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Low-emission food systems - moving from policies to practice in Vietnam

Presented by Mai Van Trinh (Director General of Institute for Agriculture Environment (IAE), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) at "Low-emission food system development in the Mekong Delta: Opportunities, challenges and future pathways", 7 November 2023, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam

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07/11/2023
Mai Van Trinh: Institute for Agricultural Environment (IAE)
Low-emission food systems – moving from policies to
practice in Vietnam
Low-emission food system development in the Mekong Delta:
Opportunities challenges and future pathways
Content
 GHG emission from Vietnam agriculture
 Sources of GHG emission
 Low emission activities
 Practices
 Policies on low emission food system
 Practice – Policies – Practices
 Future pathways
 Conclusions
Low-emission food system development in the Mekong Delta:
Opportunities. challenges and future pathways
1
2
07/11/2023
GHG emission from Vietnam agriculture
GHG emission (1000 tons CO2e/yr)
Emission source
Predicted 2030
Predicted 2020
2014
112,165.4
104,507.6
89,751.8
22,212..5
18,842.5
10,200.6
4A. Enteric fermentation
14,093.7
12,099.5
8,863.4
4B. Manure management
41,535.5
41,891.2
44,294.6
4C. Rice cultivation
32,195.0
29,281.5
23,955.5
4D. Agricultural soil
1.0
1.0
1.0
4E. Savanna burning
2,127.6
2,391.8
2,436.7
4F. Agricultural residue burning
Sources of GHG emission
3
4
07/11/2023
GHG emission in the food systems
Consumption
Supply chain
Production
Preproduction
Energy for:
 Production of
seed/fertilizer/che
mical/food for
animal &
aquaculture and
materials
 Land preparation,
transport materials
for production
Direct & indirect emission:
 CH4 from rice cultivation
 Direct & indirect emission N2O
from soil, fertilizer & organics
 CO2 from lime & Urea apply
 Enteric fermentation (CH4)
 Manure management (CH4 &
N2O)
 Heating & cooling animal
 Deforestation
 Aquaculture food waste
 Oxygen injection & waste/water
processing
 Harvesting & harvest lost
Energy for:
 Cleaning product
 Drying
 Transporting
 Processing
 Cooling
 Packaging
 Environmental
treatment
 …
Energy for:
 Processing
 Storing
 Cooking
 Environmental
treatment
CO2 CO2 + CH4 + N2O CO2
CO2 + CH4
+ N2O
Low emission activities
Emission reduction activities in agriculture
1. Mid-seaon drainage for rice
2. Alternative Wet and Dry Irigation for rice
3. Convert low effcient rice to Rice-shrimp
4. Convert low effcient rice to uplan crops (horticulture, industrial, fruit tree crops)
5. Improve diet for cattle (fatting)
6. Circular animal waste, crop residues & food processing/waste for organic manure
7. Intergrated Crop Management (ICM: reduce seed, water, fertilizer, chemicals...
8. High technology: drip irrigation, follow plant uptake fertilization...
9. Smart fertilizer: slow release, controlled compound fertilizer
10. Cicular aquaculture water
11. Bio-energy: Gas, heat, electricity
12. Stop/reduce burning
13. Increase Carbon sequestration: apply organic material/biochar, plant penerial crops, forestation, improve forest quality
14. Reduce fosil fuels: enhance machine capacity and energy use efficiency
15. Substitute by win and solar energy
5
6
07/11/2023
Dry the field
Conventional practices
 Stop inefficient tillering
 Strong stem, avoid falling
 Higher pest tolerance
 Mineralize, increase plant
available nutrient
 Filled/hard and bright grain
Rice - Shrimp
 Remove 1 rice season
 Adapt salinity
 Organic rice + Organic shrimp
 Higher rice & shrimp price
 High income
 No pest & disease
Upland crops
 Remove all rice
 Adapt water shortage
 Introduce new crops
 Diversify products & Bio
 Higher income
 Higher adaptability
Efficient use crop residues
 Reuse of crop residue
