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Woodworking

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Woodworking
Woodworking
It is the art of
cutting, framing,
and joining timber
or wood.
CARPENTER
A skilled craftsperson
who performs carpentry.
Carpenters work with wood
to construct, install and
maintain buildings,
furniture, and other objects.
Types and Occupations
- is one who does finish carpentry; that is, cabinetry, furniture
making, fine woodworking, model building, instrument making,
parquetry, joinery, or other carpentry where exact joints and minimal
margins of error are important.
- specializes in molding and trim, such as door and window
casings, mantels, baseboard, and other types of ornamental work.
- is a carpenter who does fine and detailed work, specializing
in the making of cabinets made from wood, wardrobes, dressers,
storage chests, and other furniture designed for storage.
- specializes in shipbuilding, maintenance, and
repair and carpentry specific to nautical needs.
- in film – making , TV, and the theater builds and
dismantles temporary scenery and sets.
- is a carpenter that builds the skeletal structure or
framework of buildings.
- creates the shuttering and false work used in
concrete construction.

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Woodworking

  • 3. It is the art of cutting, framing, and joining timber or wood.
  • 4. CARPENTER A skilled craftsperson who performs carpentry. Carpenters work with wood to construct, install and maintain buildings, furniture, and other objects.
  • 5. Types and Occupations - is one who does finish carpentry; that is, cabinetry, furniture making, fine woodworking, model building, instrument making, parquetry, joinery, or other carpentry where exact joints and minimal margins of error are important. - specializes in molding and trim, such as door and window casings, mantels, baseboard, and other types of ornamental work. - is a carpenter who does fine and detailed work, specializing in the making of cabinets made from wood, wardrobes, dressers, storage chests, and other furniture designed for storage.
  • 6. - specializes in shipbuilding, maintenance, and repair and carpentry specific to nautical needs. - in film – making , TV, and the theater builds and dismantles temporary scenery and sets. - is a carpenter that builds the skeletal structure or framework of buildings. - creates the shuttering and false work used in concrete construction.
  • 7. Wood is one of the major building materials used by humans throughout our existence.
  • 8. Wood has outstanding physical characteristics which include both physical strength and resiliency.
  • 9. Wood has inherent aesthetic beauty and very desirable working properties...
  • 13. • Wood consisting of small cells. • Cambium layers that extend concentrically near the bark divide into wood in inner part and into bark on the outer surface. • Wood creates a large amount of big and thin – wall cells during the wet and warm spring-summer season, and small and thick – wall cells during the fall. • The former cells from light colored wood called early wood, while the latter forms dark colored wood called the late wood.
  • 14. • The combination of early wood and late wood is called annual ring in the case that growth cycle is one year.
  • 15. • The former is called sap wood that contains starch and many nutritious substances. • The latter is heartwood which is consists of substances that is insusceptible to the attacks by insects and germs, therefore has high level of durability. •The part closer to the bark is light colored and contains live cells, while the inner part is made of accumulated dead cells and appears in color unique to the wood.
  • 16. • A board cut from a tree trunk by tangential section, with a section line running in direction that touches arcs of annual rings, has flat grain, while a board cut by radial section with a section line running in a direction that crosses vertically the annual rings, has edge grain.
  • 17. SOFTWOOD • Needle – shape leaves • Used for the structural materials of architectures. • Pine, Hemlock, Fir, Redwood, Spruce, Cedar HARDWOOD • Broad leaves • Used for furniture or interior material. • Mahogany, Walnut, Oak, Maple, Cherry Rosewood, Teak
  • 19. • Wood shrinks when it discharges water and dries, or swell when it absorbs water. • This property relates to the amount of water contained inside the cell wall of the wood, in other words, the moisture content. • Wood changes its shape in the drying process according to place of origin and in the shape of the wood. • In order to avoid trouble, hardwood for home furniture should be dried until the water content becomes less than 6 – 12%, softwood for architecture process should be dried until the water content becomes less than 20%.
  • 20. Distortion due to shrinkage depends on location within the log…
  • 22. Strength • Strength posed on wood is received by its wall. • Thickness of cell wall varies from species, and the thicker the cell wall is, the higher specific gravity the wood would possess. • Therefore, wood with higher specific gravity has greater strength and harder surface. • The level of strength is significantly different within the same wood, depending on the direction of the cell layout. • Bending strength reaches to the highest level when load is applied in a direction parallel to the fiber; however, the strength is significantly reduced as the angle of load direction against the fiber direction becomes larger.
