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Lec. 5Long and Short Method of composting.pptx

  1. The substrate for cultivation is specially prepared compost. The mushroom houses should have the facilities for temperature control and pasteurization. Buildings are constructed of wood or hollow cement bricks or double walls. The shed is partitioned into small compartments and provided with trays. Environmental conditions like temperature, relative humidity and ventilation are controlled inside the shed by installing suitable equipment. Compost is the substrate in which the mushroom mycelium grows and on which it produces fruiting bodies. It is the product of a fermentation process brought out by a number of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms that decompose plant residues and other organic and inorganic matters. The quality of compost influences the yield of mushroom. Compost prepared out of horse manure and wheat straw is ideal one. Since these materials are not easily available, many substitutes are suggested and are in use. Aim: Methods of compost preparation in cultivation of white button mushroom. Compost Preparation
  2. There are two methods of composting: 1. Long method 2. Short method. The distinction is based on the time taken for composting and the long method needs three to four weeks, while the short method requires only 12-15 days, since the composting process is hastened by pasteurization. In the long method of composting, pasteurization is avoided, which will make the compost poor in quality and often gives variable yields. 1. Long Method: The composting is done on a cement floor. It can be done in the open or under a roof, but sides are to keep open. 2. Short method: The short-term compost involves two phases of operation, Outdoors composting and steam pasteurization. Ingredient Quantity Chopped Wheat Straw 1000 kg Chicken manure 600 kg Cotton seed meal/ Wheat choker 25 kg/ 70 kg Urea 14.5 kg Gypsum 30 kg Ingredients of compost:
  3. Flow chart of Long Method Composting
  4. Flow chart of Short Method Composting
  5. Compost Production by Short Method
  6.  Phase: I Outdoor Composting: Cotton seed meal and chicken manure are added to wheat straw and stacked after adding sufficient water to completely wet the same. The stack can be 3.3 X 2.5 X 1 m size. Turnings are given on the 2,4,6 and 8 th days. The pH to be adjusted to 8.5 and the compost filled into trays for pasteurization.  Phase: II Steam Pasteurization Stream or dry heat is introduced to establish an aerobic fermentation and the temperature maintained between 52 - 60 °C inside the compost. Usually it is done in a room well insulated where the trays are properly kept and after this all ventilators are closed and steam is introduced to raise the temperature to 52-54 °C for four hr and afterwards fresh air is introduced and steam supply cut off.
  7. Difference between long method of compost and short method of composts for button mushroom Properties Short Method Long Method Days required for compost Preparation 16 to 20 28 to 30 Selectivity Complete Partial Average yield (Kilo/ 100 kilo compost) 18 to 25 % 10 – 15 % Effect on environment Less polluting Polluting Average compost production / ton of Straw 2.0-2.5 tons 1.75-2.0 tons Average final N % in Compost 2.0-2.2 1.75-2.0 Infrastructure required for 20 tons output compost Covered composting yard (60 x 40 ft) + 1 tunnel (36 x 9 x 12 ft) Outdoor composting yard (60 x 40 ft.) Man days required for 20 tons compost output 20-25 30-35 Power requirement for 20 tons output compost 700-900 KW Nil Compost handling equipments required (Large farm) (> 500TPA) Turner, filling line, hopper regulator, Bobcats Nil