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TIMBER PPT SA JBP

TIMBER - AN INTEGRAL PART OF OUR DAY TO DAY LIVES TIMBER ITS DEFECTS, SEASONING AND USAGE IS DISCUSSED IN HERE WITH APPROPRIATE PICTURES MAKING IT QUITE SELF UNDERSTANDABLE

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TIMBER
Prof. SUYASH AWASTHI
DEPTT OF CIVIL ENGG
GGITS
SYNOPSIS –
• Important timbers, their engineering
properties and uses.
• Defects in timber
• Seasoning and treatment
• Need for wood substitutes
• Plywood, Particle Board ,Fibre Board, Plaster
Boards
• Applications of wood and wood products
• Adhesives, types of Gypsum Board and their
uses
INTRODUCTION
• Timber has been in very common use for- engineering
purposes since ancient times.
• There is difference between terms timber and wood.
Wood includes all types of wood which may be burning
wood, structural wood, furniture wood etc. But wood
suitable for use as a structural material is called timber.
• Rough timber.
When tree has been cut and its stem and branches
are roughly converted into pieces of suitable lengths.
• Converted timber
When roughly converted timber is further sawn and
converted into commercial size the planks, logs,
battens, posts, beams, etc
TIMBER PPT SA JBP
Important timbers
S. NO. Applications/ Uses Timber
1 Sports goods and baskets Ash, Oak, Mulberry
2 Match Industry Pine and Simul
3 Bullock Carts Babul
4 Musical Instruments Jack (पनस)
5 Railway Sleepers Deodar, Kail, Sal, Ash
6 Well curbs Mango, Jack, Simul
7 Doors and Windows Sal, Deodar
8 Packing cases Deodar, Mango, Fir
9 Scaffolding Bamboo, Sal
10 Agriculture implements and tool handles Babul, Ash, Mulberry
11 High class joinery and furniture Teak, Shishum, Walnut
There are 3 main types of timber:
• HARDWOOD
• SOFTWOOD
• MANUFACTURED BOARD
TIMBER is the general name for wood materials.

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TIMBER PPT SA JBP

  • 1. TIMBER Prof. SUYASH AWASTHI DEPTT OF CIVIL ENGG GGITS
  • 2. SYNOPSIS – • Important timbers, their engineering properties and uses. • Defects in timber • Seasoning and treatment • Need for wood substitutes • Plywood, Particle Board ,Fibre Board, Plaster Boards • Applications of wood and wood products • Adhesives, types of Gypsum Board and their uses
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • Timber has been in very common use for- engineering purposes since ancient times. • There is difference between terms timber and wood. Wood includes all types of wood which may be burning wood, structural wood, furniture wood etc. But wood suitable for use as a structural material is called timber. • Rough timber. When tree has been cut and its stem and branches are roughly converted into pieces of suitable lengths. • Converted timber When roughly converted timber is further sawn and converted into commercial size the planks, logs, battens, posts, beams, etc
  • 5. Important timbers S. NO. Applications/ Uses Timber 1 Sports goods and baskets Ash, Oak, Mulberry 2 Match Industry Pine and Simul 3 Bullock Carts Babul 4 Musical Instruments Jack (पनस) 5 Railway Sleepers Deodar, Kail, Sal, Ash 6 Well curbs Mango, Jack, Simul 7 Doors and Windows Sal, Deodar 8 Packing cases Deodar, Mango, Fir 9 Scaffolding Bamboo, Sal 10 Agriculture implements and tool handles Babul, Ash, Mulberry 11 High class joinery and furniture Teak, Shishum, Walnut
  • 6. There are 3 main types of timber: • HARDWOOD • SOFTWOOD • MANUFACTURED BOARD TIMBER is the general name for wood materials.
  • 8. The term hardwood does not mean that the timber is hard. For example balsa is used for modelling, it is a hard wood but it is one of the softest timbers to work with. Hardwood This type of timber is produced from broad leaf trees that lose their leaves in winter – a deciduous tree. The photograph opposite is of an oak tree which grows in this country. Uses - Oak is a hardwood and is used to make expensive furniture/flooring and strong framed structures. Model aircraft made from balsa
  • 9. Mahogany – reddish in colour, always looks good when varnished or waxed. Task – Can you think of other uses of wood products in the kitchen. Beech – creamy pinkish colour, its close grain makes it very suitable for kitchen utensils, as water does not have too great an effect on it. Hardwood
  • 11. This type of timber is produced from trees that do not lose their leaves (coniferous). Leaves are easily identified as being thin and narrow. Softwood trees grow much quicker than the hardwood ones, they are therefore cheaper to buy and far more available. Softwood is used for construction of houses and furniture, and outdoor uses such as fencing. Softwood
  • 12. Uses of soft woods furniture garden fencing/shed building construction packaging Some images courtesy of IKEA
  • 13. Manufactured board is mainly used for kitchen and bedroom furniture and shelving. Examples of manufactured boards are: These are manmade boards, which are made by gluing wood layers or wood fibers together. Manufactured board Plywood is a widely used manufactured timber. Can you think of advantages and disadvantages of using plywood?