  • 23. Distortion • When wood is treated with heat by applying hot steam, substances called lignin that adhere each wood cell softened and create gap between cells. • This makes the wood easily distorted. • If the wood is cooled and dried after it is distorted, the distortion is fixed or permanent and cannot be reversed to the original state. • This property is used in making bent wood products.
  • 26. Methods and or manner of log sawing: A. Plain or bastard sawing - cutting the logs entirely through the diameter a parallel cord tangential to the annual rings. A. Quarter or Rift Sawing - divided into four methods; radial methods, tangential method, quarter tangential, and combined radial and tangential.
  • 27. Seasoning of lumber Natural or Air Seasoning - considered as one of the best methods in seasoning lumber although the period involved is longer than the artificial method. Artificial Seasoning - method adopted for quick drying of the wood such as forced air drying, kiln drying and radio frequency dielectric drying.
  • 28. Lumber and other related products: 1. Veneer and plywood - are made of 3, 4, 7 or more veneer slice that are laid upon the other with the grain of each at right angle to those of the sheets above or below. a. Soft Plywood – most common for structural use. b. Hardwood Plywood – used for paneling and finishing where usually only one face is with hardwood finish. c. Exterior or marine plywood – is made for external use.
  • 29. 2. Hardboard/Pressed wood or fiber board - is made from woodchips which are exploded into fibers with high pressure steam. 3. Particle Boards - manufactured from wood chips, curls, fibers, flakes, strands, shaving slivers which are bound together and pressed into sheets and other molded shapes. 4. Laminated Wood - processed by sawmilling and drying, knot and cracks are removed, and the pieces are connected by finger joints in fiber direction to create a wide and long materials.
  • 31. Checks – is a lengthwise separation of the wood like small crack or split Split/Shake – is a lengthwise break or big crack in the board. Knot – is a branch or limb of a tree that has been exposed as the log is cut into lumber. Decay – is the rotting of wood Wane – is lack of wood on the face of the piece.
  • 32. Warp – is any variation from a tree or plane surface. It includes crack, bow, cup, twist, or nay combination of this. Stain – is a discoloration of the wood surface.
  • 33. JOINT Joint - means the union of two or more smooth or even surfaces, admitting two or more pieces of timber to a close fitting or junction. Joinery - is the art of joint making. It may include fastening and or shaping the pieces of wood so they fit together neatly and securely.
  • 34. Six Groups of Joints 1. T joints – one piece joined at right angles to the face r edge of another forming a T – shape. 2. L joints – two pieces joined to form a corner
  • 35. 3. X joints – the pieces crossed over or fixed into each other to form a cross. 4. Edge (-to-edge) joints – edges that are joined to produced wide surfaces. It is used for top of the tables, chairs, desks and other furniture needing large surfaces. 5. Lengthening joints – two pieces joined end to end. 6. Three – way joints – three pieces of wood joined such as chair legs and rails.
  • 36. BUTT JOINT - the end of one piece is fastened to the surface or edge of the other. It is used to make a simple box or to fasten two pieces at right angles. End to edge butt joint.
  • 37. Lap joints - are mostly used to assemble light frames which are going to be covered with hardboard or plywood. Half the thickness of each piece of wood to be joined is cut away with a tenon saw and the joint is glued and screwed or nailed. Halved lap joints are also used to join long lengths of timber as for fencing.
  • 38. • Rabbet Joint - the first piece fits into a channel cut across the end or edge of the second piece. It is found in simple furniture and in some box construcation.
  • 39. Dado Joint - is good for shelves, steps, bookcases, book racks, chests and other types of cabinets.
  • 40. • Miter Joint - the corners are cut at an angle usually 45 degrees. When the two pieces are joined, they will form a right angle. As no end wood is ever seen these are very neat joints but they are weak. Normally used for picture frames where they are nailed with panel pins. When used for other purposes they must be strengthened with glue blocks, angle braces or loose tongues. Mitre joints should always be glued.
