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REPORT ON TIMBER AND
PROCESSED WOOD
BY- DIVYA BALANI
▣ WOOD
▣ TIMBER
▣ DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WOOD
AND TIMBER
▣ TIMBER IN DETAIL
▣ INDUSTRIAL TIMBER
▣ FORMS OF TIMBER
▣ DEFECTS ON TIMBER
▣ PRESERVATIVE METHODS OF
TIMBER
▣ INTRODUCTIONS OF VARIOUS
TYPES OF WOOD AND
TIMBER AND THEIR USES
▣ Wood is a hand fibrous material that forms the main substances of the
trunk or branches of a tree. It is cut and used on timber or for fuel
purpose. It is solid material derived from woody plants , not only
trees but also shrubs. It is a heterogeneous, hygroscope and cellular
material.
▣ Oak, Maple, Mahogany, Cherry, Walnut, Rosewood, Teak, etc. are
known as HARDWOOD. Pine, Ash, Hickory, Beech, Birch, Cedar,
Fir, Spruce.etc. are ex. Of SOFTWOOD.
▣ It is a wood material which is manufactured into boards. It is used for building,
carpentry and various construction or structural purposes. It can be rough or
finished.
▣ As a rough, it is the raw material for furniture making and other items
required additional cutting and shaping. As a finished it is available in drill
sizes or construction industry and for high grade flooring.
▣ Timber plant species are found in 150 species which are produced
in INDIA.
▣ Tea, Sal, Sandalwood, Sea sum Babul, Banyan, Coconut, Deodar etc, are
some ex. Of Timber.
▣ Timber is available in different forms.–
1. Converted timber , which is sawn and cut into suitable
commercial sizes.
2. Rough timber which is obtained after falling a tree.
3. Standing timber which is available in a living tree.
▣ Wood includes all types of wood which may be burning wood , structural
wood, furniture wood etc. but when wood suitable for use as a structural
material is called Timber.
▣ Wood is commonly found in the stems and roots of the trees. It is natural
composite of cello use fibers.
▣ Timber is used to refer to any stage of the wood after the tree has been cut
down. This may include the felled tree, wood processed for construction ,
wood pulp for paper production etc. Timber is also known as LUMBER.
▣ PROPERTIES OF TIMBER
▣ Timber with heavy weight is considered best quality.
▣ It should be hard uniform and compact.
▣ It should have dark color, straight fibers, and shinning appearance and should
be free from defects and good sound should emit when struck.
▣ SEASONING OF TIMBER
▣ This is the process of drying of timber in order to remove all the
plant juice and moisture out of it so that it will not decay.
Seasoning of timber may be done naturally or artificially.
▣ PRESERVATION OF TIMBER
▣ It is the process which protect the timber from moisture, fungi, insects and
direct weathering effects to ensure its increased life. Oil paints, coal tar,
chemical salts etc are some preservatives are used.

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divyabalani_report on timer and processed wood.pdf

  • 1. REPORT ON TIMBER AND PROCESSED WOOD BY- DIVYA BALANI
  • 2. ▣ WOOD ▣ TIMBER ▣ DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WOOD AND TIMBER ▣ TIMBER IN DETAIL ▣ INDUSTRIAL TIMBER ▣ FORMS OF TIMBER ▣ DEFECTS ON TIMBER ▣ PRESERVATIVE METHODS OF TIMBER ▣ INTRODUCTIONS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF WOOD AND TIMBER AND THEIR USES
  • 3. ▣ Wood is a hand fibrous material that forms the main substances of the trunk or branches of a tree. It is cut and used on timber or for fuel purpose. It is solid material derived from woody plants , not only trees but also shrubs. It is a heterogeneous, hygroscope and cellular material. ▣ Oak, Maple, Mahogany, Cherry, Walnut, Rosewood, Teak, etc. are known as HARDWOOD. Pine, Ash, Hickory, Beech, Birch, Cedar, Fir, Spruce.etc. are ex. Of SOFTWOOD.
  • 4. ▣ It is a wood material which is manufactured into boards. It is used for building, carpentry and various construction or structural purposes. It can be rough or finished. ▣ As a rough, it is the raw material for furniture making and other items required additional cutting and shaping. As a finished it is available in drill sizes or construction industry and for high grade flooring. ▣ Timber plant species are found in 150 species which are produced in INDIA. ▣ Tea, Sal, Sandalwood, Sea sum Babul, Banyan, Coconut, Deodar etc, are some ex. Of Timber. ▣ Timber is available in different forms.– 1. Converted timber , which is sawn and cut into suitable commercial sizes. 2. Rough timber which is obtained after falling a tree. 3. Standing timber which is available in a living tree.
