21st century learners demand post industrial education systems

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21st century learners demand post industrial education systems

  1. 1. 21ST-CENTURY LEARNERS DEMAND POST-INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION SYSTEMS Dirk Van DammeHead of the Innovation and Measuring Progress division – OECD/EDU
  2. 2. SOME REFLECTIONS ON TIME AND CHANGE IN EDUCATION1 2
  3. 3. “Education is only the image and reflectionof society. It imitates and reproduces thelatter…it does not create it”Emile Durkheim “Education is a social process. Education is growth. Education is not a preparation for life; education is life itself” John Dewey 3
  4. 4. Time, continuity, change• Durkheim – and „reproduction theories‟ after him – sees education as a kind of „condensation‟ of a society‟s history, social structure etc., thus following social change• John Dewey – and progressive educators in his footsteps – see education as driving social change by stressing the transformative capacities of education 4
  5. 5. Questions• Designing 21st Century education systems: – Expansion: “more of the same”? – Regression: „taylorism‟, tightening control, raising productivity and efficiency by standardisation – Transformation: innovative learning systems approach to education• How can best performing systems help us to identify challenges and solutions? 5
  6. 6. INDUSTRIAL AND POST-INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION SYSTEMS: SKILLS & PEDAGOGY1 6
  7. 7. Industrial and post-industrial education compared skills and pedagogy Industrial Post-industrialCognitive skills Cognitive & non-cognitive skillsDiscipline CharacterRoutine skills Non-routine skillsCurriculum centred Skills centredLinear concepts of learning Non-linearity„Learning to the test‟ „Joy of learning‟ Continuum from formal toFormal education centred informal learningEvidence-poor teaching and Evidence-rich teaching andlearning environments learning environmentsPedagogy for selection of few Pedagogy of success of all 7
  8. 8. Cognitive skills matter for life (OECD/PIAAC data)Odds ratios Has fair to poor health2.6 Does not volunteer for2.4 charity or non-profit organizations2.2 Poor understanding of political issues facing2.0 country1.8 Poor level of general trust1.6 Higher propensity of1.4 believing people try to take of advantage of others1.2 Lower propensity to reciprocate1.0 Level 5 Level 4 Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Poor political efficacyOdds are adjusted for age, gender, and immigration status. 8
  9. 9. But non-cognitive skills matter as well (OECD/ESP data) Causal effects of skills on health 1 0.9 0.8 ∆Standard deviation 0.7 0.6 0.5 Alcohol dependency 0.4 Obesity 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Cognitive skills Non-cognitive skills ∆standard deviation in outcomes due to ∆standard deviation of skills 9Source: ZEW 2012
  10. 10. Changing skill demand Economy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution Routine manual 65 60 Nonroutine manual 55 Routine cognitive 50 45 Nonroutine analytic 40 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Nonroutine interactive Source: Levy and Murnane, 2005 10
  11. 11. Critical skills for the most innovative jobs Likelihood (odds ratios) of reporting the following job requirements: people in the most innovative jobs vs. least innovative jobs come with news ideas/solutions 2.97 acquire new knowledge 2.44 willingness to question ideas 2.34 alertness to opportunities 2.24 present ideas in audience 2.18 analytical thinking 2.15 master of your own field 2.11 coordinate activities 2.05write and speak a foreign language 2.02 use computers and internet 2.00 make your meaning clear 1.99 use time efficiently 1.98 mobilize capacities of others 1.97 work productively with others 1.95 write reports or documents 1.94 perform under pressure 1.81 knowledge of other fields 1.76 negociate 1.76 assert your authority 1.56 1.00 2.00 4.00 Source: OECD, based on REFLEX and HEGESCO data 11
  12. 12. Science scores and interest in science are not always fostered simultaneously 640 LOW SCORE HIGH SCORE HIGH INTEREST HIGH INTEREST 620 MEX IDN 600 BRA CHL 580Interest in science score PRT 560 GRC 540 TUR RUS ESP HKG ITA MAC FRA 520 SVK DEU HUN ISR LUX AUT SVN JPN 500 POL BEL CHE EST CZE KOR 480 USA IRL NOR CAN ISL GBR AUS 460 DNK NZL LOW SCORE FIN HIGH SCORE SWE LOW INTEREST NLD LOW INTEREST 440 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 PISA 2006 Science score 12
  13. 13. Pedagogies matter... OECD/PISA 2006 data Science score Interest in Science score 0.3 0.30.25 0.25 20 0.2 0.2 0.15 0.15 0.1 8 0.10.05 4 1 3 0.05 6 0 -1 -2 -2-0.05 0 0 -2 -1 -1 -0.1 -10 -0.05-0.15 -0.1 -0.15 application hands-on interaction investigation 13
  14. 14. Inadequate concepts• Technology? – Innovative pedagogies will be technology-rich, but technology is a tool, not a goal in itself – Technology can also lead to regressive pedagogy• From teaching to learning? – Also post-industrial education will need strong professionalised support – Autonomous learning can be very ineffective• From schooling to learning? – De-institutionalisation of learning is not an option – 21st century learning needs strong institutional frameworks 14
  15. 15. INDUSTRIAL AND POST-INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION SYSTEMS: ORGANISATION2 15
  16. 16. Industrial and post-industrial education compared organisation Industrial Post-industrialEducational provision Supported learningStandardisation and uniformity Personalisation and flexibilityFocused on the median Fostering all talentsConfined in time and space Time and space independentBureaucratic control Devolved local responsibilityVertical accountability Horizontal accountabilityCapacity at the top Capacity at point of deliveryReform by prescription Schools and teachers reformTeachers as administrators Teachers as professionalsManagement Leadership 16
  17. 17. Accountability Vertical Regulatory accountability School performance accountability 17
  18. 18. Accountability Professional accountabilityHorizontal Multiple stakeholder accountability 18
  19. 19. INDUSTRIAL AND POST-INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION SYSTEMS: SYSTEM3 19
  20. 20. Industrial and post-industrial education compared system Industrial Post-industrialWeak research evidence base Strong research evidence baseWeak innovation in education Very innovative education sectorLow knowledge dynamics High knowledge dynamicsSchools as services Schools as learning organisations 20
  21. 21. Research as engine of innovation 21
  22. 22. Education is poor in innovating technology and tools70 Sector innovation index for process, instruments and tools6050 4140 35.63020100 Source: Paul (2007) 22
  23. 23. New teachers act not as innovators in the profession (OECD/TALIS data) Constructivist beliefs - Experienced teachers Constructivist beliefs - New teachers Direct transmission beliefs - Experienced teachers Direct transmission beliefs - New teachers 0.5Ipsative means 0.0 -0.5 Italy Denmark Hungary Estonia Austria* Spain Portugal Norway Poland* Turkey* Ireland* Brazil Lithuania Malaysia Malta Slovak Republic Iceland Australia Korea Bulgaria Slovenia Mexico Belgium (Fl.)* 23
  24. 24. Thank you !dirk.vandamme@oecd.org www.oecd.org/edu/ceritwitter @VanDammeEDU 24

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