Questions around the Future of Learning
                   Bruce Dixon
   Co-founder Anytime Anywhere Learning Foundation....
How can we best describe a 21st
             Century Learner?
                                     Numerate
 • Analytic th...
3
                  3                                                                                                     ...
“My goal in life is to find ways in
which children can use technology
as a constructive medium to do
things that they coul...
The challenge of Re-imagining…
 How do we become aware of our reality beyond our
               concepts, what could schoo...
Influences on the Future of Learning




                 Personalising    Enabling an                   Leveraging
      ...
What is the real value of accountability?
Accountability & School
   Improvement…
 If we want 21st Century innovative learners we
 need to create new metrics of inn...
“Accountability must be a reciprocal process. For
    every increment of performance I demand of
    you, I have an equal ...
Personalisation means…
   Obtaining and creating knowledge at the right place, at
   the right time, in the right way, on ...
Addressing Learner Diversity
                          • Identify and define prior
                            knowledge s...
The PbyP learning cycle
                  What to use for goals?
                           Lifelong competencies

       ...
The PbyP learning cycle
                  What to use for goals?
                           Lifelong competencies

       ...
When, where and how might learning take
                                        place?...
• When dos learning start and
  ...
A different view of learning…

• Anyone can now learn anytime, throughout their
  life
• Anyone can now learn anywhere, wh...
3,000 people every day




                         3,000
Transforming the Learning Environment
    14th- 19th Century            20th Century                21st Century
      • P...
The web is now…
• challenging traditional approaches to how we
  learn.
• challenging our assumptions about
  classrooms a...
Where is the intersection between
technology and pedagogy?
What are we going to let go of?
DETA (2008) “elearning for smart classrooms”, Smart Classrooms BYTES, August 2008
Content vs context
• Rapid knowledge growth:The information pace is
  too rapid for the current model of learning
• Inform...
“The transformation of work requires much more than a
mastery of a fixed curriculum inherited from past centuries.

 Succe...
eLearning
Fundamental change,
        or incremental
        improvement;
the question is not so
  much which is right,
   but rathe...
Where do you see your school?

     1                   2                      3                           4

  Incrementa...
Technology and Change

So technology can be used
 To sustain and support what we are already
  doing (conservative use – ...
In too many of our schools..
 the technology emperor has had no clothes!
•Trivializing teacher competence
    •Technology-...
Both proponents and opponents of educational
technology agree that the full effects of technology in
 schools cannot be fu...
The Drivers to 1 to 1…

  •   Equity-Narrows the Digital Divide?
  •   Economic-budget imperatives?
  •   Unlocks the poss...
What learning opportunities will these influences
                 make possible for your school,
                        ...
A technology-rich learning environment can..

• offer almost unlimited opportunities to significantly
  address learner di...
Technology and Change

So technology can be used
  – To sustain and support what we are
    already doing (conservative us...
The teacher in a contemporary classroom
understands…
   the more powerful technology becomes the
    more indispensable g...
The Evolution of Innovation

  Automated Idiosyncratic   At Scale     Cultural


                Beliefs & Attitude


    ...
Imagine if…
• We could formatively assess students in a way
  that had immediate impact on their learning.

• We could bui...
Imagine if…
• We could make learning in school as
  transparent as learning out of school; that
  the line between formal ...
Imagine if…
• We could develop ways in which
  children could use technology as a
  constructive medium to do things that ...
www.aalf.org
bdixon@aalf.org
                  54
Questions Around The Future Of Learning, Bruce Dixon
Questions Around The Future Of Learning, Bruce Dixon
Questions Around The Future Of Learning, Bruce Dixon
Questions Around The Future Of Learning, Bruce Dixon
Questions Around The Future Of Learning, Bruce Dixon
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Questions Around The Future Of Learning, Bruce Dixon

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Bruce Dixons presentation på konferensen Framtidens lärande, 19 maj 2009.

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  • Levy and Murnane show how the composition of the US work force has changed. What they show is that, between 1970 and 2000, work involving routine manual input, the jobs of the typical factory worker, was down significantly. Non-routine manual work, things we do with our hands, but in ways that are not so easily put into formal algorithms, was down too, albeit with much less change over recent years – and that is easy to understand because you cannot easily computerise the bus driver or outsource your hairdresser. All that is not surprising, but here is where the interesting story begins: Among the skill categories represented here, routine cognitive input, that is cognitive work that you can easily put into the form of algorithms and scripts saw the sharpest decline in demand over the last couple of decades, with a decline by almost 8% in the share of jobs. So those middle class white collar jobs that involve the application of routine knowledge, are most at threat today. And that is where schools still put a lot of their focus and what we value in multiple choice accountability systems.The point here is, that the skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the skills that are easiest to digitise, automatise and offshore. If that is all what we do in school, we are putting our youngsters right up for competition with computers, because those are the things computers can do better than humans, and our kids are going to loose out before they even started. Where are the winners in this process? These are those who engage in expert thinking – the new literacy of the 21st century, up 8% - and complex communication, up almost 14%.
  • Such a concept has its ultimate manifestation in W. Edwards Deming’s constant improvement philosophy which became the foundation for much of the quality movement in manufacturing around the world. The parallel to what we look to as incremental improvement in our schools pales by comparison; but many schools have a mission to seek to improve incrementally, building on the successes of their pasthttp://www.deming.org/theman/articles/articles_50influenced02.html
  • Questions Around The Future Of Learning, Bruce Dixon

