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Ww2 pp (goes with chart)


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Ww2 pp (goes with chart)

  1. 1. S World War 2
  2. 2. S People of WW2
  3. 3. Allies vs. Axis S Allies S Britain (Churchill) S France (Charles de Gaulle) S USSR (Stalin) S China (Kai-shek, nationalists) S US (FDR) SAxis S Germany (Hitler) S Italy (Mussolini) S Japan (Yamamoto)
  4. 4. Charles de Gaulle S =French general S After France fell, he committed to re-conquer France S Organized the Free French military forces that battled the Nazis until France was liberated in 1944 S Often arrogant, declared, “I am France” S Upset many Allied leader
  5. 5. Winston Churchill S=prime minister of Great Britain S Declared “We shall never surrender!” S Strong opposed of Nazi Germany S His speeches & radio broadcasts gave confidence to the British people S Battle of Britain
  6. 6. Isoroku Yamamoto S=Japanese Admiral S Greatest Japanese naval strategist S Called for the attack on Pearl Harbor after FDR cut off oil supplies to Japan
  7. 7. Douglas MacArthur S=US commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific S Devised the plan of “island hopping” to regain Japanese strongholds S Following the surrender of Japan after the dropping of the atomic bombs, MacArthur helped occupy Japan to restore order
  8. 8. Erwin Rommel S =German General S When Britain took a strong hold in Italy’s North African colonies, Rommel was sent it as help from Germany (Axis ally) S British were surprised and were kicked back to Libya- the battle winners went back & forth until Rommel finally won in 1942 S His success gave him the nick name “Desert Fox”
  9. 9. Bernard Montgomery S=British General S Sent to take control of British forces in North Africa S Battle of El Alamein= British frontal assault to the Germans in Africa; British won
  10. 10. Dwight D. Eisenhower S= US General S Led Allied forces (mostly Americans) to regain North Africa- “Operation Torch” S Later will become President
  11. 11. Joseph Stalin & Soviet Union S Russia Soviet Union, 1922, communist state S Lenin dies in 1924 Stalin takes power
  12. 12. Stalin S Stalin means “man of steel” S Goal: Create a model communist state S Goal: Move Russia from a rural  industrial state S All economic activity was placed under the government’s control S By 1937, the Soviet Union became the world’s second-largest industrial power
  13. 13. Stalin S Stalin eliminated anyone that stood in his way S Stalin is estimated to be responsible for 8 to 13 million deaths (total is not known) S AND millions more died from a result of famine when reconstructing the Soviet Union
  14. 14. Stalin S Totalitarian Government= S government that exerts complete control over its citizens. S Individuals have no rights S Government suppresses all opposition
  15. 15. Fascism in Italy S Benito Mussolini and totalitarian government in Italy S Mussolini appealed to Italy’s wounded national pride and strikes by workers “Italy wants peace, work, and calm. I will give these things with love I possible, with force if necessary.” Benito Mussolini
  16. 16. Fascism SFascism= S stressed nationalism and places the interests of the state above those of individuals S Power must rest with the strong single leader and a small group of his devoted followers
  17. 17. Mussolini S Mussolini marches on Rome with his followers (“Black Shirts”) and eventually the Italian King appointed Mussolini head of the government S IL Duce- “the leader”
  18. 18. The Nazis Take Over Germany
  19. 19. S Born: April 20, 1889 in Austria- Hungary S Poor student who never completed high school S He applied to the Academy of
  20. 20. He was convinced that it was a Jewish professor that had rejected his art work; he became convinced that a Jewish doctor had been responsible for his mother’s death; he cleared the snow-bound paths of beautiful town houses in Vienna where rich people lived and he became convinced that only Jews lived in these homes. By 1910, his mind
  21. 21. S Hitler served in WWI S In 1919 he joined the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi) S Didn’t believe in Democracy or failed Capitalism of the West S Want to distribute wealth more equally
  22. 22. Adolf Hitler S After WW1, Hitler was a jobless soldier S 1919, he joined the Nationalist Socialist German Worker’s Party aka Nazi Party (had no ties to Socialism) S He was a powerful speaker and organizer that he became the party’s leader
  23. 23. S In 1923, Hitler led in uprising in Munich against the Weimar Republic S Imprisoned for 8 months (sentenced
  24. 24. Mein Kampf S Hitler’s book, “My Stuggle,” set forth his basic beliefs of Nazism that became his plan of action
  25. 25. S 1933, The legislature anointed Hitler dictator, der Fuhrer S Soon he declared all labor unions and political parties illegal except his own S Established the Gestapo= powerful police force
  26. 26. Nazism S Nazism= S German brand of fascism S Extreme nationalism S United all German-speaking people in a great German empire
  27. 27. NaziIdeolog S Anti-Semitism S Nationalism S Militarism S Anti-communism
  28. 28. “Purification” S Enforce racial “purification” S In his view, Germans (especially blue-eyed, blond-haired “Aryans”)- formed a “master race” S “Inferior Races”= Jews, Slavs, and all nonwhites, were only fit to serve Aryans
