Innovation and Creativity    in Higher Education:the Role of the Humanitiesin the Knowledge Triangle       Prof. Dr. Dirk ...
Changing role of universities• Against context of globalisation and  massification, universities are changing...• ...from ...
Changing role of universities• Consequences for research:  – Mode 1 research complemented by Mode 2  – Applied, technology...
Questions                                              What is the role of HE in                                          ...
1.CHANGING SKILLS DEMANDFOR INNOVATION                         5
New skills demand• Changing external skills demand is the main  driver for innovation• Research questions:  – Do innovatio...
New skills demand                                                               Economy-wide measures of routine and non-r...
New skills demandIncrease in creativity-oriented jobs (Canada, 1901-2006)                                                 ...
Skills supply hampering innovation         (odds ratios: innovative vs. non-innovative (ref))   Lack of finance from sourc...
Critical skills for the most innovative jobs                   (tertiary-educated workers)                                ...
Skills utilisation and workplace learning       Distribution of employees across organisation classes (2005)              ...
Learning organisations are associated with innovation                     Discretionary learning                          ...
Skills for Innovation• Lack of skills hinders innovation  – Lack of qualified personnel quoted as one of the    top impedi...
Individual Skills for Innovation• Foundation skills (literacy, numeracy…) are  key to access lifelong learning• Which indi...
Foundation skills matter for innovation                          540                                                      ...
Individual Skills for InnovationWhat individual competences should people acquire to   contribute to innovation as produce...
21st Century Skills                           •Creativity and innovationWays of thinking           •Critical thinking, pro...
2.THE ROLE OF THEHUMANITIES                  18
Distribution of new entrants into tertiary programmes, by                 field of education (2009)        Only those fiel...
Gender issues in skills         Percentage of tertiary degrees awarded to women, by field of education (2009)           On...
Humanities hampering innovation?% students entering humanities and social                                                 ...
Which tertiary education studies lead to active               participation in innovation?          Innovator      work in...
3.PEDAGOGIES FORINNOVATION SKILLS                    23
Which pedagogies foster innovation skills? • The relative importance of theory versus   practice-based instruction matters...
Relative emphasis on practice- and theory-based                   instruction       Odds ratios between innovators and non...
Relative emphasis on practice- and theory-based                  instruction   Odds ratios between innovators and non-inno...
Link between theory- and practice-based instruction and              critical skills for innovation                       ...
Skills impact of theory- versus practice-based instruction Table 1. Theory-based programmes have distinct str ong points f...
4.SOFT SKILLS, SOCIALCAPITAL AND INNOVATION                         29
Levels of interpersonal trust (2008)                                  1                                  0.8              ...
Interpersonal trust and innovation                             0.9                             0.8                        ...
Proportion of adults expressing interpersonal trust, by level of                educational attainment (2008) Percentage  ...
Incremental differences in interpersonal trust associated with an increase in the                     level of educational...
65                                                         Turkey              Austria% students entering humanities and s...
Conclusions• Innovation strategies should have a more  comprehensive look at the skills base and should  make better use o...
Conclusions• Humanities and social sciences have probably a  particularly significant contribution to the  development of ...