  • 14. layer it … carve it… slot it together it ….. Bend it ….. you can …… turn it ….. Jules TattersallDo you recognise any of these buildings/structures?
  • 16. Properties of Timber • A good timber should be hard and durable. • It should be capable of resisting the actions of fungi, chemicals and physical agencies. • The fibers of the timber should be straight and compact. • The timber should be free from knots wists, upsets, burls shakes, flaws etc. • Its color should be dark. It should be obtained preferably from heart wood. Color should be uniform. • It should be properly seasoned. • Its freshly cut surface should smell sweet.
  • 17. Properties of Timber cont… • Its weight should be heavy. • It should be easily workable. It should not clog the teeth of saw and should be capable of being easily planned. • Timber should be tough i.e., it should be capable of resisting shocks. • It should be able to withstand the weathering affects. • It should be strong enough to withstand bending, direct and shear effects efficiently. • A clear ringing sound should be emitted by the timber when struck. Heavy dull sound indicates decayed timber. • It should offer adequate fire resistance.
  • 18. USES OF TIMBER • It can be said that there is no Engineering field, where timber is not used one way or the other. • Uses of timber are numerous. Some of its important uses are given as follows: It is very much used for railway track sleepers. It can be used inform of piles, vertical posts, beams, doors and windows. It can also be used as members of roofing trusses. It is an important material for furniture- making It is used for floors, ceiling, and partition walls.
  • 21.  Defects that develop after felling the tree.  Bow  Cup  Twist  Radial shakes  Wane  Diagonal grains The defects that usually occur in the timber may be classified into two categories as follows:  Defects that develop during growth of the tree.  Shakes  Twisted timber  Upsets or rupture  Knots  Wind cracks  Burls DEFECTS IN TIMBER
  • 22. 1.Defects that develop during growth of tree have been briefly discussed as follows: 1.1 Shakes. This is most serious type of defect in timber. These are sort of cracks which partly or completely separate the fibers of wood. A shake is nothing, but separation of the timber along the grains. Shakes may be of several types. 1.1.1 Star shakes These are radial cracks or splits that extend from bark towards the sap wood. They usually remain confined up to the plane of sap wood only. The cracks are widest at the circumference and go on narrowing as they proceed towards the Centre of the tree.
  • 23. 1.1.2 Heart shakes. These splits or cracks occur in the central part of the trees. There are widest at the centre and go on narrowing as they proceed towards outside. This defect usually occurs in over-matured trees. This defect is usually caused due to shrinkage of the heart wood. Heart shakes divide the tree cross-section into several parts. Straight running heart shake is not as serious as twisted heart shake. 1.1.3Cup shakes. This defect develops curved slit between successive annual rings. The split does not run for the full circumference of the annual rings.
  • 24. 1.1.4Ring shakes. When cup shake defect runs for full circumference of the annual ring, it is called ring shake. It is more serious than cup shake. 1.1.5 Radial shakes. They are similar to star shakes. They are numerous, fine and irregular. They usually occur when felled tree is exposed to sun for seasoning. The cracks run for a short distance from bark to-wards the centre and then follows the course of an annual ring and ultimately goes towards the pith.
  • 25. 1.2 Twisted fibers. They are caused by twisting of young trees constantly in one direction under the action of strong prevalent winds. Timber with twisted fibers is unsuitable for sawing. The timber having this defect is mostly used for posts and poles in an un-sawn condition 1.3 Upsets or ruptures This defect is caused due to injury suffered by wood fibers by crushing or compression. Upsets are mainly due to improper felling of tree and exposure of tree in its young age to fast blowing wind. This defect indicates change in direction of wooden fibers.
  • 26. 1.4 Knots. Knots are generally developed at the bases of branches cut off from the tree. This phenomenon ultimately results in the formation of dark, hard rings, known as knots. As knots break the continuity of the wooden fibers, they form a source of weakness. 1.5 Wind cracks. The outer layers of a standing tree suffer from the effect of shrinkage due to atmospheric agencies. This causes cracks on the outer surface only. These cracks are known as wind cracks.
  • 27. 2. Defects that develop after felling the tree. Conversion of timber is done almost immediately after felling The tree. The defects that may develop after felling the tree and also during conversion and seasoning are the following: 2.1 Bow: when planks of converted of timber shrink and bend in curved form , in the direction of length.