  29. 29. S Hitler believed that for Germany to thrive S Germans needed more “living space” even if that meant getting that land by force S Because of Germany’s economic depression after WW1, Hitler had an easy time getting men to join the army (Why?- needed jobs) S Hitler’s private army= Storm Troopers or Brown Shirts
  30. 30. S By 1932, Nazis had become the strongest political party in Germany S In 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor (prime minister) S Hitler soon dismantled Germany’s democratic government and established the Third Reich (Third German Empire) and this Reich would last 1,000 years
  31. 31. S Battles & Attacks
  32. 32. The Battle of Britain S Germans attacked Britain by air (Germany knew they couldn’t compete with their navy) S For 2 months, Germans bombed Britain everyday S RAF (Britain’s Royal Air Force) fought back and with the help of the radar, Germany eventually called off their invasion Churchill said in praise of the RAF pilots, “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.”
  33. 33. Japan S Hideki Tojo- chief of Japan’s army, launched invasion of China S British were too busy with Hitler to block Japanese expansion S Only the US and its Pacific islands remained in the way S Japan took over bases in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos S US protested by cutting off trade with Japan S Japan couldn’t survive without the oil from the US….this meant war
  34. 34. Peace Talks are Questioned S Tojo met with emperor Hirohito and promised that their government would attempt to preserve peace with Americans S But, Tojo ordered the navy to prepare for an attack on the US
  35. 35. Hints of an Attack S US military broke Japan’s secret communication codes and learned Japan was preparing for an attack. S US didn’t know where attack would be S FDR sent “war warnings” to Hawaii, Guam and Philippines S US didn’t want to attack and thus waited for an overt act S Japan denied any talks of peace treaties
  36. 36. Pearl Harbor S 6 Japanese aircraft carriers, 180 air bombers S Radio operator flashed this message, “Air raid on Pearl Harbor. This is not a drill.” S For an hour and a half, the Japanese planes attacked without disturbance of US S Americans killed: 2,403 S Wounded: 1,178 S Ships Sunk/Damaged: 21, 8 Battleships S Pearl Harbor had more losses than in all of WW1
  37. 37. S
  38. 38. Reaction to Pearl Harbor S “Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date with will live in infamy, the Japanese launched an unprovoked and dastardly attack.”-FDR S US declared war on Japan S Germany and Italy declared war on US
  39. 39. Battle of Midway S Midway= island that lies northwest of Hawaii S Americans broke the Japanese code and knew they were attacking Midway S Allied forces attacked Japanese before they could even get planes off their carriers S Seen as revenge of Pearl Harbor S This battle was a turning point S Allies then began “island hopping” and gaining back island after island of lost territory back from the Japanese and
  40. 40. Guadalcanal S Japanese troops arrived on Guadalcanal (located in the Solomon Islands) to construct an air base S Taken the the US marines S Became a turning point in the war S Strategically it was important was a communication point between the US & Australia
  41. 41. Battle of StalingradS Germans were attacking Soviet Union S Stalingrad= major industrial center, and a city that Hitler wanted to wipe out S Citizens wanted to abandon the city, but Stalin ordered that they defend his namesake city no matter what S By the next winter, Germans controlled 9/10 of the city S During winter Soviets brought in fresh tanks and trapped the Germans S Starving Germans surrendered S Soviets lost 1,100,000 soldiers (more than the Americans in the entire war) defending Stalingrad S From then on, Soviets took control and moved west
  42. 42. D-Day S 3 million British, American and Canadian troops S Attack at Normandy in northern France S Code Name: Operation Overlord S June 6, 1944 S Shortly after midnight, thousands landed S Largest land-sea-air operation in army history
  43. 43. D-day S German retaliation brutal, especially on Omaha Beach S “People were yelling, screaming, dying, running on the beach, equipment was flying everywhere, men were bleeding to death, crawling, lying everywhere, firing coming from all directions…We dropped down behind anything that was the size of a golf ball.” – soldier Felix Branham
  44. 44. S
  45. 45. S
  46. 46. The Battle of the Bulge S =Hitler’s last ditch effort on the offensive S SS Germans soldiers pushed forward S Captured 120 GI’s and shot them down in a huge field S Germans lost 120,000 troops, 600 tanks and 1,600 planes-soldiers and weapons they could not replace S From this point on, the Nazis could do little but retreat
  47. 47. S
  48. 48. S
  49. 49. Japanese Defense S Kamikaze= suicide planes (word means “divine winds” and refers to a legendary typhoon that saved Japan in 1281 from a Mongol invasion)
  50. 50. The Manhattan Project S =Led by scientist, J. Robert Oppenheimner S =development of the atomic bomb S More than 600,000 people were working on it, but many did not know what it was for (“best kept secret of the war”) S Tested in New Mexico in July of 1945 S IT WORKED!
