-7 SV-8 SV-9 SV-10 SV-11 Time @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved. StdV-1 StdV-2 AV-1 Draft DIV-2 DIV-3 DIV-1 CV-1 CV-2 CV-3 CV-4 CV-5 CV-6 CV-7 PV-2 PV-3 PV-1
  29. 29. People Considerations • Large teams make organization and focus on a vision very difficult • You need people with a wide variety of skills and personalities – Someone with vision – Someone who can perform the detailed system engineering – Someone who understands the domain – Someone familiar with the technique and tools – Someone who understands the process • They need to be trained as a team – including the government personnel 29 @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  30. 30. How Do We Move from Drawing Pictures to Building a Knowledgebase? • Apply a proven, model-based technique that results in executable diagrams • Use a process that implements the technique • Use industrial-strength system engineering tools • Make sure the personnel who use the methodology have the proper knowledge, skills and abilities to implement the approach 30 @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
  31. 31. Questions & Discussion @2010 Systems and Proposal Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved. 31

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