  • 41. Mortise and Tenon Joint - is one of the strongest. It is found on better quality chairs, tables and benches. The mortise is a hole made partway through the side of one piece of wood while the tenon is toughed – shaped to fit the mortise at the end of another piece.
  • 42. Dovetail Joint - is used on the corners of the best drawers and chairs.
  • 44. Lumbers are sold according to their dimensions where thickness and width are measured in inches and the length is measured in feet.
  • 45. Prices of lumber sold are based on a unit called BOARD FOOT which means a piece of wood 12 inches long, 12 inches wide and 1 inch thick (12” x 12” x 1’)
  • 46. To compute the total board feet in a piece of lumber use the formula” T”xW”xL’ 12 Where: T” = thickness in inch W” = width in inch L’ = length in feet 12 = constant
  • 47. Example: Find the total board foot of 5 pieces of 2”x10”x14’ lumber. Solution: Bd. ft. = 7pcsx2x10x14 12 = 70 bd. ft. * Lumber is sold either rough or surfaced.
  • 48. Prices of lumber ranges according to the following: 1.Types of wood 2.Dimensions 3.Grades of lumber – either sun dried, air dried, or kiln dried
  • 49. Woodworking Methods 1. Planning a) Drawing and designing the project b) Identify bill of materials c) List the procedures d) List tools and machines needed 2. Cutting – cutting wood to the right size and shape can be done with a variety of hand tools and machines.
  • 50. 3. Assembling – constructing the parts of the project based on the planned design. 4. Sanding and Finishing – sanding removes tools marks and make wood surface smooth for finishing. Sanding should not begin until the wood has been cut to its final size.
  • 51. Sawing • Different types of saws must be used when you cut along the fiber direction and when you cut across or perpendicular or at an angle to the fiber direction of the wood • A rip saw is used to cut along the fiber of the wood while cross cut saw is used to cut across or perpendicular or at an angle to the fiber of the wood.
  • 52. • When sawing along the cutting lines, make sure that your head is right above or on the extension line from the saw blade so that you can cut straight, with the top surface and cutting surface of the wood forms the right angle. • When starting to cut, guide the saw blade with your thumb and make a small chase. • When finishing cutting, move the saw slowly in the horizontal direction and support the removing piece of wood at the same time to avoid splitting.
  • 53. Driving and Pulling Nails • Hold the nail firmly near the pointed end with one hand while grasping the hammer handle. • Tap the nail lightly to start, then push down the nail by hitting the head squarely. • With some materials especially hardwood and moldings, you’ll have to drill pilot holes before driving the nails to avoid splitting. • When removing or pulling deformed or bent nails, place a block of wood under the hammer to prevent or protect the wood surface from being scratched as nails are pulled.
  • 55. Guiding and Testing Tools • Straight Edge – a tool used to guide pencils or scriber in making straight line. • Level – used for both guiding and testing the work to a vertical or horizontal position.
  • 56. • Square – is a 90 degree standard right angle tool sometimes called trying square used for marking and testing work. Try Square Miter square Combination try and miter square Combined square Steel square
  • 57. • Plastic Hose with water – is one of the best and accurate tool for guiding work establishing a horizontal level. • Sliding T-bevel – is like a try square with sliding and adjustable blade that could be set to any angle other than 90 degrees.
  • 58. • Angle divider – is a double bevel square used to divide an angle in a complicated work in one setting. • Miter box – is a device used as guide of the hand saw in cutting objects to form a miter joint. • Plumb bob – a metal tool used to check or obtain a vertical line.
  • 59. Marking Tools • Chalk line and reel – used for marking a very rough work. • Lead pencil – with round head is also used for marking rough work. • Scratch awl – is used for marking a semi – rough work.
  • 60. • Scriber – is used for marking fine work. It is made of hard – end steel with a sharp point designed to mark fine lines. • Compass – a tool used to inscribe an arc or circle. • Divider – is used in dividing distances into equal parts such as arc and circumference including straight lines.
  • 61. Measuring Tools or “Rule” • Two foot four folding rule – used in measuring short distances. • Extension rule – is used for measuring inside distance such as doors, windows, cabinets, etc.
