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Fuel Cell Powered Cars
and Hydrogen as a Fuel
Glenn Rambach
Fuel Cell Powered Cars
and Hydrogen as a Fuel
Glenn Rambach
Does that thing run on gasoline?
DANG!
I haven’t seen one of those since I was a kid.
Glenn Rambach
Fuel Cell Powered Cars
and Hydrogen as a Fuel
• A picture from the future, where electric vehicles replace
internal combustion vehicles.
Does that thing run on gasoline?
DANG!
I haven’t seen one of those since I was a kid.
Glenn Rambach
Fuel Cell Powered Cars
and Hydrogen as a Fuel
• Our grandchildren will likely see a transition in transportation
as large as our grandparents saw.
• A picture from the future, where electric vehicles replace
internal combustion vehicles.
Does that thing run on gasoline?
DANG!
I haven’t seen one of those since I was a kid.
Glenn Rambach
Fuel Cell Powered Cars
and Hydrogen as a Fuel
BASICS
1) Something to store energy.
➢ Gasoline tank
➢ Battery
➢ Pressurized gas tank
2) Something to convert the stored energy to
useful power.
➢ Piston engine
➢ Battery
➢ Fuel cell
3) Something to transfer power to wheels.
➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles
➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor
Vehicle Power Train Architectures
Three Basic Elements
wires
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
1) Something to store energy.
➢ Gasoline tank
➢ Battery
➢ Pressurized gas tank
2) Something to convert the stored energy to
useful power.
➢ Piston engine
➢ Battery
➢ Fuel cell
3) Something to transfer power to wheels.
➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles
➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor
Vehicle Power Train Architectures
Three Basic Elements
wires
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
1) Something to store energy.
➢ Gasoline tank
➢ Battery
➢ Pressurized gas tank
2) Something to convert the stored energy to
useful power.
➢ Piston engine
➢ Battery
➢ Fuel cell
3) Something to transfer power to wheels.
➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles
➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor
Vehicle Power Train Architectures
Three Basic Elements
wires
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
1) Something to store energy.
➢ Gasoline tank
➢ Battery
➢ Pressurized gas tank
2) Something to convert the stored energy to
useful power.
➢ Piston engine
➢ Battery
➢ Fuel cell
3) Something to transfer power to wheels.
➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles
➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor
Vehicle Power Train Architectures
Three Basic Elements
wires
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
1) Something to store energy.
➢ Gasoline tank
➢ Battery
➢ Pressurized gas tank
2) Something to convert the stored energy to
useful power.
➢ Piston engine
➢ Battery
➢ Fuel cell
3) Something to transfer power to wheels.
➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles
➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor
Vehicle Power Train Architectures
Three Basic Elements
wires
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
1) Something to store energy.
➢ Gasoline tank
➢ Battery
➢ Pressurized gas tank
2) Something to convert the stored energy to
useful power.
➢ Piston engine
➢ Battery
➢ Fuel cell
3) Something to transfer power to wheels.
➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles
➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor
Vehicle Power Train Architectures
Three Basic Elements
wires
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
1) Something to store energy.
➢ Gasoline tank
➢ Battery
➢ Pressurized gas tank
2) Something to convert the stored energy to
useful power.
➢ Piston engine
➢ Battery
➢ Fuel cell
3) Something to transfer power to wheels.
➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles
➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor
Vehicle Power Train Architectures
Three Basic Elements
wires
1) Something to store energy.
➢ Gasoline tank
➢ Battery
➢ Pressurized gas tank
2) Something to convert the stored energy to
useful power.
➢ Piston engine
➢ Battery
➢ Fuel cell
3) Something to transfer power to wheels.
➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles
➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor
Vehicle Power Train Architectures
Three Basic Elements
wires
1) Something to store energy.
➢ Gasoline tank
➢ Battery
➢ Pressurized gas tank
2) Something to convert the stored energy to
useful power.
➢ Piston engine
➢ Battery
➢ Fuel cell
3) Something to transfer power to wheels.
➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles
➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor
Vehicle Power Train Architectures
Three Basic Elements
wires
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
•Gasoline
•Diesel
•CNG
•Methanol
•Ethanol
Power Train Architectures
Electricity
•Hydrogen
Electricity
•Gasoline
•Diesel
•CNG
•Methanol
•Ethanol
Power Train Architectures
•Hydrogen
Internal combustion car
Electricity
Air
•Gasoline
•Diesel
•CNG
•Methanol
•Ethanol Energy Storage:
Tank
Torque
Power Train Architectures
•Hydrogen
Internal combustion car
Electricity
Air
•Gasoline
•Diesel
•CNG
•Methanol
•Ethanol Energy Storage:
Tank
Torque
Power Train Architectures
•Hydrogen
Battery electric car
Internal combustion car
Electricity
Air
•Gasoline
•Diesel
•CNG
•Methanol
•Ethanol Energy Storage:
Tank
Torque
Power Train Architectures
Torque
Power
Condition
•Hydrogen
Energy Storage:
Battery
Battery electric car
Internal combustion car
Electricity
Air
•Gasoline
•Diesel
•CNG
•Methanol
•Ethanol Energy Storage:
Tank
Torque
Power Train Architectures
Torque
Power
Condition
•Hydrogen
Energy Storage:
Battery
Battery electric car
Internal combustion car
Fuel cell electric car
Electricity
Air
•Gasoline
•Diesel
•CNG
•Methanol
•Ethanol Energy Storage:
Tank
Torque
Power Train Architectures
Torque
Power
Condition
Electricity
Torque
Hydrogen
Air
•Hydrogen
Power
Condition
Internal combustion car
Battery electric car
Fuel cell electric car
Energy Storage:
Battery
Electricity
Air
•Gasoline
•Diesel
•CNG
•Methanol
•Ethanol Energy Storage:
Tank
Torque
Power Train Architectures
Torque
Power
Condition
Electricity
Torque
Air
•Hydrogen
Power
Condition
Energy Storage:
Battery
Driving Range Max Available Power
Driving Range Max Available Power
Driving Range AND Max Available Power
Hydrogen
Internal combustion car
Battery electric car
Fuel cell electric car
•Gasoline
•Diesel
•CNG
•Methanol
•Ethanol
Electricity
•Hydrogen
All need a temporary
connection to the
world
All need a temporary
connection to the
world
•Gasoline
•Diesel
•CNG
•Methanol
•Ethanol
Electricity
•Hydrogen
2-3 min.
360 mi
4-6 min.
360 mi
All need a temporary
connection to the
world
25 min.
260+ mi Super
8.6 hr
300 mi Home
HYDROGEN CARS
Two main versions
• Internal combustion engine
• Fuel cell electric
•Liquid hydrogen transfer tube.
•Used like the hose on a gasoline pump.
•Temperature: 20°K (-424°F).
• 8 kg LH2 capacity.
•125-mile H2 range.
•¼ the fuel economy of a fuel cell car.
BMW Hydrogen-7dual-fuel car (H2 or gasoline)
Only 100 made. Never went into production.
BMW Hydrogen-7 dual-fuel, V-12 engine.
• 6L, 256 HP
Internal Combustion Engine
GM Autonomy Concept Car
At 2002 NAIAS Detroit
•The skateboard is a common platform for several vehicle body styles.
•The skateboard contains all fuel and the propulsion system, HVAC, etc. and is
connected to body via several attachment points and electrical connectors.