    1. 1. Questions around the Future of Learning Bruce Dixon Co-founder Anytime Anywhere Learning Foundation. Stockholm, 2009 1
    2. 2. How can we best describe a 21st Century Learner? Numerate • Analytic thinkers Literate • Problem solver Articulate • Effective communicators Curious • Effective collaborator & • Information and media literate Passionate • Globally aware Successful • Civically engaged learners • Financially and economically literate Confident individuals Responsible citizens
    3. 3. 3 3 How the demand for skills has changed Economy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US) Learning and Technology Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution World Form 2009 Routine manual 65 60 Nonroutine manual 55 Routine cognitive 50 PISA International Student Assessment OECD Programme for 45 Nonroutine analytic 40 Nonroutine interactive 1960 1970 1980 1990 2002 The dilemma of schools: The skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the ones that are easiest to digitise, (Levy and Murnane) automate and outsource
    4. 4. “My goal in life is to find ways in which children can use technology as a constructive medium to do things that they could not do before.. ..to do things at a level of complexity that was not previously accessible to children” Prof. Seymour Papert 1998
    5. 5. The challenge of Re-imagining… How do we become aware of our reality beyond our concepts, what could school be?….. and then take time to reflect on what we see.. “What does it take to shake people loose?...imagination deteriorates with experience ..we need radical re-imagining”. Peter Senge 2007 „Perspective is worth 80 IQ points.‟ Alan Kay
    6. 6. Influences on the Future of Learning Personalising Enabling an Leveraging learning to expanded Increasing Digital Content The Nature of address view of Pedagogical in a Re- Accountability learning learner capacity imagined diversity environments curriculum Trends that move us from Reform to Transformation
    7. 7. What is the real value of accountability?
    8. 8. Accountability & School Improvement… If we want 21st Century innovative learners we need to create new metrics of innovative . learning! What impact does transparency have on assessment? What do we mean by mutual or reciprocal accountability?
    9. 9. “Accountability must be a reciprocal process. For every increment of performance I demand of you, I have an equal responsibility to provide you with the capacity to meet that expectation. Likewise, for every investment you make in my skill and knowledge, I have a reciprocal responsibility to demonstrate some new increment in performance. This is the principle of “reciprocity for accountability for capacity” Elmore, 2002 9
    10. 10. Personalisation means… Obtaining and creating knowledge at the right place, at the right time, in the right way, on the right device, for the right person.. Learning styles and modalities, Content selection, assessment preferences, identifying effective collaborative peer networks, best learning dynamic What if students could have at least the same choices for learning content as they have for book selection on Amazon? Better informed to make better decisions about students
    11. 11. Addressing Learner Diversity • Identify and define prior knowledge so learning is appropriate for individuals and groups. • Adopt a flexible approach to learning delivery by drawing on a bank of Learning Elements or • Apply different emphases andObjects from different sources. mixes of knowledge processes as appropriate to suit different „learning styles‟. • Identify and negotiate learning pathways as appropriate to students interests and dispositions. Burrows and Kalantzis,
    12. 12. The PbyP learning cycle What to use for goals? Lifelong competencies Arranged in Skills Ladders Clear progression up a ladder Can be understood and evidenced by the learner
    13. 13. The PbyP learning cycle What to use for goals? Lifelong competencies Arranged in Skills Ladders Clear progression up a ladder Can be understood and evidenced by the learner
    14. 14. When, where and how might learning take place?... • When dos learning start and stop? –the precious and inevitable blend and influence of informal and informal learning environments • Anytime, Anywhere- no longer limited by where or who we are • Globalization today - is about individuals and small groups collaborating. communications is the leveler, collaboration is the
    15. 15. A different view of learning… • Anyone can now learn anytime, throughout their life • Anyone can now learn anywhere, wherever one has access to the Internet • Anyone can now learn anyhow, in tacit, non- formal and formal ways • So, learning need not, and perhaps even should not, be concentrated in a given period of life (school age) and in a particular place (the school) nor ought it to be “standardized”, “one size fits all”
    16. 16. 3,000 people every day 3,000
    17. 17. Transforming the Learning Environment 14th- 19th Century 20th Century 21st Century • Print Era a Broadcast Era Collaborative Age • Authors/Publishers Vendor Produced Community Generated Content Experiences • Books, Documents Film, Radio, TV, Video, W Mixed Media, eb Pages Social Networks, Virtual Environments
    18. 18. The web is now… • challenging traditional approaches to how we learn. • challenging our assumptions about classrooms and teaching. • challenging our assumptions about knowledge, information and literacy. What are the implications for your classroom? Web 2.0: the “architecture of participation” Will Richardson, 2007
    19. 19. Where is the intersection between technology and pedagogy?
    20. 20. What are we going to let go of? DETA (2008) “elearning for smart classrooms”, Smart Classrooms BYTES, August 2008