  • 62. • Zigzag rule – is available in 4 feet and 6 feet long commonly used by carpenters for rough. • Push – pull tape – used to measure longer distances available from one meter to 50 meters long. • Slide Caliper Rule – a special tool used to measure outside diameter of cylindrical objects.
  • 63. • Marking gauge – is a tool most appropriate in making lines parallel with the edges of the wood.
  • 64. Holding Tools • Horse or trestle – used to support or sustain the working operation such as sawing, chiseling and planning. • Clamps – used in tightly pressing piece of wood or metal together in making tenon, mortise and other joints.
  • 65. • Vise – is a table tool used to hold a piece of material rigidly secured in place to absorb severe blows.
  • 66. Toothed Cutting Tools • Saws – the most important of the toothed cutting tools. a. hand saw b. circular saw c. band saw
  • 67. Classification of hand saw • Cross cut saw – used to cut across the grain of the wood • Rip cut saw – used to cut along the grain of the wood • Backsaw - This is a thin crosscut saw with five teeth, with a blade stiffened by a thick back.
  • 68. • Files – are metals tools of different shapes and sizes used for abrading, reducing or smooth cutting metal, wood, or other materials.
  • 69. Sharp – edged Cutting Tools CHISEL • Paring Chisel – is a light duty tool used to plane long surface parallel with the grain of wood. • Firming chisel – a heavy duty tool adopted to withstand severe strain as in framing work and where deep cuts are necessary.
  • 70. • Slick – any chisel having a blade wider than 2 inches. It is used on large surface whether larger materials is to be taken off or where unusual power is required. • Gouge – is a chisel with a hollow shaped blade for scooping or cutting round holes.
  • 71. Smooth Facing Tools • Spoke Shave - is a tool used to shape and smooth wooden rods and shafts - often for use as wheel spokes, chair legs ,self bows, and arrows.
  • 72. PLANES • Jack Plane - the general- purpose bench plane, used for general smoothing of the edges, sizing of timber but only making it smaller to correct size — wood edge jointing. • Fore Plane - Its length enables it to skim off high spots as it bridges low spots, delivering a leveled surface ready for the smoothing plane.
  • 73. • Jointer Plane - also commonly called the try or trying plane) is a woodworking tool designed for planing long edges square, straight and true. • Smooth Plane - is a type of bench plane used in woodworking. The smoothing plane is typically the last plane used on a wood surface - when used properly, the finish it gives will be far superior to that made by sandpaper or scrapers.
  • 74. Boring Tools • Brad Awl – is a small tool used for punching or piecing small holes. • Gimlet – is a tool used for boring holes by hand pressure classified as : twist and plain.
  • 75. • Auger – used for boring holes with a diameter ranging from ½ to 2 inches. • Twist drills – used for drilling small holes. • Hollow auger – used for external boring or turning.
  • 76. • Spoke Pointer – cuts a conical holes. • Counter Sink – used for enlarging a conical hole at the surface of the wood.
  • 77. Fastening Tools • Claw Hammer – used to drive and pull out nails. • Screwdrivers – used to tighten and loosen screw.
  • 78. Sharpening Tools • Grind Stone – is used for sharpening, shaping, or polishing metal by turning. • Oil Stone – used for grinding operation to achieve a smooth and keen edge of the tools.
  • 79. Machines and other equipments: • Circular Saw – is a steel disc provided with teeth designed to revolve on a shaft at high speed. • Radial Arm Saw – is a power driven rotary cutting tool.
  • 80. • Portable Electric Drill – is motorized rotary driving tool. • Drill Press – power driven rotary tools used for driving drill bits, plug cutters, and many auxiliary attachments.
  • 81. • Band Saw – is a power driven endless toothed hand cutting tool. • Single Surface Planer – is a power driven rotating edge cutting tool.
  • 82. • Wood Lathe – used to rotate the materials for shaping sanding or polishing.  Gouge – is used in roughing out cylinders and in turning concave surfaces on spindles. Skew Chisel – is a flat turning chisel used in smoothing cylinders, rounding edges, and in making V and shoulder cuts.
  • 83. • Always use the right tools for the job. • Clean the tools and equipment after using and keep them in their right places. • Apply lubricants or oil on the metal parts of tools to prevent rusting and stuck-up. • Keep all edges cutting tools keen or sharp. • Never use tools with broken handles.