 Reduce chemical fertilizer
 Improve soil fertility
 Enhance soil productivity
 Sustainable farming
In cooperated rice straw to soil
 Reused high mass of rice straw
 Reduce chemical fertilizer
 Avoid open burning
 Start crop season in right time
Fattening cattle
 Increase growth rate
 Higher meat & milk yield
 Shorten the raising cycle
 Enhance disease tolerance
 Increase income
Policies on low emission food system
2011 2012 2015 2016 2020 2022
MARD’s plan on
emission
reduction in
agriculture
(3119/QĐ-BNN)
Green grow
strategy & green
grow action plan
(1393 & 403/QĐ-
TTg)
INDC
(2015)
MARD’s Plan for
respond to climate
change
(DC 7208/QĐ-
BNN)
NDC
(2020)
Organic farming
(885/QĐ-TTg)
Updated NDC
(2022)
Methane emission
reduction plan
(942/QĐ-TTg)
Green grow action
plan
(882/QĐ-TTg)
7
8
07/11/2023
NDC 2020
Price of
technology
(USD/tons
CO2e)
Potential
reduction
(mil. Tons
CO2e)
Scale
applied
(1000 ha)
Potential
reduction
(tons
CO2e/ha)
Mitigation options
39.59
0.94
200
-4.7
A1 (3). AWD irrigation & SRI for full invested Infrastructure
30.00
3.20
1000
-3.2
A2 (16). Mid-season drainage
-293.20
1.31
200
-6.54
A3: Convert low benefit rice to Rice -Shrimp
-0.08
1.43
200
-7.14
A4: Convert low benefit rice to Upland crops
89
0.07
400
-0.168
A5.1 (11). Improve diet for dairy
89
0.33
2000
-0.165
A5.2 (11). Improve diet for cow
89
0.10
500
-0.206
A5.3 (11). Improve diet for buffalo
63.2
0.12
1200
-0.10
A6.1 (8). Circular crop residue for composting
20
0.50
1000
-0.50
A7.1 (5). ICM for rice
25
0.32
1000
-0.32
A7.2 (6). ICM for upland crops
30
5.60
3500
-1.60
A8 (7). Substitute Urea by (NH4)2SO4 and smart fertilizer: slow release, control…
64.96
2.34
500
-4.68
A9.1 (9). AWD irrigation & SRI for medium Infrastructure
94.9
4.68
1000
-4.68
A9.2 (9). AWD irrigation & SRI for poor Infrastructure
124.18
1.71
450
-3.80
A10 (15). Drip irrigation + apply liquid fertilizer
94.92
7.48
44000
-0.17
A11 (17). Circular animal waste for composting
Suggested mitigation in the food systems to lower C food print
Consumption
Supply chain
Production
Preproduction
Energy for:
 Production of
seed/fertilizer/che
mical/food for
animal &
aquaculture and
materials
 Land preparation,
transport materials
for production
Direct & indirect emission:
 CH4 from rice cultivation
 Direct & indirect emission N2O
from soil, fertilizer & organics
 CO2 from lime & Urea apply
 Enteric fermentation (CH4)
 Manure management (CH4 &
N2O)
 Heating & cooling animal
 Deforestation
 Aquaculture food waste
 Oxygen injection & waste/water
processing
 Harvesting & harvest lost
Energy for:
 Cleaning product
 Drying
 Transporting
 Processing
 Cooling
 Packaging
 Environmental
treatment
 …
Energy for:
 Processing
 Storing
 Cooking
 Environmental
treatment
CO2 CO2 + CH4 + N2O CO2
CO2 + CH4
+ N2O
9
10
07/11/2023
Dry the field
Conventional to mitigation practices
 Stop inefficient tillering
 Strong stem, avoid falling
 Higher pest tolerance
 Mineralize, increase plant
available nutrient
 Filled/hard and bright grain
 Reduce GHG emission
Rice - Shrimp
 Remove 1 rice season
 Adapt salinity
 Organic rice + Organic shrimp
 Higher rice & shrimp price
 High income
 No pest & disease
 Reduce GHG emission
Upland crops
 Remove all rice
 Adapt water shortage
 Introduce new crops
 Diversify products & Bio
 Higher income
 Higher adaptability
 Reduce GHG emission
Efficient use crop residues
 Reuse of crop residue
 Reduce chemical fertilizer
 Improve soil fertility
 Enhance soil productivity
 Sustainable farming
 Reduce GHG emission
In cooperated rice straw to soil
 Reused high mass of rice straw
 Reduce chemical fertilizer
 Avoid open burning
 Start crop season in right time
 Increase GHG emission
Fattening cattle
 Increase growth rate
 Higher meat & milk yield
 Shorten the raising cycle
 Enhance disease tolerance
 Increase income
 Reduce GHG emission