    21. 21. Content vs context • Rapid knowledge growth:The information pace is too rapid for the current model of learning • Informal learning is eclipsing formal learning • Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known • Learners will move into different—possibly unrelated—fields over their lives ―Siemens, from Oblinger,2005
    22. 22. “The transformation of work requires much more than a mastery of a fixed curriculum inherited from past centuries. Success in the slowly changing worlds of past centuries came from being able to do well what you were taught to do. Success in the rapidly changing world of the future depends on being able to do well what you were not taught to do” Vision for Education: Caperton & Papert 18
    23. 23. eLearning
    24. 24. Fundamental change, or incremental improvement; the question is not so much which is right, but rather why has there been so little discussion about the question?
    25. 25. Where do you see your school? 1 2 3 4 Incremental Improvement Fundamental Change Incremental improvement. Continual small changes to the way school might function to provide measurable improvement. Fundamental change/transformation looks very different. It is not “tweaking” at the edges; this is not doubling the length of classes or developing cross-curricular programs. Rather than build on the successes of the past, fundamental change requires a complete rethinking of the nature of school and learning from the “ground up”.
    26. 26. Technology and Change So technology can be used To sustain and support what we are already doing (conservative use – does not lead to change) To supplement and extend what we are doing (leads to improvement and reform) To subvert and transform what we are doing (leads to transformation and innovation) George Thomas Scharffenberger, 2004
    27. 27. In too many of our schools.. the technology emperor has had no clothes! •Trivializing teacher competence •Technology-driven ideals •Ill-defined expectations •Access is a major issue….5:1, 4:1 are just better versions of the same thing! •Usage and Access profiles:59% < 59 minutes •The old model of access simply is not effective Our priority must be to better explore the “Art of the Possible” Edweek.org
    28. 28. Both proponents and opponents of educational technology agree that the full effects of technology in schools cannot be fully realized until the technology is no longer a shared resource (Oppenheimer, 2003; Papert, 1992, 1996).
    29. 29. The Drivers to 1 to 1… • Equity-Narrows the Digital Divide? • Economic-budget imperatives? • Unlocks the possibility of personalised learning? • Improves assessment alternatives? • Provides opportunity for textbook replacement? • Marketing-competitive advantage? • Expanded pedagogical opportunities? • Research on the impact on learning? • Offers 21st Century Learning opportunities -extends formal learning communities and expand global communication and collaboration, and develop creative expression ..offering more compelling learning experiences for all students.
    30. 30. What learning opportunities will these influences make possible for your school, for your students, and for their future?
    31. 31. A technology-rich learning environment can.. • offer almost unlimited opportunities to significantly address learner diversity. • promote new dimensions of pedagogical innovation. • give us a platform to better understand teaching effectiveness and leverage what personalisation offers learners.. • challenge us to look for more appropriate and effective means of assessment, and build better acountabilities. • allow us to re-imagine curriculum and what it might mean for the 21st Century learner. Technology increases our capacity to innovate
    32. 32. Technology and Change So technology can be used – To sustain and support what we are already doing (conservative use – does not lead to change) – To supplement and extend what we are doing (leads to improvement and reform) – To subvert and transform what we are doing (leads to transformation and innovation) George Thomas Scharffenberger, 2004
    33. 33. The teacher in a contemporary classroom understands…  the more powerful technology becomes the more indispensable good teachers are  that learners must construct their own meaning for deep understanding to occur  technology generates a glut of information but is not pedagogically wise  teachers must become pedagogical design experts, (leveraging) the power of technology
    34. 34. The Evolution of Innovation Automated Idiosyncratic At Scale Cultural Beliefs & Attitude Opportunity & Possibilities Pedagogical Wisdom Innovation must be continuous, holistic, iterative and accountable.
    35. 35. Imagine if… • We could formatively assess students in a way that had immediate impact on their learning. • We could build life-long learning profiles that accurately reflected a student’s competencies, highlighting their strengths and allowing us to target their weaknesses. • We had the ability to intelligently search for the best teaching and learning resources as effectively as we search for books on Amazon. …now we can.
    36. 36. Imagine if… • We could make learning in school as transparent as learning out of school; that the line between formal and informal learning faded. • We could put a large part of human knowledge at a student’s fingertips, in such a way that it was meaningfully accessible. • We could allow students to collaborate seamlessly anytime, anywhere. …now we can
    37. 37. Imagine if… • We could develop ways in which children could use technology as a constructive medium to do things that they could not do before… … to do things at a level of complexity that was not previously accessible to them. …now we can do this; it is now possible for all children.
    38. 38. www.aalf.org bdixon@aalf.org 54

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