•Since the “drive shaft and differential” for electric vehicles can simply be
wires, wheel motors are the optimum configuration for future electric vehicles.
Fuel Cell Power Plant
to demonstrate
vehicle packaging
GM Autonomy Concept Car
At 2002 NAIAS Detroit
•The skateboard is a common platform for several vehicle body styles.
•The skateboard contains all fuel and the propulsion system, HVAC, etc. and is
connected to body via several attachment points and electrical connectors.
•Since the “drive shaft and differential” for electric vehicles can simply be
wires, wheel motors are the optimum configuration for future electric vehicles.
Fuel Cell Power Plant
Wheel motors in
every wheel
Skateboard
What is a fuel cell?
What is a fuel cell?
It makes DC electrical power from chemicals, like a battery.
BUT none of the chemicals are normally INSIDE the fuel cell.
What is a fuel cell?
It makes DC electrical power from chemicals, like a battery.
BUT none of the chemicals are normally INSIDE the fuel cell.
It only makes electricity when the chemicals flow into the
fuel cell.
What is a fuel cell?
It makes DC electrical power from chemicals, like a battery.
BUT none of the chemicals are normally INSIDE the fuel cell.
It only makes electricity when the chemicals flow into the
fuel cell.
The chemicals are hydrogen (the fuel) and oxygen (in air).
What is a fuel cell?
It makes DC electrical power from chemicals, like a battery.
BUT none of the chemicals are normally INSIDE the fuel cell.
It only makes electricity when the chemicals flow into the
fuel cell.
The chemicals are hydrogen (the fuel) and oxygen (in air).
So, it only makes power (electricity) when the fuel and air
flow into it and react, like an internal combustion engine.
What is a fuel cell?
It makes DC electrical power from chemicals, like a battery.
BUT none of the chemicals are normally INSIDE the fuel cell.
It only makes electricity when the chemicals flow into the
fuel cell.
The chemicals are hydrogen (the fuel) and oxygen (in air).
So, it only makes power (electricity) when the fuel and air
flow into it and react, like an internal combustion engine.
The outputs are power, water and heat. Like an engine, but
without the CO2, NOx, CO, PM, and UHC.
What is a fuel cell?
It makes DC electrical power from chemicals, like a battery.
BUT none of the chemicals are normally INSIDE the fuel cell.
It only makes electricity when the chemicals flow into the
fuel cell.
The chemicals are hydrogen (the fuel) and oxygen (in air).
So, it only makes power (electricity) when the fuel and air
flow into it and react, like an internal combustion engine.
The outputs are power, water and heat. Like an engine, but
but without the CO2, NOx, CO, PM, and UHC.
Sulfuric Acid Solution
The First Fuel Cell
Sir William Grove 1839
Electrodes
Sir William began thinking about this on his honeymoon in 1837
Sulfuric Acid Solution
The First Fuel Cell
Sir William Grove 1839
Electrodes
Sir William began thinking about this on his honeymoon in 1837
Sulfuric Acid Solution
The First Fuel Cell
Sir William Grove 1839
Electrodes
Sir William began thinking about this on his honeymoon in 1837
I’m worried there’s
gonna be some
chemistry.
Sulfuric Acid Solution
The First Fuel Cell
Sir William Grove 1839
Electrodes
Sir William began thinking about this on his honeymoon in 1837
I’m worried there’s
gonna be some
chemistry.
very little, or
I’ll be whining
all night.
It better be very little,
or I’ll be whining
all night.
The First Fuel Cell
Sir William Grove 1839
Sulfuric Acid Solution
Electrodes
The First Fuel Cell
Sir William Grove 1839
Four fuel cells
produced electricity
from the H2 and O2
that Grove put into
the test tubes.
Sulfuric Acid Solution
Electrodes
The First Fuel Cell
Sir William Grove 1839
Four fuel cells
produced electricity
from the H2 and O2
that Grove put into
the test tubes.
A stack of 4 cells connected in series,
like 4 batteries stacked in a flashlight.
Sulfuric Acid Solution
Electrodes
The First Fuel Cell
Sir William Grove 1839
Four fuel cells
produced electricity
from the H2 and O2
that Grove put into
the test tubes.
176 years later
114 kW (153 HP) fuel cell
system in the 2016 Toyota
Mirai initial-production
fuel cell car.
176 years later
Fuel cell stack
The Fuel Cell Now
114 kW (153 HP) fuel cell
system in the 2016 Toyota
Mirai initial-production
fuel cell car.
176 years later
Fuel cell stack
The Fuel Cell Now
114 kW (153 HP) fuel cell
system in the 2016 Toyota
Mirai initial-production
fuel cell car.
176 years later
Fuel cell stack
The Fuel Cell Now
The last 30 years in 9 examples
1993
1
Energy Partners’ Green Car
• Hydrogen fuel in welding cylinders
• Three 7-kW PEM fuel cell stacks (28 HP)
• Payload capacity: 1 driver and 1 passenger
28 HP
Hydrogen welding
cylinders behind seat
1995
2
Daimler NECAR 1
• Hydrogen fuel in composite tank
• 12 PEM fuel cell stacks total 50kW (67 HP)
• Payload capacity: 1 driver and 1 passenger
2008
3
Honda Clarity FCX
• Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations
• 100 kW PEM fuel cell stack (134 HP)
• Formerly in CAM Alt. Propulsion Exhibit
4
2015
Toyota Mirai (1st Retail FCEV on market)
• Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations
• 314 mile range on 4.7 kgH2
• 114 kW PEM fuel cell stack (153 HP)
• 25.5 kW battery (34 HP) 187 Total HP
2023
6
Hyundai Nexo Fuel Cell SUV
• Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations
• 380 miles range on 6.3 kgH2
• 95 kW PEM fuel cell stack (138 HP)
• 40 kW battery (54 HP) 181 total HP
7
Toyota Mirai (2nd generation)
• Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations
• 357 - 402 mile range on 4.9 kgH2
• 128 kW PEM fuel cell stack (172 HP)
• 31 kW battery (42 HP) 214 Total HP
2024
BMW ix5 Hydrogen (100 unit demo fleet)
• Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations
• 314 mile range
• 295 kW PEM fuel cell stack (401 HP)
•100 car test fleet
2023
8
2025
9
Honda CR-V Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid SUV
• Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations
• 270 mile range on 4.3 kgH2 + 29 EV mode
• 174 HP PEM fuel cell stack + battery
2025
9
Honda CR-V Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid SUV
• Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations
• 270 mile range on 4.3 kgH2 + 29 EV mode
• 174 HP PEM fuel cell stack + battery
2025
9
Honda CR-V Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid SUV
• Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations
• 270 mile range on 4.3 kgH2 + 29 EV mode
• 174 HP PEM fuel cell stack + battery
THE Pinnacle OF
vehicle drive train architecture
2025
9
Honda CR-V Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid SUV
• Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations
• 270 mile range on 4.3 kgH2 + 29 EV mode
• 174 HP PEM fuel cell stack + battery
IMHO
THE Pinnacle OF
vehicle drive train architecture
130 Years of Automotive Development
130 Years of Automotive Development
In 1886, Karl Benz created the first commercial automobile, the Patent Motorwagen. That marked the
decline of the horse propulsion era and the beginning of the era of internal combustion engine propulsion.
130 years later, the 2016 fuel cell vehicle, with the BEV mark the beginning of a new era in electric
automotive propulsion, and begins a long decline in the era of internal combustion engine propulsion.