  • 5. ▣ Wood includes all types of wood which may be burning wood , structural wood, furniture wood etc. but when wood suitable for use as a structural material is called Timber. ▣ Wood is commonly found in the stems and roots of the trees. It is natural composite of cello use fibers. ▣ Timber is used to refer to any stage of the wood after the tree has been cut down. This may include the felled tree, wood processed for construction , wood pulp for paper production etc. Timber is also known as LUMBER.
  • 6. ▣ PROPERTIES OF TIMBER ▣ Timber with heavy weight is considered best quality. ▣ It should be hard uniform and compact. ▣ It should have dark color, straight fibers, and shinning appearance and should be free from defects and good sound should emit when struck. ▣ SEASONING OF TIMBER ▣ This is the process of drying of timber in order to remove all the plant juice and moisture out of it so that it will not decay. Seasoning of timber may be done naturally or artificially. ▣ PRESERVATION OF TIMBER ▣ It is the process which protect the timber from moisture, fungi, insects and direct weathering effects to ensure its increased life. Oil paints, coal tar, chemical salts etc are some preservatives are used.
  • 8. ▣ Timber which is scientifically prepared in factory to get the desired shape, size, appearance, and strength is known as INDUSTRIAL TIMBER. It is available in various variety such as Plywood, Veneer, Laminated timber, block board, fiber boards etc. ▣ Veneers are thin sheets or slices of wood of superior quality which are knife cut by various processes. It is used to produce plywood, batten boards and laminated boards and this process is called veneering. Thickness – varies from 4mm to as much as 6mm or even more. ▣ Plywood is prepared by cementing together thin boards or sheets or wood into panels. Three or more veneers which are always odd in numbers are placed one above the other so that the grain of each layer is at right angles to the grain in the adjacent layer. It is used for interior partition , doors and paneling. It is generally manufactured in 3 ply, 5 ply , 7 ply and so on. Thickness - varies from 3mm to 5mm.
  • 9. ▣ Fiber board is rigid board which is prepared after processing pieces of wood, cane and then pressing them together that’s why it ia also called pressed wood or reconstructed wood.. It is available in various forms like laminated boards, hard boards etc. It is used for wall paneling, suspending ceiling and partitions, table tops, for flush doors etc. thickness- varies from 6mm to as much as 25mm. ▣ Block board has a core made up of strips of wood glued or joined to form a slab which is further glued between two or more outer veneers in such a way that direction of the grain of the core blocks running at right angles to the adjacent outer veneers. These are of two types: commercial and decorative. It is used for furniture, paneling, partition. Thickness are 12mm to 50mm length vary from 1.2mm to2.4mm and width from 90cm to 1.2m.
  • 10. ▣ Hard board are manufactured from wood wastes obtained from saw mills, inferior timber or short logs. Raw material is converted into chips with the help of machines which are softened with steam and converted into fibers. The maximum length is 4.75m and thickness varies from 2mm to 20mm. It is used for interior or exterior wall panels, ceiling, siding, table and counter tops etc. It is free from defects like shakes and knots. ▣ Batten boards are just like laminate boards and block boards are made from timber blocks of width of 8cm and 2to 3cm thick. Direction of the grains of core batten is at right angles to that of adjacent out ply sheet. There are used for door panels, table top and other large surfaces.
  • 11. ▣ BATTENS are small sectioned timber pieces. ▣ LOGS : Trunks of trees left after removing all the branches is called log. ▣ BAULK is roughly squared swan log. ▣ PLANKS are timber pieces having parallel sides with less than 5cm thickness and width always more than 5cm. ▣ BOARD is also timber piece with parallel sides with less than 5cm thickness and more than 15cm width. ▣ DEAL is also parallel sided piece , thickness varies from 5cm to10cm and width should not exceed 23cm. ▣ SCANTLINGS are timber pieces , thickness and breath is always more than 5cm and length is not less than 20cm. ▣ POLE OR SPAR is a log having 20cm diameter.
  • 12. ▣ A good timber should be hard ,tough, durable, heavy, straight and compact fibers, properly seasoned, elastic, dark and uniform color, sweet smell and freshly surface and adquate fire resistance. ▣ It should be capable of resisting the action of fungi, chemicals and physical agencies and free from knots, twists, upsets, burls, shakes etc. ▣ A clear ringing sound should be emitted by the timber when struck.
  • 14. ▣ SHAKES : Cracks which partly or completely separate the fibers of wood. Shakes are many types- star shakes, heart shakes, cup shakes, ring shakes, radial shakes. ▣ RIND GALLS : Curved swelling on the body of the tree. ▣ TWISTED FIBRES: Twisting of young trees constantly in one direction under the action of strong prevalent winds. ▣ UPSETS OR RUPTURES : This defect changes in direction of wooden fibers due to felling of tree or fast blowing wind. ▣ KNOTS: These are found at the bases of branches cut off from the tree. They may be dead, live loose or tight. It is very difficult to plane timber at knots. ▣ WIND CRACKS: Cracks on the outer surface of the tree due to atmospheric agencies. ▣ BURLS: Irregular projections appears on the surface of the tree ▣ CALLUS: Soft tissue or skin which covers the wounds of the tree is called callus. ▣ COARSE GRAIN: Timber having widened annual rings. ▣ DEAD WOOD : It is indicated by its reddish color and light weight. ▣ DRUXINESS: White decayed spots of timber remain concealed under healthy wood due ti access of fungi. ▣ FOXINESS: This defect is indicating by red or yellow tinge in wood.