NDC 2020 – Effective mitigation implementation
Price of
technology
(USD/tons
CO2e)
Potential
reduction
(mil. Tons
CO2e)
Scale
applied
(1000 ha)
Potential
reduction
(tons
CO2e/ha)
Mitigation options
39.59
0.94
200
-4.7
A1 (3). AWD irrigation & SRI for full invested Infrastructure
30.00
3.20
1000
-3.2
A2 (16). Mid-season drainage
-293.20
1.31
200
-6.54
A3: Convert low benefit rice to Rice -Shrimp
-0.08
1.43
200
-7.14
A4: Convert low benefit rice to Upland crops
89
0.07
400
-0.168
A5.1 (11). Improve diet for dairy
89
0.33
2000
-0.165
A5.2 (11). Improve diet for cow
89
0.10
500
-0.206
A5.3 (11). Improve diet for buffalo
63.2
0.12
1200
-0.10
A6.1 (8). Circular crop residue for composting
20
0.50
1000
-0.50
A7.1 (5). ICM for rice
25
0.32
1000
-0.32
A7.2 (6). ICM for upland crops
30
5.60
3500
-1.60
A8 (7). Substitute Urea by (NH4)2SO4 and smart fertilizer: slow release, control…
64.96
2.34
500
-4.68
A9.1 (9). AWD irrigation & SRI for medium Infrastructure
94.9
4.68
1000
-4.68
A9.2 (9). AWD irrigation & SRI for poor Infrastructure
124.18
1.71
450
-3.80
A10 (15). Drip irrigation + apply liquid fertilizer
94.92
7.48
44000
-0.17
A11 (17). Circular animal waste for composting
11
12

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Low-emission food systems - moving from policies to practice in Vietnam

  • 1. 07/11/2023 Mai Van Trinh: Institute for Agricultural Environment (IAE) Low-emission food systems – moving from policies to practice in Vietnam Low-emission food system development in the Mekong Delta: Opportunities challenges and future pathways Content  GHG emission from Vietnam agriculture  Sources of GHG emission  Low emission activities  Practices  Policies on low emission food system  Practice – Policies – Practices  Future pathways  Conclusions Low-emission food system development in the Mekong Delta: Opportunities. challenges and future pathways 1 2
  • 2. 07/11/2023 GHG emission from Vietnam agriculture GHG emission (1000 tons CO2e/yr) Emission source Predicted 2030 Predicted 2020 2014 112,165.4 104,507.6 89,751.8 22,212..5 18,842.5 10,200.6 4A. Enteric fermentation 14,093.7 12,099.5 8,863.4 4B. Manure management 41,535.5 41,891.2 44,294.6 4C. Rice cultivation 32,195.0 29,281.5 23,955.5 4D. Agricultural soil 1.0 1.0 1.0 4E. Savanna burning 2,127.6 2,391.8 2,436.7 4F. Agricultural residue burning Sources of GHG emission 3 4
  • 3. 07/11/2023 GHG emission in the food systems Consumption Supply chain Production Preproduction Energy for:  Production of seed/fertilizer/che mical/food for animal & aquaculture and materials  Land preparation, transport materials for production Direct & indirect emission:  CH4 from rice cultivation  Direct & indirect emission N2O from soil, fertilizer & organics  CO2 from lime & Urea apply  Enteric fermentation (CH4)  Manure management (CH4 & N2O)  Heating & cooling animal  Deforestation  Aquaculture food waste  Oxygen injection & waste/water processing  Harvesting & harvest lost Energy for:  Cleaning product  Drying  Transporting  Processing  Cooling  Packaging  Environmental treatment  … Energy for:  Processing  Storing  Cooking  Environmental treatment CO2 CO2 + CH4 + N2O CO2 CO2 + CH4 + N2O Low emission activities Emission reduction activities in agriculture 1. Mid-seaon drainage for rice 2. Alternative Wet and Dry Irigation for rice 3. Convert low effcient rice to Rice-shrimp 4. Convert low effcient rice to uplan crops (horticulture, industrial, fruit tree crops) 5. Improve diet for cattle (fatting) 6. Circular animal waste, crop residues & food processing/waste for organic manure 7. Intergrated Crop Management (ICM: reduce seed, water, fertilizer, chemicals... 8. High technology: drip irrigation, follow plant uptake fertilization... 9. Smart fertilizer: slow release, controlled compound fertilizer 10. Cicular aquaculture water 11. Bio-energy: Gas, heat, electricity 12. Stop/reduce burning 13. Increase Carbon sequestration: apply organic material/biochar, plant penerial crops, forestation, improve forest quality 14. Reduce fosil fuels: enhance machine capacity and energy use efficiency 15. Substitute by win and solar energy 5 6