The era of
walking and
the horse.
The era of the
internal combustion
engine.
(130 years)
The era of the
electrochemical
engine.
2015 to ?
Honda 2018 Clarity Hyundai 2019 Nexo
Mercedes 2018 GLC F-Cell PHEV
BMW i8 Series
BMW i5 GT
Audi h-tron quattro concept
(at 2016 NAIAS)
GM Colorado ZH2 GM Fuel Cell Equinox
Ford Fusion Hydrogen 999
207 MPH at Bonneville
Mirai Fuel Cell Drive Train
Basic unit cell of a fuel cell system
2.25 in
6.7 in
THIS is a “fuel cell”.
Multiple cells make a “stack”, like cylinders in an engine.
Taken from a 2 KW
(2.7 HP) fuel cell used
on a motor scooter.
Courtesy: W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.
Membrane Electrode Assembly Production
Perfluorinated
polymer
membrane
w/Sulfonic acid
Courtesy: W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.
Membrane Electrode Assembly Production
Catalyzed
carbon
electrodes
Perfluorinated
polymer
membrane
w/Sulfonic acid
Courtesy: W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.
Membrane Electrode Assembly Production
Catalyzed
carbon
electrodes
Perfluorinated
polymer
membrane
w/Sulfonic acid
Courtesy: W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.
Membrane Electrode Assembly Production
Equivalent to: piston, valves, piston rings, spark plug, wrist pin, connecting rod,
cylinder, bearing, crank shaft for a 1/8 to 1/4 HP engine, manufactured on a roll!!!
Science Warning
Juuuuust a teeny bit of chemistry stuff
Basic Proton Exchange Membrane
(PEM) fuel cell mechanism
Basic Proton Exchange Membrane
(PEM) fuel cell mechanism
.002” to .020”
Example: The thickness of
this membrane-electrode
assembly (MEA)
Basic Proton Exchange Membrane
(PEM) fuel cell mechanism
.002” to .020”
Example: The thickness of
this membrane-electrode
assembly (MEA)
This is the Proton Exchange
Membrane (PEM).
It permits positive (+) protons
(hydrogen minus the electron) to
easily flow through it in an acid that
soaks the membrane like a sponge to
hold it in the shape of a thin solid
film. Note: acids are simply water
with protons in it.
Basic Proton Exchange Membrane
(PEM) fuel cell mechanism
.002” to .020”
Porous
Anode
(carbon)
Porous
Cathode
(carbon)
Thin-film
Polymer
Electrolyte
Hydrogen
side
Air
side
Membrane-Electrode
Assembly (MEA)
Basic Proton Exchange Membrane
(PEM) fuel cell mechanism
External
Load
Porous
Anode
(carbon)
Porous
Cathode
(carbon)
Thin-film
Polymer
Electrolyte
Hydrogen
side
Air
side
Basic Proton Exchange Membrane
(PEM) fuel cell mechanism
H2
External
Load
O2
Porous
Anode
(carbon)
Porous
Cathode
(carbon)
Thin-film
Polymer
Electrolyte
Hydrogen
side
Air
side
Basic Proton Exchange Membrane
(PEM) fuel cell mechanism
H2
External
Load
O2
Porous
Anode
(carbon)
Porous
Cathode
(carbon)
Thin-film
Polymer
Electrolyte
Hydrogen
side
Air
side
H+
= a proton
H2 2H
H H+
+ e
_
Basic Proton Exchange Membrane
(PEM) fuel cell mechanism
H2
e-
External
Load
O2
H+
H+
H+
H+
Porous
Anode
(carbon)
Porous
Cathode
(carbon)
Thin-film
Polymer
Electrolyte
Hydrogen
side
Air
side
H+
= a proton e-
e-
e-
e-
H2 2H
H H+
+ e
_
Basic Proton Exchange Membrane
(PEM) fuel cell mechanism
H2
e-
External
Load
O2
H+
H+
H+
H+
Porous
Anode
(carbon)
Porous
Cathode
(carbon)
Thin-film
Polymer
Electrolyte
Hydrogen
side
Air
side
H+
= a proton e-
e-
e-
e-
O2 2O
H+
+ e
_
H
O + 2H H2O
H2 2H
H H+
+ e
_
Basic Proton Exchange Membrane
(PEM) fuel cell mechanism
H2O
H2
e-
External
Load
O2
H+
H+
H+
H+
Porous
Anode
(carbon)
Porous
Cathode
(carbon)
Thin-film
Polymer
Electrolyte
Hydrogen
side
Air
side
H+
= a proton e-
e-
e-
e-
O2 2O
H+
+ e
_
H
O + 2H H2O
H2 2H
H H+
+ e
_
Basic Proton Exchange Membrane
(PEM) fuel cell mechanism
H2
e-
External
Load
O2
H+
H+
H+
H+
Porous
Anode
(carbon)
Porous
Cathode
(carbon)
Thin-film
Polymer
Electrolyte
Temperature:
Hydrogen
side
Air
side
50 - 90C
(120 – 195F)
Reasonable cell voltage: .5 - .8 V
H+
= a proton e-
e-
e-
e-
O2 2O
H+
+ e
_
H
O + 2H H2O
H2 2H
H H+
+ e
_
H2O
Basic Proton Exchange Membrane
(PEM) fuel cell mechanism
2 fuel cells in series
Stack of 10
fuel cells
1 fuel cell
Fuel cells are
assembled and then
stacked to increase
power (like stacking
batteries in a
flashlight).
2 fuel cells in series
1 fuel cell
Stack of 10
fuel cells
1 fuel cell
PEM Fuel Cell Stacks
Source: Energy Partners
10kW
0.2kW
Source: Electrochem
Source: Ballard
85 kW (114 HP)
2002
5kW (6.7 HP)
1992
13kW (17.5 HP)
1995
370 Cell stack
(152 HP)
Air flow
Hydrogen
flow
Single fuel cell
(0.41 HP)
Air manifold
Hydrogen
manifold
Cells are stacked together to add voltage. Current is based on cell area
Current x Voltage = Power Area x Length (Number of cells) = Volume Power
1st Generation Toyota Mirai Fuel Cell Stack
Honda Clarity Fuel-Cell System
BMW i8 Fuel-Cell System
Hydrogen Refueling Stations
The Infrastructure Challenge
Area accessible to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles November 2016
Coalinga
Willits
Eureka
Redding
Red
Bluff
Susanville
Truckee
Garberville
Santa Barbara
San Luis Obispbo
Morro
Bay
Reno
Bridgeport
Carson City
Fallon
Lake
Tahoe
San Francisco
Barstow
Ridgecrest
San Francisco
0 100 KM 100 Miles
Operating hydrogen stations
Accessible area
Area accessible to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, 2024
Coalinga
Eureka
Redding
Red
Bluff
Susanville
Ridgecrest
Garberville
San Luis Obispbo
Morro
Bay
0 100 KM 100 Miles
Operating hydrogen stations
Planned, in construction or in permitting
Accessible area
Barstow
Willits
Truckee
Lake
Tahoe
San Francisco
Santa Barbara
Bridgeport
Carson City
Reno Fallon
Winnemucca
Area accessible to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, 2024
Coalinga
Eureka
Redding
Red
Bluff
Susanville
Ridgecrest
Garberville
San Luis Obispbo
Morro
Bay
0 100 KM 100 Miles
Operating hydrogen stations
Planned, in construction or in permitting
Accessible area
Barstow
Willits
Truckee
Lake
Tahoe
San Francisco
Santa Barbara
Bridgeport
Carson City
Reno Fallon
Winnemucca
Hydrogen Stations
Operating: 63
Planned, in construction
or permitting 25
Total 88
Hydrogen fire safety test performed in 2001
at University of Miami for the US DOE.