  51. 51. The Manhattan Project S Truman now faced the decision…to use the atomic bomb or not S US warned Japanese that it faced “prompt and utter destruction” unless it surrendered…it did not. S President Truman choose the location of the bomb droppings
  52. 52. Hiroshima & Nagasaki S Bomber, Enola Gay, released an atomic bomb, coded Little Boy, over Hiroshima (Japanese military center) S 45 seconds later, nearly every building in Hiroshima ceased to exist S Japan did not surrender S 3 days later, a second bomb, code- named, Fat Man, was dropped on Nagasaki S By the end of the year, 200,000 Japanese had died as a result of injuries and radiation
  53. 53. Yamaoka Michiko: S “They say temperature of 7,000 degrees centigrade hit me…Nobody there looked like human beings…Humans had lost the ability to speak. People couldn‟t scream, „it hurts!‟ even when they were on fire…People with their legs wrenched off. Without heads. Or with faces burned or swollen out of shape. The scene I saw was a living hell.”
  54. 54. Japanese Surrender SSeptember 2, 1945 SSurrender ceremonies took place on the US battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay
  55. 55. S Political Move & Techniques
  56. 56. Nonaggression Pact S =signed 10 year agreement between USSR (Stalin) and Nazi Germany (Hitler) S Signed because Stalin was not happy about not being invited to conferences with the west S In a secret agreement they decided to divide Poland between them. S Also agreed that the USSR could take over: Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia
  57. 57. Blitzkrieg in Poland S Germany storms Poland S Germany’s newest military strategy, blitzkrieg, or lightning war (fast tanks, powerful aircraft, take enemy by surprise and then quickly crush the opposition) S 2 days after the attack on Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany
  58. 58. Atlantic Charter S Atlantic Charter= promises between Churchill & FDR (collective security, disarmament, economic cooperation and freedom of seas) S FDR said he couldn’t ask Congress for a declaration of war against Germany, but that he would do everything to “force an incident”
  59. 59. The Holocaust S Persecution Begins S Hitler’s first move: ordered all “non-Aryans” to be removed from government jobs SHolocaust= the systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than ½ of whom were Jews
  60. 60. Jews Targeted S Anti-Semitism= hatred of Jews, had a long history in many European countries S For many decades, Germans blamed Jews for everything S Nuremberg Laws= stripped Jews of their German citizenship, jobs and property
  61. 61. Stars of David S To make them easier to identify, Jews had to wear a bright yellow Star of David attached to their clothing
  62. 62. Kristallnacht S =“Night of Broken Glass” S Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues across Germany S Many were killed or arrested S Later, the Nazis blamed the Jews for the destruction
  63. 63. A Flood of Jewish Refugees S Many Jews fled and became refugees but they had no place to go S France would only accept 40,000, Britain, 80,000 refugees S Many countries feared what would happened if they let Jewish refugees in. S The US let in 100,000 refugees, but many Americans were fearful that the immigrants would hurt the economy more during the Great Depression (ie: Albert Einstein led it)
  64. 64. Plight of the St. Louis S Coast guard refused to let this German ocean liner (filled with Jewish refugees) stop in America and forced them to return to Europe. S Later, ½ of these passengers were killed in the Holocaust S Significance: Indifference (not caring) about the plight of the Jews
  65. 65. Hitler’s “Final Solution” S “Final Solution”= a policy of genocide, the deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population
  66. 66. The Condemned S “Master Race”= Aryans S “Inferior Race”= S Communists S Socialists S Liberals S Homosexuals S Gypsies S Jews S Anyone who spoke out against the Nazi government S Mentally deficient and ill, physically disabled, incurably ill S Freemasons (supporters of the “Jewish conspiracy” to rule the world) S Jehovah’s Witnesses (who refused to join the army or salute Hitler)
  67. 67. SS S Rounded up Jewish men, woman and children and shot them on the spot S Nazi death squads “secret squadrons”
  68. 68. Forced Relocation S Forced in crowded ghettos (segregated Jewish areas in certain Polish cities) S Nazis sealed off ghettos with barbed wire and stone walls S Conditions were hard inside S Bodies of victims pilled in the streets S Forced to work in factories