  • 15. ▣ BOW : Bow means when planks of converted timber shrink and bend in curved form in the direction of length. ▣ CUP : When wooden planks bend in curved form in transverse direction. ▣ TWIST: Distorted spirally wooden plank along its length. ▣ CASE HARDENING: Upper surface of timber dries very fast and shrinks. ▣ HONEY COMBING DEFECTS: Various radial as well as circular cracks develop in internal portion of the timber due to stresses developed during drying. ▣ RADIAL SHAKES: Radial cracks on the surface of timber ▣ CHECK: A crack separating wood fibers. ▣ SPLIT: When check extends from one end to other. ▣ WANE: Original or natural rounded surface on timber. ▣ DIAGNOL GRAINS: When timber is improperly sawn then diagonal marks develops on straight grained surface of timber.
  • 17. ▣ Coal tar, Oil paints , certain chemicals and Ascu treatments are generally used to protect timber. ▣ CHARRING : The timber is charred to be firstly kept wet one hours and then burnt to a depth of about 15mm and cooled with water, It is called charring. This protects timber from moisture, fungi, or white aunts. ▣ TARRING: In this method a later of hot tar is applied on the surface of timber. ▣ Paint : it is applied to timber not only makes it beautiful look but also acts as a preservative. ▣ WOLMAN’S SALTS : It is a Mixture of creosote oil and sodium fluoride. It protects timber from fungi. ▣ ASCU TREATMENT: It is prepared by mixing six parts of Hydrated arsenic pent oxide, Copper sulphate and Potassium Dichromate with 100 parts of water. It gives protection from white aunts.
  • 18. ▣ VACCUM PRESSURE PROCESS: It is considered one of the best method which is two types 1. Bethel or full cell process– In this process air and moisture get removed from the timber cells. 2. Rue ping or Empty cell process ▣ HOT AND COLD PROCESS: In this process timber is stacked in the tank and cold preservative solution till timber stacks get completely submerged , then heated to a temperature of about 90 degree C and maintained this temperature for some times. ▣ SEASONING OF TIMBER : Proper damp proofing and providing free circulation of air around the built in portion of timber are essential for preservation of timber used . If timber is not properly seasoned then no preservatives protect th timber.
  • 19. ▣ OAK , a heavy strong colored hard wood is used to craft American and English country designs and mostly used for sports good Its color is yellowish brown and possesses straight silvery grains. Its weights 865kg and very strong and durable.
  • 20. ▣ MAPLE is so hard and resistant to smocks that is often used for bowling alley floors. The bird eye figure in maple is said to be the result of stunted growth and is quite rare. ▣ It is used for American colonial furniture, especially in medium and lower priced categories. It can also be stained to simulate cherry wood which it resembles.
  • 21. ▣ MAHOGANY is also known as Honduras mahogany and much ten valuable wood. Being ten strong , not as durable not as beautiful when finished ▣ It has reddish brown color and may display stripe ribbon , broken stripe, rope ripple, mottle, fiddle back or bristle figure. ▣ It is used extensively in the crafting of Georgian empire and furniture , pattern making cabinet work etc. ▣ It contains resinous oil to save itself from insects attack. ▣ Weights 720kg after seasoning.
  • 22. ▣ CHERRY is sometimes called ‘ fruitwood’ and is grown in the eastern half of U.S.A. It has been called New England Mahogany and is often used to craft 18th century colonial and French provincial designs. ▣ A moderately hard, strong, closed grain, light to red brown wood, cherry resists wrapping and checking. It is easy to card and polish and is used in variety of styles.
  • 23. ▣ WALNUT is one of the most versatile and popular cabinet making wood. It grows in Europe, America and Asia. It is strong , hard and durable without being excessively heavy. It has excellent word working qualities and takes finishes well. It is light to dark , chocolate brown in color with a straight grain in the trunk. ▣ It is used in all types of fine cabinet work especially 18th century reproductions.
  • 24. ▣ ROSEWOOD is a dark reddish brown color hardwood ,fragrant and has closed grains. It is not easy to work and takes high polish. ▣ It is used in musical instrument, piano cases, tool handles, art projects, veneers and furniture.