Thank you !dirk.vandamme@oecd.org www.oecd.org/edu/ceri                         37
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  • Do skillsmatter for innovation?Yes, the lack of qualified personnel within the business and the sectorisquoted as one of the top impediments to innovation by innovative businessesWhatskills/qualifications foster innovation in the economy? A broad mix of skills: scientific and non-scientific; general and vocationalAre certain uses of workforceskillsassociatedwith more innovation?Yes, learning organisations whereemployeeslearn, are trained and have discretion are alsoassociatedwith more lead innovationThere are different national « cultures » about thatHas recent innovation led to a change in the level and type of educationdemanded?Evidence of hollowing out of wage distribution in the US, Canada, EU-15 (skillbiasedtechnical change + somethingelse)
  • Innovation and creativity in the humanities and the knowledge triangle

    1. 1. Innovation and Creativity in Higher Education:the Role of the Humanitiesin the Knowledge Triangle Prof. Dr. Dirk Van Damme Head of the Innovation and Measuring Progress Division – OECD/EDU
    2. 2. Changing role of universities• Against context of globalisation and massification, universities are changing...• ...from providers of human resources to skilled professions...• ...to dynamic actors in the knowledge society with an increasingly important role in innovation – New skills demands – More flexible ways of knowledge production, knowledge distribution, and knowledge utilisation – Multiple level connections to global knowledge flows, but also to regional and local communities 2
    3. 3. Changing role of universities• Consequences for research: – Mode 1 research complemented by Mode 2 – Applied, technology-oriented research• Consequences for teaching: – More practical teaching with real-life topics – Professional internships• Expanding innovation function: – Universities as partners in knowledge infrastructure with industry and governments (“triple helix”) – Spin-offs, technology-transfer 3
    4. 4. Questions What is the role of HE in the creation of new knowledge ResearchDoes HE fosters the skills for innovation and What is HE’s creativity? contribution to innovation? Humanities Education Innovation 4
    5. 5. 1.CHANGING SKILLS DEMANDFOR INNOVATION 5
    6. 6. New skills demand• Changing external skills demand is the main driver for innovation• Research questions: – Do innovation-driven economies require more and better educated populations? – What qualifications do innovative businesses need? – What individual skills should education systems foster? 6
    7. 7. New skills demand Economy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution Routine manual 65 60 Nonroutine manual 55 Routine cognitive 50 45 Nonroutine analytic 40 Nonroutine interactive 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Source: Levy and Murnane, 2005 7
    8. 8. New skills demandIncrease in creativity-oriented jobs (Canada, 1901-2006) 8
    9. 9. Skills supply hampering innovation (odds ratios: innovative vs. non-innovative (ref)) Lack of finance from sources outside your enterprise 1.39 Lack of qualified personnel 1.37 Lack of funds within your enterprise or enterprise group 1.29 Innovation costs too high 1.18 Lack of information on markets 1.14 Difficulty in finding cooperation partners for innovation 1.05 Lack of information on technology 1.00 Markets dominated by established enterprises 0.98 Uncertain demand for innovative goods or services 0.97 No need to innovate due to prior innovations 0.44No need to innovate because no demand for innovations 0.35 0.3 0.6 1.2 9 Source: OECD, based on CIS data
    10. 10. Critical skills for the most innovative jobs (tertiary-educated workers) Likelihood (odds ratios) of reporting the following job requirements: people in the most innovative jobs vs. least innovative jobs come with news ideas/solutions 2.97 acquire new knowledge 2.44 willingness to question ideas 2.34 alertness to opportunities 2.24 present ideas in audience 2.18 analytical thinking 2.15 master of your own field 2.11 coordinate activities 2.05write and speak a foreign language 2.02 use computers and internet 2.00 make your meaning clear 1.99 use time efficiently 1.98 mobilize capacities of others 1.97 work productively with others 1.95 write reports or documents 1.94 perform under pressure 1.81 knowledge of other fields 1.76 negociate 1.76 assert your authority 1.56 0.90 1.80 3.60 10 Source: OECD, based on REFLEX and HEGESCO data
    11. 11. Skills utilisation and workplace learning Distribution of employees across organisation classes (2005) Learning Lean Taylorist Traditional100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0% Norway Slovenia Austria Belgium Romania Sweden Malta France Latvia Slovakia Spain Finland Estonia Hungary Poland Italy Portugal Bulgaria Germany Luxembourg Ireland Greece Netherlands UK Lithuania Cyprus Denmark Czech Republic Source: OECD, Innovative Workplaces