1. Create a single-point-failure leak in each car.
Hydrogen fire safety test performed in 2001
at University of Miami for the US DOE.
1. Create a single-point-failure leak in each car.
2. Ignite the leaking fuel.
Hydrogen fire safety test performed in 2001
at University of Miami for the US DOE.
1. Create a single-point-failure leak in each car.
2. Ignite the leaking fuel.
Hydrogen fire safety test performed in 2001
at University of Miami for the US DOE.
Hydrogen leak rate 2100 Cu.ft/min. Gasoline leak rate 680 cc/min.
Time: Leaking and 1 second before flame ignition.
1. Create a single-point-failure leak in each car.
2. Ignite the leaking fuel.
Hydrogen fire safety test performed in 2001
at University of Miami for the US DOE.
Time: 3 seconds after ignition of fuel leaks on both cars
Hydrogen Gasoline
Time: 3 seconds after ignition of fuel leaks on both cars
Hydrogen Gasoline
Hydrogen Gasoline
Time: 1 minute
Time: 1 minute
Hydrogen Gasoline
Highest temperature in test:
117F on window.
Like Palm Springs in August.
Time: 1 minute
Hydrogen Gasoline
Total hydrogen leak: 1.5 kg H2
(1.5 gal gasoline equivalent)
Total gasoline leak: 0.62 gal gasoline (After 3.5 minutes.)
Time: 1 minute, 30 seconds
Total hydrogen leak: 1.5 kg H2
(1.5 gal gasoline equivalent)
Total gasoline leak: 0.62 gal gasoline (After 3.5 minutes.)
Time: 1 minute, 30 seconds
Hydrogen Gasoline
When the energy
storage part of a
battery car catches
fire, it can be
similar to a
gasoline car fire.
How the heck did
these PEM fuel
cells get started?
How the heck did
these PEM fuel
cells get started?
We owe it to 2 things:
How the heck did
these PEM fuel
cells get started?
We owe it to 2 things:
1) Powerful atom bombs
How the heck did
these PEM fuel
cells get started?
We owe it to 2 things:
1) Powerful atom bombs
and
2) Itty bitty rockets.
In the 1940s and 50s the U.S. nuclear weapons
labs developed very powerful nuclear bombs
that were much lighter and smaller than Soviet
bombs of the same destructive power.
In the 1940s and 50s the U.S. nuclear weapons
labs developed very powerful nuclear bombs
that were much lighter and smaller than Soviet
bombs of the same destructive power.
(We had more boom per pound.)
In the 1940s and 50s the U.S. nuclear weapons
labs developed very powerful nuclear bombs
that were much lighter and smaller than Soviet
bombs of the same destructive power.
We both needed to send the same destructive
power the same distance, BUT with our smaller
and lighter A-bombs, the U.S. did not need to
develop very powerful rockets. so we didn’t,
(We had more boom per pound.)
In the 1940s and 50s the U.S. nuclear weapons
labs developed very powerful nuclear bombs
that were much lighter and smaller than Soviet
bombs of the same destructive power.
We both needed to send the same destructive
power the same distance, BUT with our smaller
and lighter A-bombs, the U.S. did not need to
develop very powerful rockets, so we didn’t.
(We had more boom per pound.)
In the 1940s and 50s the U.S. nuclear weapons
labs developed very powerful nuclear bombs
that were much lighter and smaller than Soviet
bombs of the same destructive power.
We both needed to send the same destructive
power the same distance, BUT with our smaller
and lighter A-bombs, the U.S. did not need to
develop very powerful rockets, so we didn’t,
but the Soviets did.
(We had more boom per pound.)
In the 1940s and 50s the U.S. nuclear weapons
labs developed very powerful nuclear bombs
that were much lighter and smaller than Soviet
bombs of the same destructive power.
We both needed to send the same destructive
power the same distance, BUT with our smaller
and lighter A-bombs, the U.S. did not need to
develop very powerful rockets, so we didn’t,
but the Soviets did.
Then, on Oct. 4, 1957 a VERY large Soviet rocket
launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite.
(We had more boom per pound.)
USSR Good Ole USA
1957-1966 1958-1966
R-7 Rocket
Sputnik 1
Sputnik 2, with dog.
Vostok 1 with
1 cosmonaut
USSR Good Ole USA
1957-1966 1958-1966
R-7 Rocket
Sputnik 1
Sputnik 2, with dog.
Vostok 1 with
1 cosmonaut
USSR Good Ole USA
1957-1966 1958-1966
Vanguard 1
Exploded on
launch
Jupiter C
Explorer 1
1st US satellite
Atlas D
Mercury capsule
with 1 astronaut
(orbital)
Titan II
Gemini capsule
with 2 astronauts
(orbital)
Redstone
Mercury capsule
with 1 astronaut
(sub-orbital)
R-7 Rocket
Sputnik 1
Sputnik 2, with dog.
Vostok 1 with
1 cosmonaut
USSR Good Ole USA
1957-1966 1958-1966
Vanguard 1
Exploded on
launch
Jupiter C
Explorer 1
1st US satellite
Atlas D
Mercury capsule
with 1 astronaut
(orbital)
Titan II
Gemini capsule
with 2 astronauts
(orbital)
Redstone
Mercury capsule
with 1 astronaut
(sub-orbital)
R-7 Rocket
Sputnik 1
Sputnik 2, with dog.
Vostok 1 with
1 cosmonaut
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
Redstone
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Early
U.S.
Rockets
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
The PEM fuel cell was developed in US industry and was
almost ready in 1959 to 1961.
NASA contracted for fuel cell systems for Gemini flights
beginning with Gemini 5, Aug 21, 1965 to Aug 29, 1965.
From then on fuel cells provided spacecraft electricity
and byproduct water on long missions.
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
The PEM fuel cell was developed in US industry and was
almost ready in 1959 to 1961.
NASA contracted for fuel cell systems for Gemini flights
beginning with Gemini 5, Aug 21, 1965 to Aug 29, 1965.
From then on fuel cells provided spacecraft electricity
and byproduct water on long missions.
That’s because they were much smaller, lighter and more
easily reenergized than batteries.
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
The PEM fuel cell was developed in US industry and was
almost ready in 1959 to 1961.
NASA contracted for fuel cell systems for Gemini flights
beginning with Gemini 5, Aug 21, 1965 to Aug 29, 1965.
From then on fuel cells provided spacecraft electricity
and byproduct water on long missions.
That’s because they were much smaller, lighter and more
easily reenergized than batteries, and still are.
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Early
U.S.
Rockets
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
2 to 7 astronauts
2 to 18 days
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
2 to 7 astronauts
2 to 18 days
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
Where electrical
power was required for
duration of mission.
2 to 7 astronauts
2 to 18 days
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
Fuel cells
2 to 7 astronauts
2 to 18 days
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
1962-1963
Early
Soviet
Rockets
Redstone
Atlas
Titan
2
Saturn
5
Early
U.S.
Rockets
Fuel cells
2 to 7 astronauts
2 to 18 days
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
The Russians made a
last dash to beat the
U.S. to the Moon.