  • 25. ▣ TEAK is yellow to dark brown hardwood which is extremely heavy, strong and durable. Its fibers are straight , fir resistant, acidic action resistant and white ant resistant,. ▣ It can be used for any structural or decorative work, such as ship building, railway sleepers, railway carriages and furniture etc. ▣ Its weights 770 kg.
  • 26. ▣ BIRCH is hard, heavy close grained hardwood with a light brown or reddish colored heartwood and cream or light sapwood.
  • 27. ▣ CEDAR is knotty softwood which has been a red brown color with light streaks. It aromatic and moth repellent qualities have made it a popular wood for lining drawers, boxes, simple cases and storage closets are also constructed from this light brittle wood.
  • 28. ▣ REDWOOD is rare, valuable and best quality of it comes from the heartwood which is resistant to deterioration due to sunlight, moisture and insects. ▣ It is used to craft outdoor furniture and decorative curving. Its burls have ‘ a cluster of eyes’ figure.
  • 29. ▣ HEMLOCK is light in weight , uniformly texture has law resistance to decay and non resinous. ▣ It is used for construction lumber, plants, door boards, paneling, sub flooring and craft works.
  • 30. ▣ SPRUCE is strong ang light in weight has low resistance to decay, moderate shrinkage. ▣ It is used for marts and crates spares for ships and aircrafts, boxes, general millworks, ladders etc.
  • 31. ▣ FIR is easy to work and finishes well, uniform in texture and no resinous has low resistance to decay. ▣ It is used in making furniture, door and window frames, veneer, and interior trim.
  • 32. ▣ PINE is a soft white or pale yrllow wood which is light weight , straight grain and lacks figure. It decays easily when comes in contact with soil. It is used in the manufacturing of matches. ▣ While other colored pines are quite hard and tough.It is used for pattern making, frames for doors and windows, paving materials etc. ▣ There are more than 100 species of pine.
  • 33. ▣ ASH is a heavy ring porous wood has a prominent grains that resembles oak and white to light brown color. It burls have a twisted interwoven figure. ▣ It is widely used for structural frames and steam bent furniture pieces.
  • 34. ▣ HICKORY is one of the hardest and heaviest softwood. Pecan is a species of hickory some times used in furniture. ▣ It has close grains without much figures. It is used for structural parts. Decorative hickory veneers are also commonly used.
  • 35. ▣ BEECH has tiny pores and large conspicuous medullar rays and similar in appearance to maple, reddish brown heartwood , light sapwood and relatively inexpensive. ▣ It is often used for frames, a variety of bent and turned parts quarter sliced and half round cut beech veneers are commonly used.
  • 36. It is strong, hard, tough, durable, quite strong and difficult to work. Its color is whitish red which is turns brown due to exposure and not available in large length. Weight is 880kg. ▣ It is used for making the wheels of bullock cart, tool handles, agricultural instruments and well curbs.
  • 37. ▣ CHIR is straight long timber and have conical leaves. Its color is yellow becomes more and more dark due to exposure. Weight is 560kg and easy to work. ▣ It is used for railway sleepers, piles, railway carriages, cheap furniture etc.
  • 38. ▣ BAKUL IS REDDISH BROWN IN COLOR AND USED MOSTLY FOR MAKING CABINETS. WEIGHT IS 880KG.
  • 39. ▣BANYAN is a species whose aerial roots are utilized for tent polls, well curbs etc. ▣ It is strong and durable only under water . Its color is brown and weight 580kg.
  • 40. ▣ BAMBOO IS USED FOR A SCAFFOLDING, THATCH ROOFS AND TEMPORARY BRIDGES.
  • 41. ▣ COCONUT IS USED AS POLES, PILES, FURNITURE AND FRAME WORK IN CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION.
  • 42. ▣ SAL is a very good variety of timber and can be used for any purpose but not easy to work. Its color is light brown or yellow . ▣ It is used for tent pegs, doors and window frames and as wooden piles, bullies etc, but can not used for decorative works.
  • 43. ▣ SHISHAM is also called Tali or Sissue , one of the most useful and high class timber , heayy and can be seasoned easily, Its color is dark brown containing golden and dark brown colored linings. ▣ It is used for furniture's, plywood, sports goods , railway sleepers, bridges piles etc.
  • 44. ▣ ARJUN is very strong , heavy and durable timber . Its color is dark brown. ▣ It is used in the form of posts, beams , rafters etc.
  • 45. ▣ LAUREL is a hard tough type of timber and likely to crack and resist attack of dry rot. Its color is dark brown. ▣ It is used for house construction , boat construction, structural work and railway sleepers.
  • 46. ▣ MANGO is moderately strong , easy to work and in deep grey color. ▣ It is used for making cheap furniture, packing boxes, panels for doors and windows etc.
  • 47. ▣ TAMARIND is a fruit giving tree, very knotty and durable timber and color is dark brown. ▣ It is used for well curbs, sugar mills, carts, brick burning. Agricultural implements.