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Nationalism ww iand ii


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Nationalism ww iand ii

  1. 1. Modern Europe Emerges… Industrial Revolution, World War I, and World War II Notes
  2. 2. Age of Imperialism <ul><li>During the late 1800s, European nations took over other countries and turned them into colonies (“Imperialism”) </li></ul><ul><li>European nations colonized other countries to get more money and raw materials. </li></ul><ul><li>European nations took over Africa, Southeast Asia, and many South Pacific Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>Struggles among these nations eventually bring disaster to Europe. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Nationalism <ul><li>By the 1900s, many people in Europe took great pride in their countries. </li></ul><ul><li>This strong sense of “nationalism” was one of the causes of World War I and II. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Destructive nationalism caused nations to harm one another in the struggle to get ahead. Also, it prevents nations from working together. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Australian war propaganda poster
  5. 6. England War Poster
  6. 8. Alliances <ul><li>During the early 1900s, European nations feared one another—afraid others would invade/take over their land </li></ul><ul><li>To protect themselves, they created “alliances” (partnerships) where they agreed to protect each other if someone else attacks them. </li></ul>
  7. 9. Two Major Alliances During World War I (1914) Germany Great Britain Austria-Hungary France Italy Russia
  8. 10. World War I <ul><li>The spark to start a war: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fighting: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lasted 4 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Industrial Revolution helped in new types of Warfare </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machine guns, tanks, airplanes and poison gas. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>21 million people died. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Archduke Franz Ferdinand
  10. 12. World War I… <ul><li>End of the War: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>September 1918: Allies were able to push Germans out of occupied territory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new map of Europe was created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany was forced to pay for cities destroyed throughout Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Millions were homeless, this war created a worldwide depression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War changed how people looked at the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US President Wilson created a fourteen point plan that called for a League of Nations, which would help with peace throughout the world. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Weapons
  12. 14. Trench Warfare
  13. 15. Mustard Gas…
  14. 16. World War II… <ul><li>Beginnings of War: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After WWI there was a worldwide depression. Tensions arose between countries. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Two Major Alliances During World War II (1939) Axis Powers Allied Powers Germany Great Britain Japan United States Italy Russia
  16. 18. Axis Powers <ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adolf Hitler became Chancellor in 1933. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1936 began invading European countries. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1939 marked the start of WWII. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nazism: belief and practice of Nazi’s. Superior race. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benito Mussolini </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offered “A little something for everyone” to gain support. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dreamed of Mediterranean empire. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1940 Mussolini declared war on Great Britain and France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fascism: a political idea that glorifies a country. Single party with a strong ruler and aggressive nationalism. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1940 decided to expand empire to east. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>December 7, 1941 attacked US troops in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dec. 8, 1941 US declared war on Japan </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Adolf Hitler
  18. 20. Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini
  19. 21. USS Arizona: Pearl Harbor Attack
  20. 22. Japanese Airplane
  21. 23. Allied Powers <ul><ul><li>Great Britain, France, US, China, Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US: Roosevelt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain: Churchill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviets: Stalin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These leaders met to discuss the war. Set a day to attack Germany. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin
  23. 25. Turning Points… <ul><ul><li>Stalingrad: 1942. Germany was in the Soviet Union heading toward Stalingrad. Soviets fought back and Germans surrendered in 1943. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D-Day: June 1944 in Normandy, France. Attack on Germans by US and G.B troops. It was a success. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Troops Preparing to Fight: D-Day
  25. 27. End of World War II… <ul><ul><li>May 7, 1944 Germany surrendered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan refused to surrender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harry Truman now US president. Decided to use Atomic bomb on Japan. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>August 6, 1945 Hiroshima </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>August 9, 1945 Nagasaki </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>August 14, 1945 Japan surrendered. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Harry S. Truman
  27. 29. Enola Gay
  28. 30. “ Little Boy” – The Atomic Bomb Dropped Over Hiroshima
  29. 31. Atomic Bomb Dropped Over Nagasaki
  30. 32. Nagasaki – after the atomic bomb
  31. 33. Survivors of Nagasaki
  32. 34. Hiroshima (after A-bomb)
  33. 37. ? <ul><li>How did nationalism change Europe? </li></ul>
  34. 38. Holocaust <ul><ul><li>--Mass murder of Jews and Gypsies and other ethnic groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 million total killed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1945 full horrors of camps discovered by troops. </li></ul><ul><li>(See Holocaust Powerpoint for more pictures) </li></ul>