They needed a
successful unmanned
flight before they sent
humans to the moon.
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
So, Russians rushing to
make and launch the
biggest rocket in
history.
How can that work out?
4 Attempts.
Space Shuttle
U.S.
1981 - 2011
1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011
1969 - 1972
1 to 3
cosmonauts
1.75 hours
to
5 days
1961 to 1969
N-1
Russia
1 astronaut
4 to 34 hours
So, Russians rushing to
make and launch the
biggest rocket in
history.
How can that work out?
4 Attempts.
The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight.
Test Flight 1, Looking good . . .
10 Million pounds of thrust
The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight.
2 seconds later
The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight.
2 seconds later
The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight.
2 seconds later
The next 3 test flights did not do THIS well.
The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight.
2 seconds later
The next 3 test flights did not do THIS well.
17 days after their 2nd explosion. . .
The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight.
2 seconds later
The next 3 test flights did not do THIS well.
17 days after their 2nd explosion. . .
17 days after their 2nd explosion, we landed
at Tranquility Base with Apollo 11!!!
17 days after their 2nd explosion, we landed
on the Moon at Tranquility Base
with Apollo 11!!!
The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight.
2 seconds later
The next 3 test flights did not do THIS well.
17 days after their 2nd explosion, we landed
on the Moon at Tranquility Base
with Apollo 11!!!
Fuel cells powered all the missions.
Here they come!
First ever shipment of fuel cell cars for sale/lease in USA.
October 2015
Sooooooo . . . .
How will we know when we are “there”?
How will we know when we are “there”?
THIS is how
When a kid goes to a junk yard and gets the fuel cell system from a
wreck, installs it into an old fuel cell car with modified power electronics
and electric motor, doubles the horsepower and wins at the drags.
How will we know when we are “there”?
OH, I forgot . . .
Just so ya know . . . .
Just so ya know . . . .
Hydrogen fueled, fuel-cell powered,
electric-drive airplane.
By the way, since it
often comes up . . .
Passengers and crew:
62 survived
35 died
Ground observers:
1 died from debris
By the way, since it
often comes up . . .
Had it been filled with methane (natural gas), most, or all on board would
have died, as well as most people on the ground, since a natural gas flame
would have more engulfed the Zeppelin, and the heat radiation from the flame
would be about 100 times higher than from a hydrogen flame. The visible
flame here is from diesel fuel and fabric burning. Hydrogen flame is invisible.
Passengers and crew:
62 survived
35 died
Ground observers:
1 died from debris
By the way, since it
often comes up . . .
Thank you!
Glenn Rambach
FuelCellPlace@aol.com
Fuel Cells and Hydrogen in Transportation - An Introduction

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Fuel Cells and Hydrogen in Transportation - An Introduction

  • 1.
  • 2. Fuel Cell Powered Cars and Hydrogen as a Fuel Glenn Rambach
  • 3. Fuel Cell Powered Cars and Hydrogen as a Fuel Glenn Rambach
  • 4. Does that thing run on gasoline? DANG! I haven’t seen one of those since I was a kid. Glenn Rambach Fuel Cell Powered Cars and Hydrogen as a Fuel
  • 5. • A picture from the future, where electric vehicles replace internal combustion vehicles. Does that thing run on gasoline? DANG! I haven’t seen one of those since I was a kid. Glenn Rambach Fuel Cell Powered Cars and Hydrogen as a Fuel
  • 6. • Our grandchildren will likely see a transition in transportation as large as our grandparents saw. • A picture from the future, where electric vehicles replace internal combustion vehicles. Does that thing run on gasoline? DANG! I haven’t seen one of those since I was a kid. Glenn Rambach Fuel Cell Powered Cars and Hydrogen as a Fuel
  • 8. 1) Something to store energy. ➢ Gasoline tank ➢ Battery ➢ Pressurized gas tank 2) Something to convert the stored energy to useful power. ➢ Piston engine ➢ Battery ➢ Fuel cell 3) Something to transfer power to wheels. ➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles ➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor Vehicle Power Train Architectures Three Basic Elements wires XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
  • 9. 1) Something to store energy. ➢ Gasoline tank ➢ Battery ➢ Pressurized gas tank 2) Something to convert the stored energy to useful power. ➢ Piston engine ➢ Battery ➢ Fuel cell 3) Something to transfer power to wheels. ➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles ➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor Vehicle Power Train Architectures Three Basic Elements wires XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
  • 10. 1) Something to store energy. ➢ Gasoline tank ➢ Battery ➢ Pressurized gas tank 2) Something to convert the stored energy to useful power. ➢ Piston engine ➢ Battery ➢ Fuel cell 3) Something to transfer power to wheels. ➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles ➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor Vehicle Power Train Architectures Three Basic Elements wires XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
  • 11. 1) Something to store energy. ➢ Gasoline tank ➢ Battery ➢ Pressurized gas tank 2) Something to convert the stored energy to useful power. ➢ Piston engine ➢ Battery ➢ Fuel cell 3) Something to transfer power to wheels. ➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles ➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor Vehicle Power Train Architectures Three Basic Elements wires XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
  • 12. 1) Something to store energy. ➢ Gasoline tank ➢ Battery ➢ Pressurized gas tank 2) Something to convert the stored energy to useful power. ➢ Piston engine ➢ Battery ➢ Fuel cell 3) Something to transfer power to wheels. ➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles ➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor Vehicle Power Train Architectures Three Basic Elements wires XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
  • 13. 1) Something to store energy. ➢ Gasoline tank ➢ Battery ➢ Pressurized gas tank 2) Something to convert the stored energy to useful power. ➢ Piston engine ➢ Battery ➢ Fuel cell 3) Something to transfer power to wheels. ➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles ➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor Vehicle Power Train Architectures Three Basic Elements wires XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
  • 14. 1) Something to store energy. ➢ Gasoline tank ➢ Battery ➢ Pressurized gas tank 2) Something to convert the stored energy to useful power. ➢ Piston engine ➢ Battery ➢ Fuel cell 3) Something to transfer power to wheels. ➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles ➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor Vehicle Power Train Architectures Three Basic Elements wires