  • 4. 07/11/2023 Dry the field Conventional practices  Stop inefficient tillering  Strong stem, avoid falling  Higher pest tolerance  Mineralize, increase plant available nutrient  Filled/hard and bright grain Rice - Shrimp  Remove 1 rice season  Adapt salinity  Organic rice + Organic shrimp  Higher rice & shrimp price  High income  No pest & disease Upland crops  Remove all rice  Adapt water shortage  Introduce new crops  Diversify products & Bio  Higher income  Higher adaptability Efficient use crop residues  Reuse of crop residue  Reduce chemical fertilizer  Improve soil fertility  Enhance soil productivity  Sustainable farming In cooperated rice straw to soil  Reused high mass of rice straw  Reduce chemical fertilizer  Avoid open burning  Start crop season in right time Fattening cattle  Increase growth rate  Higher meat & milk yield  Shorten the raising cycle  Enhance disease tolerance  Increase income Policies on low emission food system 2011 2012 2015 2016 2020 2022 MARD’s plan on emission reduction in agriculture (3119/QĐ-BNN) Green grow strategy & green grow action plan (1393 & 403/QĐ- TTg) INDC (2015) MARD’s Plan for respond to climate change (DC 7208/QĐ- BNN) NDC (2020) Organic farming (885/QĐ-TTg) Updated NDC (2022) Methane emission reduction plan (942/QĐ-TTg) Green grow action plan (882/QĐ-TTg) 7 8
  • 5. 07/11/2023 NDC 2020 Price of technology (USD/tons CO2e) Potential reduction (mil. Tons CO2e) Scale applied (1000 ha) Potential reduction (tons CO2e/ha) Mitigation options 39.59 0.94 200 -4.7 A1 (3). AWD irrigation & SRI for full invested Infrastructure 30.00 3.20 1000 -3.2 A2 (16). Mid-season drainage -293.20 1.31 200 -6.54 A3: Convert low benefit rice to Rice -Shrimp -0.08 1.43 200 -7.14 A4: Convert low benefit rice to Upland crops 89 0.07 400 -0.168 A5.1 (11). Improve diet for dairy 89 0.33 2000 -0.165 A5.2 (11). Improve diet for cow 89 0.10 500 -0.206 A5.3 (11). Improve diet for buffalo 63.2 0.12 1200 -0.10 A6.1 (8). Circular crop residue for composting 20 0.50 1000 -0.50 A7.1 (5). ICM for rice 25 0.32 1000 -0.32 A7.2 (6). ICM for upland crops 30 5.60 3500 -1.60 A8 (7). Substitute Urea by (NH4)2SO4 and smart fertilizer: slow release, control… 64.96 2.34 500 -4.68 A9.1 (9). AWD irrigation & SRI for medium Infrastructure 94.9 4.68 1000 -4.68 A9.2 (9). AWD irrigation & SRI for poor Infrastructure 124.18 1.71 450 -3.80 A10 (15). Drip irrigation + apply liquid fertilizer 94.92 7.48 44000 -0.17 A11 (17). Circular animal waste for composting Suggested mitigation in the food systems to lower C food print Consumption Supply chain Production Preproduction Energy for:  Production of seed/fertilizer/che mical/food for animal & aquaculture and materials  Land preparation, transport materials for production Direct & indirect emission:  CH4 from rice cultivation  Direct & indirect emission N2O from soil, fertilizer & organics  CO2 from lime & Urea apply  Enteric fermentation (CH4)  Manure management (CH4 & N2O)  Heating & cooling animal  Deforestation  Aquaculture food waste  Oxygen injection & waste/water processing  Harvesting & harvest lost Energy for:  Cleaning product  Drying  Transporting  Processing  Cooling  Packaging  Environmental treatment  … Energy for:  Processing  Storing  Cooking  Environmental treatment CO2 CO2 + CH4 + N2O CO2 CO2 + CH4 + N2O 9 10