  • 28. 2.2 Cup: this defect is indicated when wooden planks bend in curved from in transverse direction. 2.3 Twist A plank which has distorted spirally along its length
  • 29. FEW OTHER DEFECTS – • HONEYCOMBING • END – SPILTS • DEADWOOD • DRUXINESS • FOXINESS
  • 30. What is seasoning of timber When a tree is cut down the wood contains a large amount of moisture. It would not be wise to use the wood in this wet state. The moisture must be dried out and the controlled process of doing so is called seasoning. SEASONING OF TIMBER
  • 31. How does moisture affect timber? • The water will affect timber in many ways, for example • Strength properties will be reduce • Fungal attack is over likely • The timber is vulnerable to some species of wood destroying insects • There excessive weight due to the amount of water present • The surface finish is unsuitable to receive either paint or polish • Adhesives will have minimal holding properties
  • 32. Methods of seasoning There are two methods of seasoning: • Air seasoning, sometimes called natural seasoning, • Kiln seasoning.
  • 33. Air seasoning • The easiest way, but not the most effective method of seasoning timber, is to stack it outside. The timber is laid out as seen in the diagram below. It is normally placed in a hut / building, with two sides open to allow air to circulate. The roof and two other sides keep the timber relatively dry. The circulation of the air slowly dries the timer. However, this techniques does not give a precise moisture content. This is because air circulates freely and carries moisture, depending on the weather and the time of year. The spacing sticks keep the seasoning boards a short distance apart. The air flows between each of the seasoning boards, allowing them to dry slowly. In this way warping is kept to a minimum. The seasoning time varies depending on the thickness of the wood boards and the time of year. Usually three to four months for 25mm softwoods. The time is doubled, for wood twice as thick. Hardwoods of 25mm thickness require about six months and up to at least a year for 50mm boards.
  • 35. Advantages of Air Seasoning • No expensive equipment needed • Small labor cost once stack is made • Environmental friendly-uses little energy Disadvantage of Air Seasoning • It takes much longer than kiln seasoning • Large area of space required for a lot of wood • it is notable to produce timber not dry enough for use in the dry, centrally heated air of modern buildings
  • 36. Kiln Seasoning • In this method the wooden pieces are kept on huge trolleys and then it is placed inside the hot chamber of a furnace known as kiln. In this way wooden pieces are kept in a controlled atmospheric conditions for two weeks. The time depends upon the type of wood and initial moisture content. Blowers are also used. It is a quick drying method and the moisture is reduced to 10%. Since seasoning is done at a lesser time through artificial means so the quality of wood is inferior in comparison to seasoned wood through natural seasoning.
  • 41. Advantages of Kiln Seasoning • It is dries quickly • It can be controlled • Achieve a lower moisture content • Defects associated with drying can be controlled Disadvantage of Kiln Seasoning • It is an expensive method • Requires supervision by a skilled operator • Uses a lot of energy
  • 42. NEED FOR WOOD SUBSTITUTES • Rapid Deforestation lead to extinction of conventional timbers • Substituting wood by products made out of industrial wastes etc can avoid the same • One can get stronger products than wood • Which will be weather, corrosion, termite, rot, rodent resistant • It will not only reduce environmental pollution but will also be cost effective and self maintaining
  • 43. WOOD SUBSTITUTES • Hemp • Bamboo • Wood composites • Plastic wood • Soy • Cork • Cardboard • Nutshells • Newspaper • Straw
  • 47. • Plaster Boards • Plasterboards are available for a variety of applications and specifications. • Thicknesses available are 9.5mm, 12.5mm, 15mm and 19mm. • Sizes are 1200mm x 900mm, 1800mm x 900mm, 2400mm x 1200mm and 3600mm x 1200mm. • Plasterboard can be used for fire control, sound insulation and thermal insulation.
  • 48. Advantages of Plasterboards • Plasterboard is a much better insulator than solid plaster. • The air gap can form an extra insulating layer. • The speed of construction. • Has a quicker drying time than solid plastering.
  • 49. • Gypsum Board and their uses – Gypsum board, commonly known as drywall, is the technical product name used by manufacturers for a specific board with a gypsum core and a paper facing – Gypsum board is the premier building material for wall, ceiling, and partition systems in residential, institutional, and commercial structures and is designed to provide a monolithic surface when joints and fastener heads are covered with a joint treatment system. – One principal advantage of gypsum board over plywood, hardboard, and fibreboard is its strong fire resistance. Gypsum products also provide sound control, economy, versatility, quality, and convenience.
  • 50. • Types of Gypsum Boards – – Regular Gypsum Board – a gypsum board with naturally occurring fire resistance from the gypsum in the core – Type X Gypsum Board – a gypsum board with special core additives to increase the natural fire resistance of regular gypsum board.
  • 51. • Adhesives – A substance used to join two or more parts so as to form a single unit – Advantages – • Adequate strength • Corrosion and permeability for water and gas is prevented – Disadvantages – • Unstable at high temperatures • Specificity is to be maintained – Types – • Animals glue (animal crushed bones + benzene) • Starch glue (wheat or rice powder + hot water) • Dextrine (starch + acid @ 200 degree C) • Many other adhesives
  • 52. Applications of wood and wood products • Please use GK rather than JK in this…. THANK YOU…