  • 15. 1) Something to store energy. ➢ Gasoline tank ➢ Battery ➢ Pressurized gas tank 2) Something to convert the stored energy to useful power. ➢ Piston engine ➢ Battery ➢ Fuel cell 3) Something to transfer power to wheels. ➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles ➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor Vehicle Power Train Architectures Three Basic Elements wires
  • 16. 1) Something to store energy. ➢ Gasoline tank ➢ Battery ➢ Pressurized gas tank 2) Something to convert the stored energy to useful power. ➢ Piston engine ➢ Battery ➢ Fuel cell 3) Something to transfer power to wheels. ➢ Transmission, drive shaft, differential, axles ➢ Power and control electronics, wires, electric motor Vehicle Power Train Architectures Three Basic Elements wires XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
  • 20. Electricity Air •Gasoline •Diesel •CNG •Methanol •Ethanol Energy Storage: Tank Torque Power Train Architectures •Hydrogen Battery electric car Internal combustion car
  • 21. Electricity Air •Gasoline •Diesel •CNG •Methanol •Ethanol Energy Storage: Tank Torque Power Train Architectures Torque Power Condition •Hydrogen Energy Storage: Battery Battery electric car Internal combustion car
  • 22. Electricity Air •Gasoline •Diesel •CNG •Methanol •Ethanol Energy Storage: Tank Torque Power Train Architectures Torque Power Condition •Hydrogen Energy Storage: Battery Battery electric car Internal combustion car Fuel cell electric car
  • 23. Electricity Air •Gasoline •Diesel •CNG •Methanol •Ethanol Energy Storage: Tank Torque Power Train Architectures Torque Power Condition Electricity Torque Hydrogen Air •Hydrogen Power Condition Internal combustion car Battery electric car Fuel cell electric car Energy Storage: Battery
  • 24. Electricity Air •Gasoline •Diesel •CNG •Methanol •Ethanol Energy Storage: Tank Torque Power Train Architectures Torque Power Condition Electricity Torque Air •Hydrogen Power Condition Energy Storage: Battery Driving Range Max Available Power Driving Range Max Available Power Driving Range AND Max Available Power Hydrogen Internal combustion car Battery electric car Fuel cell electric car
  • 25. •Gasoline •Diesel •CNG •Methanol •Ethanol Electricity •Hydrogen All need a temporary connection to the world All need a temporary connection to the world
  • 26. •Gasoline •Diesel •CNG •Methanol •Ethanol Electricity •Hydrogen 2-3 min. 360 mi 4-6 min. 360 mi All need a temporary connection to the world 25 min. 260+ mi Super 8.6 hr 300 mi Home
  • 27. HYDROGEN CARS Two main versions • Internal combustion engine • Fuel cell electric
  • 28. •Liquid hydrogen transfer tube. •Used like the hose on a gasoline pump. •Temperature: 20°K (-424°F). • 8 kg LH2 capacity. •125-mile H2 range. •¼ the fuel economy of a fuel cell car. BMW Hydrogen-7dual-fuel car (H2 or gasoline) Only 100 made. Never went into production. BMW Hydrogen-7 dual-fuel, V-12 engine. • 6L, 256 HP Internal Combustion Engine
  • 29. GM Autonomy Concept Car At 2002 NAIAS Detroit •The skateboard is a common platform for several vehicle body styles. •The skateboard contains all fuel and the propulsion system, HVAC, etc. and is connected to body via several attachment points and electrical connectors. •Since the “drive shaft and differential” for electric vehicles can simply be wires, wheel motors are the optimum configuration for future electric vehicles. Fuel Cell Power Plant to demonstrate vehicle packaging
  • 30. GM Autonomy Concept Car At 2002 NAIAS Detroit •The skateboard is a common platform for several vehicle body styles. •The skateboard contains all fuel and the propulsion system, HVAC, etc. and is connected to body via several attachment points and electrical connectors. •Since the “drive shaft and differential” for electric vehicles can simply be wires, wheel motors are the optimum configuration for future electric vehicles. Fuel Cell Power Plant Wheel motors in every wheel Skateboard
  • 31. What is a fuel cell?
  • 32. What is a fuel cell? It makes DC electrical power from chemicals, like a battery. BUT none of the chemicals are normally INSIDE the fuel cell.
  • 33. What is a fuel cell? It makes DC electrical power from chemicals, like a battery. BUT none of the chemicals are normally INSIDE the fuel cell. It only makes electricity when the chemicals flow into the fuel cell.
  • 34. What is a fuel cell? It makes DC electrical power from chemicals, like a battery. BUT none of the chemicals are normally INSIDE the fuel cell. It only makes electricity when the chemicals flow into the fuel cell. The chemicals are hydrogen (the fuel) and oxygen (in air).
  • 35. What is a fuel cell? It makes DC electrical power from chemicals, like a battery. BUT none of the chemicals are normally INSIDE the fuel cell. It only makes electricity when the chemicals flow into the fuel cell. The chemicals are hydrogen (the fuel) and oxygen (in air). So, it only makes power (electricity) when the fuel and air flow into it and react, like an internal combustion engine.
  • 36. What is a fuel cell? It makes DC electrical power from chemicals, like a battery. BUT none of the chemicals are normally INSIDE the fuel cell. It only makes electricity when the chemicals flow into the fuel cell. The chemicals are hydrogen (the fuel) and oxygen (in air). So, it only makes power (electricity) when the fuel and air flow into it and react, like an internal combustion engine. The outputs are power, water and heat. Like an engine, but without the CO2, NOx, CO, PM, and UHC.
  • 37. What is a fuel cell? It makes DC electrical power from chemicals, like a battery. BUT none of the chemicals are normally INSIDE the fuel cell. It only makes electricity when the chemicals flow into the fuel cell. The chemicals are hydrogen (the fuel) and oxygen (in air). So, it only makes power (electricity) when the fuel and air flow into it and react, like an internal combustion engine. The outputs are power, water and heat. Like an engine, but but without the CO2, NOx, CO, PM, and UHC.
  • 38. Sulfuric Acid Solution The First Fuel Cell Sir William Grove 1839 Electrodes Sir William began thinking about this on his honeymoon in 1837
  • 39. Sulfuric Acid Solution The First Fuel Cell Sir William Grove 1839 Electrodes Sir William began thinking about this on his honeymoon in 1837
  • 40. Sulfuric Acid Solution The First Fuel Cell Sir William Grove 1839 Electrodes Sir William began thinking about this on his honeymoon in 1837 I’m worried there’s gonna be some chemistry.
  • 41. Sulfuric Acid Solution The First Fuel Cell Sir William Grove 1839 Electrodes Sir William began thinking about this on his honeymoon in 1837 I’m worried there’s gonna be some chemistry. very little, or I’ll be whining all night. It better be very little, or I’ll be whining all night.
  • 42. The First Fuel Cell Sir William Grove 1839
  • 43. Sulfuric Acid Solution Electrodes The First Fuel Cell Sir William Grove 1839 Four fuel cells produced electricity from the H2 and O2 that Grove put into the test tubes.
  • 44. Sulfuric Acid Solution Electrodes The First Fuel Cell Sir William Grove 1839 Four fuel cells produced electricity from the H2 and O2 that Grove put into the test tubes. A stack of 4 cells connected in series, like 4 batteries stacked in a flashlight.
  • 45. Sulfuric Acid Solution Electrodes The First Fuel Cell Sir William Grove 1839 Four fuel cells produced electricity from the H2 and O2 that Grove put into the test tubes.