    12. 12. Learning organisations are associated with innovation Discretionary learning Lean organisation 30 30 FI FI SE 25 DE SE 25 DE LU LU % Lead innovators % Lead innovators NL NL 20 FR AT 20 AT BE FR BE DK DK PT IT IT PT 15 15 GR GR UK UK 10 10 ES ES R² = 0.44 R² = 0.44 5 5 18 28 38 48 58 68 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 % Discretionary learning % Lean organisation
    13. 13. Skills for Innovation• Lack of skills hinders innovation – Lack of qualified personnel quoted as one of the top impediments to innovation by innovative businesses – Diversity of skills / qualifications is needed due to sectoral diversity of innovation• Not only science and engineering, but also general tertiary education and vocational education and training
    14. 14. Individual Skills for Innovation• Foundation skills (literacy, numeracy…) are key to access lifelong learning• Which individual skills for innovation are key? – Subject-based skills (know-what and know- how) – Skills in thinking and creativity (critical thinking, imagination, curiosity...) – Behavioural and social skills (self- confidence, energy, passion, leadership, collabora tion, communication...) 14
    15. 15. Foundation skills matter for innovation 540 Finland 530 520PISA 2009 Reading score 510 Netherlands Belgium Norway 500 Switzerland Ireland Germany Sweden Hungary UK Denmark 490 Portugal Italy 480 Spain Slovak Rep Czech Rep 470 Austria 460 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Innovation Index 2007-2011 15
    16. 16. Individual Skills for InnovationWhat individual competences should people acquire to contribute to innovation as producers and users? Subject-based skills (know-what and know- how) Behavioural and Skills in thinking social skills and creativity (Self- (Critical thinking, abilityconfidence, energy, persev to makeerance, passion, leadership connections, imagination,, collaboration, communic curiosity,...) ation) 16
    17. 17. 21st Century Skills •Creativity and innovationWays of thinking •Critical thinking, problem solving •Learning to learn, meta-cognition •CommunicationWays of working •Collaboration (teamwork) •Information literacyTools of working •ICT literacy •Citizenship – local and globalLiving in the world •Life and career •Personal, social responsibility Source: Microsoft-Intel-Cisco ATC21S project 17
    18. 18. 2.THE ROLE OF THEHUMANITIES 18
    19. 19. Distribution of new entrants into tertiary programmes, by field of education (2009) Only those fields in which more than 20% of students entered a tertiary programme in 2009 are shown in the graph. Humanities, arts and education Health and welfare Social sciences, business and law Engineering, manufacturing and construction50454035302520 1. Excludes advanced research programmes. 2. Excludes tertiary-type B programmes. 3. Year of reference 2008. Countries are ranked in descending order of new entrants in Social sciences, business and law programmes in 2009. 19
    20. 20. Gender issues in skills Percentage of tertiary degrees awarded to women, by field of education (2009) Only those fields in which fewer than 30% or more than 70% of women graduated in 2009 are shown in the graph below.Education Health and welfare Humanities and artsSocial sciences, business and law Science Engineering, manufacturing and constructionAll fields100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1. Year of reference 2008. Countries are ranked in descending order of the percentage of tertiary degrees awarded to women in 2009. Source: OECD. Argentina: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (World Education Indicators Programme). Table A4.3.a See Annex 3 for notes (www.oecd.org/edu/eag2011). 20
    21. 21. Humanities hampering innovation?% students entering humanities and social Iceland Turkey Austria Poland Netherlands Switzerland sciences Italy Belgium Estonia Denmark Hungary Norway Sweden Czech Rep Portugal UK Spain Slovak Rep Germany Slovenia Ireland Finland Innovation Index 2007-2011 21
    22. 22. Which tertiary education studies lead to active participation in innovation? Innovator work in innov. comp. Not in innovative organisation100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10% 0% 22 Source: OECD, based on REFLEX and HEGESCO data
    23. 23. 3.PEDAGOGIES FORINNOVATION SKILLS 23
    24. 24. Which pedagogies foster innovation skills? • The relative importance of theory versus practice-based instruction matters for becoming an innovator (higher education data) 24
    25. 25. Relative emphasis on practice- and theory-based instruction Odds ratios between innovators and non-innovators, by type of innovation practice score theory score 1.21.15 1.11.05 10.95 any innovation technology, tools product, service knowledge, methods Source: OECD, based on REFLEX and HEGESCO data
    26. 26. Relative emphasis on practice- and theory-based instruction Odds ratios between innovators and non-innovators, by field of study practice score theory score 1.21.15 1.11.05 10.95 engineering business health education science others Source: OECD, based on REFLEX and HEGESCO data