  • 6. 07/11/2023 Dry the field Conventional to mitigation practices  Stop inefficient tillering  Strong stem, avoid falling  Higher pest tolerance  Mineralize, increase plant available nutrient  Filled/hard and bright grain  Reduce GHG emission Rice - Shrimp  Remove 1 rice season  Adapt salinity  Organic rice + Organic shrimp  Higher rice & shrimp price  High income  No pest & disease  Reduce GHG emission Upland crops  Remove all rice  Adapt water shortage  Introduce new crops  Diversify products & Bio  Higher income  Higher adaptability  Reduce GHG emission Efficient use crop residues  Reuse of crop residue  Reduce chemical fertilizer  Improve soil fertility  Enhance soil productivity  Sustainable farming  Reduce GHG emission In cooperated rice straw to soil  Reused high mass of rice straw  Reduce chemical fertilizer  Avoid open burning  Start crop season in right time  Increase GHG emission Fattening cattle  Increase growth rate  Higher meat & milk yield  Shorten the raising cycle  Enhance disease tolerance  Increase income  Reduce GHG emission NDC 2020 – Effective mitigation implementation Price of technology (USD/tons CO2e) Potential reduction (mil. Tons CO2e) Scale applied (1000 ha) Potential reduction (tons CO2e/ha) Mitigation options 39.59 0.94 200 -4.7 A1 (3). AWD irrigation & SRI for full invested Infrastructure 30.00 3.20 1000 -3.2 A2 (16). Mid-season drainage -293.20 1.31 200 -6.54 A3: Convert low benefit rice to Rice -Shrimp -0.08 1.43 200 -7.14 A4: Convert low benefit rice to Upland crops 89 0.07 400 -0.168 A5.1 (11). Improve diet for dairy 89 0.33 2000 -0.165 A5.2 (11). Improve diet for cow 89 0.10 500 -0.206 A5.3 (11). Improve diet for buffalo 63.2 0.12 1200 -0.10 A6.1 (8). Circular crop residue for composting 20 0.50 1000 -0.50 A7.1 (5). ICM for rice 25 0.32 1000 -0.32 A7.2 (6). ICM for upland crops 30 5.60 3500 -1.60 A8 (7). Substitute Urea by (NH4)2SO4 and smart fertilizer: slow release, control… 64.96 2.34 500 -4.68 A9.1 (9). AWD irrigation & SRI for medium Infrastructure 94.9 4.68 1000 -4.68 A9.2 (9). AWD irrigation & SRI for poor Infrastructure 124.18 1.71 450 -3.80 A10 (15). Drip irrigation + apply liquid fertilizer 94.92 7.48 44000 -0.17 A11 (17). Circular animal waste for composting 11 12
  • 7. 07/11/2023 13 VNSat project Tiểu vùng Thượng Tiểu vùng ven Tiểu vùng Giữa ĐT-LA AG-CT-KG-TG ST-HG  Implement 3R3G & 1M5G for reducing GHG emission VNSat project: GHG emission from rice field in different farming levels and sub-regions 9475 7081 7345 14997 11492 11750 6854 5538 5709 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 ĐC 1P5G 3G3T ĐC 1P5G 3G3T ĐC 1P5G 3G3T Tiểu vùng thượng Tiểu vùng giữa Tiểu vùng ven biển kg CO2tđ/ha/yr 13 14
  • 8. 07/11/2023 Created a competition of GHG emission reduction on rice Project ‘Transforming Rice Value Chains for Climate Resilient and Sustainable Development in the Mekong Delta’ (TRVC) 15 16
  • 9. 07/11/2023 1 MILLION HA OF HIGH QUALITY AND LOW CARBON RICE 2. Objectives To 2030 To 2025 Parameters 1,000,000 ha >500,000 ha Area > 40% > 35% Farmer benefit 80 kg/ha 80 kg/ha Reduce seed Reduce 30% fertilizer, 40% chemical 30% Reduce mineral fertilizer and chemical > 30% 30% Reduce irrigation water 100% 80% Applied GAP guideline > 50% > 20% Applied high tech, digital tech 80% 50% Mechanized 100% demand 90% demand Drying & storage capacity < 7% 8% Post harvest lost 90% harvested area 70% harvested area Rice straw collected and treated > 20% > 10% Reduce GHG emission 2,3 million tons (30% project production) 760.000 ton (20% project production) Exported rice in Vietnam trade mark  Rice cultivation, agricultural soils and livestock are high GHG emission sources  Production have high emission and have more emission sources >pre-production  Need to understand well & calculate GHG sources in system, C food print, LCA…  Choose the high potential reduction (activity data & EF) for implementation  In combination of NDC & Methane reduction plan  Carbon storage, sequestration Conclusions 17 18
  • 10. 07/11/2023 Thank you for your attention! 19