  • 47. 114 kW (153 HP) fuel cell system in the 2016 Toyota Mirai initial-production fuel cell car. 176 years later Fuel cell stack The Fuel Cell Now
  • 48. 114 kW (153 HP) fuel cell system in the 2016 Toyota Mirai initial-production fuel cell car. 176 years later Fuel cell stack The Fuel Cell Now
  • 49. 114 kW (153 HP) fuel cell system in the 2016 Toyota Mirai initial-production fuel cell car. 176 years later Fuel cell stack The Fuel Cell Now
  • 50. The last 30 years in 9 examples
  • 51. 1993 1 Energy Partners’ Green Car • Hydrogen fuel in welding cylinders • Three 7-kW PEM fuel cell stacks (28 HP) • Payload capacity: 1 driver and 1 passenger 28 HP Hydrogen welding cylinders behind seat
  • 52. 1995 2 Daimler NECAR 1 • Hydrogen fuel in composite tank • 12 PEM fuel cell stacks total 50kW (67 HP) • Payload capacity: 1 driver and 1 passenger
  • 53. 2008 3 Honda Clarity FCX • Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations • 100 kW PEM fuel cell stack (134 HP) • Formerly in CAM Alt. Propulsion Exhibit
  • 54. 4 2015 Toyota Mirai (1st Retail FCEV on market) • Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations • 314 mile range on 4.7 kgH2 • 114 kW PEM fuel cell stack (153 HP) • 25.5 kW battery (34 HP) 187 Total HP
  • 55. 2023 6 Hyundai Nexo Fuel Cell SUV • Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations • 380 miles range on 6.3 kgH2 • 95 kW PEM fuel cell stack (138 HP) • 40 kW battery (54 HP) 181 total HP
  • 56. 7 Toyota Mirai (2nd generation) • Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations • 357 - 402 mile range on 4.9 kgH2 • 128 kW PEM fuel cell stack (172 HP) • 31 kW battery (42 HP) 214 Total HP 2024
  • 57. BMW ix5 Hydrogen (100 unit demo fleet) • Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations • 314 mile range • 295 kW PEM fuel cell stack (401 HP) •100 car test fleet 2023 8
  • 58. 2025 9 Honda CR-V Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid SUV • Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations • 270 mile range on 4.3 kgH2 + 29 EV mode • 174 HP PEM fuel cell stack + battery
  • 59. 2025 9 Honda CR-V Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid SUV • Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations • 270 mile range on 4.3 kgH2 + 29 EV mode • 174 HP PEM fuel cell stack + battery
  • 60. 2025 9 Honda CR-V Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid SUV • Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations • 270 mile range on 4.3 kgH2 + 29 EV mode • 174 HP PEM fuel cell stack + battery THE Pinnacle OF vehicle drive train architecture
  • 61. 2025 9 Honda CR-V Fuel Cell Plug-in Hybrid SUV • Hydrogen fuel from fueling stations • 270 mile range on 4.3 kgH2 + 29 EV mode • 174 HP PEM fuel cell stack + battery IMHO THE Pinnacle OF vehicle drive train architecture
  • 62. 130 Years of Automotive Development
  • 63. 130 Years of Automotive Development In 1886, Karl Benz created the first commercial automobile, the Patent Motorwagen. That marked the decline of the horse propulsion era and the beginning of the era of internal combustion engine propulsion. 130 years later, the 2016 fuel cell vehicle, with the BEV mark the beginning of a new era in electric automotive propulsion, and begins a long decline in the era of internal combustion engine propulsion. The era of walking and the horse. The era of the internal combustion engine. (130 years) The era of the electrochemical engine. 2015 to ?
  • 64. Honda 2018 Clarity Hyundai 2019 Nexo Mercedes 2018 GLC F-Cell PHEV BMW i8 Series BMW i5 GT Audi h-tron quattro concept (at 2016 NAIAS) GM Colorado ZH2 GM Fuel Cell Equinox Ford Fusion Hydrogen 999 207 MPH at Bonneville
  • 65. Mirai Fuel Cell Drive Train
  • 66. Basic unit cell of a fuel cell system 2.25 in 6.7 in THIS is a “fuel cell”. Multiple cells make a “stack”, like cylinders in an engine. Taken from a 2 KW (2.7 HP) fuel cell used on a motor scooter.
  • 67. Courtesy: W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Membrane Electrode Assembly Production
  • 68. Perfluorinated polymer membrane w/Sulfonic acid Courtesy: W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Membrane Electrode Assembly Production
  • 69. Catalyzed carbon electrodes Perfluorinated polymer membrane w/Sulfonic acid Courtesy: W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Membrane Electrode Assembly Production
  • 70. Catalyzed carbon electrodes Perfluorinated polymer membrane w/Sulfonic acid Courtesy: W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Membrane Electrode Assembly Production Equivalent to: piston, valves, piston rings, spark plug, wrist pin, connecting rod, cylinder, bearing, crank shaft for a 1/8 to 1/4 HP engine, manufactured on a roll!!!
  • 71. Science Warning Juuuuust a teeny bit of chemistry stuff
  • 72. Basic Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell mechanism
  • 73. Basic Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell mechanism .002” to .020” Example: The thickness of this membrane-electrode assembly (MEA)
  • 74. Basic Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell mechanism .002” to .020” Example: The thickness of this membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) This is the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). It permits positive (+) protons (hydrogen minus the electron) to easily flow through it in an acid that soaks the membrane like a sponge to hold it in the shape of a thin solid film. Note: acids are simply water with protons in it.
  • 75. Basic Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell mechanism .002” to .020”
  • 81. H2 e- External Load O2 H+ H+ H+ H+ Porous Anode (carbon) Porous Cathode (carbon) Thin-film Polymer Electrolyte Hydrogen side Air side H+ = a proton e- e- e- e- O2 2O H+ + e _ H O + 2H H2O H2 2H H H+ + e _ Basic Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell mechanism
  • 82. H2O H2 e- External Load O2 H+ H+ H+ H+ Porous Anode (carbon) Porous Cathode (carbon) Thin-film Polymer Electrolyte Hydrogen side Air side H+ = a proton e- e- e- e- O2 2O H+ + e _ H O + 2H H2O H2 2H H H+ + e _ Basic Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell mechanism
  • 83. H2 e- External Load O2 H+ H+ H+ H+ Porous Anode (carbon) Porous Cathode (carbon) Thin-film Polymer Electrolyte Temperature: Hydrogen side Air side 50 - 90C (120 – 195F) Reasonable cell voltage: .5 - .8 V H+ = a proton e- e- e- e- O2 2O H+ + e _ H O + 2H H2O H2 2H H H+ + e _ H2O Basic Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell mechanism
  • 84. 2 fuel cells in series Stack of 10 fuel cells 1 fuel cell
  • 85. Fuel cells are assembled and then stacked to increase power (like stacking batteries in a flashlight). 2 fuel cells in series 1 fuel cell Stack of 10 fuel cells 1 fuel cell
  • 86. PEM Fuel Cell Stacks Source: Energy Partners 10kW 0.2kW Source: Electrochem Source: Ballard 85 kW (114 HP) 2002 5kW (6.7 HP) 1992 13kW (17.5 HP) 1995
  • 87. 370 Cell stack (152 HP) Air flow Hydrogen flow Single fuel cell (0.41 HP) Air manifold Hydrogen manifold Cells are stacked together to add voltage. Current is based on cell area Current x Voltage = Power Area x Length (Number of cells) = Volume Power 1st Generation Toyota Mirai Fuel Cell Stack
  • 90.
  • 91. Hydrogen Refueling Stations The Infrastructure Challenge
  • 92. Area accessible to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles November 2016 Coalinga Willits Eureka Redding Red Bluff Susanville Truckee Garberville Santa Barbara San Luis Obispbo Morro Bay Reno Bridgeport Carson City Fallon Lake Tahoe San Francisco Barstow Ridgecrest San Francisco 0 100 KM 100 Miles Operating hydrogen stations Accessible area
  • 93. Area accessible to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, 2024 Coalinga Eureka Redding Red Bluff Susanville Ridgecrest Garberville San Luis Obispbo Morro Bay 0 100 KM 100 Miles Operating hydrogen stations Planned, in construction or in permitting Accessible area Barstow Willits Truckee Lake Tahoe San Francisco Santa Barbara Bridgeport Carson City Reno Fallon Winnemucca
  • 94. Area accessible to hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, 2024 Coalinga Eureka Redding Red Bluff Susanville Ridgecrest Garberville San Luis Obispbo Morro Bay 0 100 KM 100 Miles Operating hydrogen stations Planned, in construction or in permitting Accessible area Barstow Willits Truckee Lake Tahoe San Francisco Santa Barbara Bridgeport Carson City Reno Fallon Winnemucca Hydrogen Stations Operating: 63 Planned, in construction or permitting 25 Total 88
  • 95. Hydrogen fire safety test performed in 2001 at University of Miami for the US DOE.