    27. 27. Link between theory- and practice-based instruction and critical skills for innovation Effect size on (self-reported) skills level Theory score Practice score analytical thinking acquire new knowledge use computer and internet question own and others ideas coordinate activities present ideas in an audience come up with news ideas and solutions alertness to new opportunities 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 Source: OECD, based on REFLEX and HEGESCO data
    28. 28. Skills impact of theory- versus practice-based instruction Table 1. Theory-based programmes have distinct str ong points from practice -based university programmes Likelihood of reporting skills as strong points of the universit y programme, by mode of teaching and learning Emphasis on Practice (-) (n.s.) (+) ¤ analytical thinking ¤ Mastery of your own field or ¤ ability to rapidly acquire new discipline (+) knowledge ¤ ability to write reports, memos ¤ ability to question your own and ¤ alertness to new opportunities Emphasis on Theory or documents others ideas ¤ ability to come up with new ¤ knowledge of other fields or ideas and solutions disciplines ¤ ability to present products, (n.s.) ¤ ability to use computers and ideas or reports to an audience the internet ¤ ability to mobilise the capacities ¤ ability to speak and write in a of others foreign language ¤ ability to negociate effectively ¤ ability to assert your authority ¤ ability to perform well under ¤ ability to make your meaning ¤ ability to coordinate activities pressure clear to others ¤ ability to work productively with (-) ¤ ability to use time efficiently others Legend: (+) indicates a significant positive association; ( -) a significant negative association; and (n.s.) a non-significant association. Source: based on Reflex and Hegesco. 28
    29. 29. 4.SOFT SKILLS, SOCIALCAPITAL AND INNOVATION 29
    30. 30. Levels of interpersonal trust (2008) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 30
    31. 31. Interpersonal trust and innovation 0.9 0.8 Switzerland Sweden 0.7Innovation index 2007-2011 Germany Finland Denmark Belgium Ireland 0.6 Austria UK Netherlands 0.5 Italy Norway 0.4 Czech Rep Spain Portugal Hungary 0.3 Slovak Rep 0.2 0.1 0 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Interpersonal trust 2008 31
    32. 32. Proportion of adults expressing interpersonal trust, by level of educational attainment (2008) Percentage Below upper secondary education Upper secondary education Tertiary education 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Hungary Denmark Israel Turkey Estonia Netherlands Greece Finland Ireland1 Spain Poland Portugal Norway Austria1 Slovak Republic Italy2 France Slovenia Sweden Belgium OECD average Czech Republic United Kingdom Switzerland 1. Year of reference 2006. 2. Year of reference 2004. Countries are ranked in descending order of the proportion of adults expressing interpersonal trust among those who have attained upper secondary education. Source: www.oecd.org/edu/eag2010 32
    33. 33. Incremental differences in interpersonal trust associated with an increase in the level of educational attainment (2008) From below upper secondary to upper From upper secondary to secondary tertiary Group 1 Slovenia Sweden Estonia Poland France Spain Norway Belgium Ireland11. Year of reference 2006. Switzerland2. Year of reference 2004.Countries are grouped by those in Netherlandswhich the incremental differences Hungaryin interpersonal trust are higher ata higher level of education (Group Portugal1) and others (Group 2). Countries Turkeyare ranked in descending order ofthe incremental differences ininterpersonal trust associated witha shift from upper secondary totertiary education attainment. Group 2 Denmark United Kingdom Israel Finland Italy2 Austria1 Czech Republic Greece Slovak Republic % 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 % 33
    34. 34. 65 Turkey Austria% students entering humanities and social Poland 60 Netherlands Belgium Denmark 55 Switzerland Italy Hungary Norway Sweden sciences Czech Rep Portugal 50 UK Spain Slovak Rep 45 40 Ireland Finland 35 -0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 Added value of HE in interpersonal trust 34
    35. 35. Conclusions• Innovation strategies should have a more comprehensive look at the skills base and should make better use of the available talents and skills, including of women• Rapidly changing skills demand has an impact on all higher education programmes, including humanities and social science• Also graduates with a humanities or social sciences qualification end up becoming innovators 35
    36. 36. Conclusions• Humanities and social sciences have probably a particularly significant contribution to the development of specific skills for innovation• Some pedagogies have a differentiated impact on innovation skills• Also social capital matters for innovation and both probably share some (soft) skills• But there is little evidence that more humanities students also increases the added value of higher education in the production of social capital 36
    37. 37. Thank you !dirk.vandamme@oecd.org www.oecd.org/edu/ceri 37

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