  69. 69. Concentration Camps S =labor camps S Originally used for political opponents and protesters, but later turned over to the SS S Crowded in barracks, meager meals, rats and flees, worked from dawn to dusk S If you were too weak, you were killed “The brute Schmidt was our guard; he beat and kicked us if he thought we were not working fast enough. He ordered his victims to lie down and gave them 25 lashes with a whip, ordering them to count outloud. If the victim made a mistake he was given 50 lashes…30 or 40 of us were shot every day. A doctor usually prepared a daily list o the weakest men. During the lunch break they were taken to a nearby grave and shot. They were replaced the following morning by new arrivals from the transport of the day…It was a miracle if anyone survived for 5 or 6 months in Belzec.” –Rudolf
  70. 70. The Final Stage S Mass murder: slaughter, starvation and now murder by poison gas S Gas Chambers: could kill 12,000 a day S Overwork, starvation, beating and bullets did not kill fast enough
  71. 71. Arriving at the Camps S When prisoners arrived, doctors determined whether they were strong enough to work or not S Personal belongings were collected, promised that they would be returned later
  72. 72. Showers S Weak were told to undress and go to the “showers” (gas chambers) S Prisoners were even given a bar of soap as part of the deception S Poisoned with cyanide gas that came from the vents in the walls S Orchestras of fellow camp inmates were usually played during exterminations
  73. 73. Evidence of Mass Murder S Graves were being filled too fast S Smell of murder S Huge crematoriums, or ovens, to hide the evidence
  74. 74. S
  75. 75. The Survivors S 6 Million died S Some able to live through the concentration camps S Survivors were forever changed by what they witnessed S “Survival is both an exalted privilege an a painful burden.” Gerda Klein
  76. 76. Liberation of Death Camps
  77. 77. Internment of Japanese Americans S After Pearl Harbor, prejudice increased against Japanese Americans S War Department called for a mass evacuation of Japanese from Hawaii S Internment= confinement S Any of Japanese ancestry from California, Washington, Oregon and Arizona were sent to relocation camps
  78. 78. Internment of Japanese Americans S Many had to sell their homes for less than they were worth S Jobs lost S Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) pushed the government to compensate those sent to the camps (only 1/1o of $ lost was given) S JACL kept pushing and in 1978, Reagan signed a bill giving $20,000 to every Japanese American sent to relocation camp S With the check came a letter from President Bush (1990) that said, “We can never fully right the wrongs of the past. But we can take a clear stand for justice and recognize that serious injustices were done to Japanese Americans during WW2.”
  79. 79. S Effects/End of War/Treaty
  80. 80. Displaced People/Survivors S = included survivors of the concentration camps, prisoners of war, and refugees S All of them found themselves in wrong countries when postwar treaties changed national borders S Many wandered in hopes of finding their families and/or a safe place to live
  81. 81. Conditions in Europe Postwar S Destroyed land S Agriculture destroyed S Transportation systems destroyed S Famine & disease
  82. 82. The Nuremberg War Trials S With the discovery of the death camps, many Nazi leaders were put on trial (called Nuremberg Trials) S Following Crimes S Crimes against the peace- planning and waging an aggressive war S War Crimes- acts against the customs of warfare, such as killing of hostages and prisoners, plundering private property and the destruction of towns and cities S Crimes Against Humanity- the murder, extermination, deportation, or enslavement of civilians RESULT: the excuse “I was just following orders” did not matter, and that people are responsible for their actions, even during war
  83. 83. S
  84. 84. Occupation of Japan S US forces occupied Japan under General Douglas MacArthur (for 7 years) S Many Japanese military leaders were tried, some, including Tojo, were sentenced to death S MacArthur instituted a free-market economy and transformed the Japanese government, including the Japanese Constitution (which is still known as the MacArthur Constitution)
  85. 85. Demilitarize & Democratize S Demilitarize= disbanding the Japanese armed forces, leaving them only a small police force S Democratize= creating a government by the people, new constitution S *MacArthur was not instructed to revive the economy