  • 96. 1. Create a single-point-failure leak in each car. Hydrogen fire safety test performed in 2001 at University of Miami for the US DOE.
  • 97. 1. Create a single-point-failure leak in each car. 2. Ignite the leaking fuel. Hydrogen fire safety test performed in 2001 at University of Miami for the US DOE.
  • 98. 1. Create a single-point-failure leak in each car. 2. Ignite the leaking fuel. Hydrogen fire safety test performed in 2001 at University of Miami for the US DOE.
  • 99. Hydrogen leak rate 2100 Cu.ft/min. Gasoline leak rate 680 cc/min. Time: Leaking and 1 second before flame ignition. 1. Create a single-point-failure leak in each car. 2. Ignite the leaking fuel. Hydrogen fire safety test performed in 2001 at University of Miami for the US DOE.
  • 100. Time: 3 seconds after ignition of fuel leaks on both cars Hydrogen Gasoline
  • 101. Time: 3 seconds after ignition of fuel leaks on both cars Hydrogen Gasoline Hydrogen Gasoline
  • 104. Highest temperature in test: 117F on window. Like Palm Springs in August. Time: 1 minute Hydrogen Gasoline
  • 105. Total hydrogen leak: 1.5 kg H2 (1.5 gal gasoline equivalent) Total gasoline leak: 0.62 gal gasoline (After 3.5 minutes.) Time: 1 minute, 30 seconds
  • 106. Total hydrogen leak: 1.5 kg H2 (1.5 gal gasoline equivalent) Total gasoline leak: 0.62 gal gasoline (After 3.5 minutes.) Time: 1 minute, 30 seconds Hydrogen Gasoline
  • 107.
  • 108. When the energy storage part of a battery car catches fire, it can be similar to a gasoline car fire.
  • 109. How the heck did these PEM fuel cells get started?
  • 110. How the heck did these PEM fuel cells get started? We owe it to 2 things:
  • 111. How the heck did these PEM fuel cells get started? We owe it to 2 things: 1) Powerful atom bombs
  • 112. How the heck did these PEM fuel cells get started? We owe it to 2 things: 1) Powerful atom bombs and 2) Itty bitty rockets.
  • 113. In the 1940s and 50s the U.S. nuclear weapons labs developed very powerful nuclear bombs that were much lighter and smaller than Soviet bombs of the same destructive power.
  • 114. In the 1940s and 50s the U.S. nuclear weapons labs developed very powerful nuclear bombs that were much lighter and smaller than Soviet bombs of the same destructive power. (We had more boom per pound.)
  • 115. In the 1940s and 50s the U.S. nuclear weapons labs developed very powerful nuclear bombs that were much lighter and smaller than Soviet bombs of the same destructive power. We both needed to send the same destructive power the same distance, BUT with our smaller and lighter A-bombs, the U.S. did not need to develop very powerful rockets. so we didn’t, (We had more boom per pound.)
  • 116. In the 1940s and 50s the U.S. nuclear weapons labs developed very powerful nuclear bombs that were much lighter and smaller than Soviet bombs of the same destructive power. We both needed to send the same destructive power the same distance, BUT with our smaller and lighter A-bombs, the U.S. did not need to develop very powerful rockets, so we didn’t. (We had more boom per pound.)
  • 117. In the 1940s and 50s the U.S. nuclear weapons labs developed very powerful nuclear bombs that were much lighter and smaller than Soviet bombs of the same destructive power. We both needed to send the same destructive power the same distance, BUT with our smaller and lighter A-bombs, the U.S. did not need to develop very powerful rockets, so we didn’t, but the Soviets did. (We had more boom per pound.)
  • 118. In the 1940s and 50s the U.S. nuclear weapons labs developed very powerful nuclear bombs that were much lighter and smaller than Soviet bombs of the same destructive power. We both needed to send the same destructive power the same distance, BUT with our smaller and lighter A-bombs, the U.S. did not need to develop very powerful rockets, so we didn’t, but the Soviets did. Then, on Oct. 4, 1957 a VERY large Soviet rocket launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite. (We had more boom per pound.)
  • 119. USSR Good Ole USA 1957-1966 1958-1966 R-7 Rocket Sputnik 1 Sputnik 2, with dog. Vostok 1 with 1 cosmonaut
  • 120. USSR Good Ole USA 1957-1966 1958-1966 R-7 Rocket Sputnik 1 Sputnik 2, with dog. Vostok 1 with 1 cosmonaut
  • 121. USSR Good Ole USA 1957-1966 1958-1966 Vanguard 1 Exploded on launch Jupiter C Explorer 1 1st US satellite Atlas D Mercury capsule with 1 astronaut (orbital) Titan II Gemini capsule with 2 astronauts (orbital) Redstone Mercury capsule with 1 astronaut (sub-orbital) R-7 Rocket Sputnik 1 Sputnik 2, with dog. Vostok 1 with 1 cosmonaut
  • 122. USSR Good Ole USA 1957-1966 1958-1966 Vanguard 1 Exploded on launch Jupiter C Explorer 1 1st US satellite Atlas D Mercury capsule with 1 astronaut (orbital) Titan II Gemini capsule with 2 astronauts (orbital) Redstone Mercury capsule with 1 astronaut (sub-orbital) R-7 Rocket Sputnik 1 Sputnik 2, with dog. Vostok 1 with 1 cosmonaut
  • 123. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours Early Soviet Rockets
  • 124. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours Redstone Early Soviet Rockets
  • 125. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Early U.S. Rockets
  • 126. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets
  • 127. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets
  • 128. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets
  • 129. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets
  • 130. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets
  • 131. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets The PEM fuel cell was developed in US industry and was almost ready in 1959 to 1961. NASA contracted for fuel cell systems for Gemini flights beginning with Gemini 5, Aug 21, 1965 to Aug 29, 1965. From then on fuel cells provided spacecraft electricity and byproduct water on long missions.
  • 132. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets The PEM fuel cell was developed in US industry and was almost ready in 1959 to 1961. NASA contracted for fuel cell systems for Gemini flights beginning with Gemini 5, Aug 21, 1965 to Aug 29, 1965. From then on fuel cells provided spacecraft electricity and byproduct water on long missions. That’s because they were much smaller, lighter and more easily reenergized than batteries.
  • 133. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets The PEM fuel cell was developed in US industry and was almost ready in 1959 to 1961. NASA contracted for fuel cell systems for Gemini flights beginning with Gemini 5, Aug 21, 1965 to Aug 29, 1965. From then on fuel cells provided spacecraft electricity and byproduct water on long missions. That’s because they were much smaller, lighter and more easily reenergized than batteries, and still are.
  • 134. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Early U.S. Rockets
  • 135. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets
  • 136. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets
  • 137. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets 2 to 7 astronauts 2 to 18 days
  • 138. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets 2 to 7 astronauts 2 to 18 days
  • 139. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets Where electrical power was required for duration of mission. 2 to 7 astronauts 2 to 18 days
  • 140. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets Fuel cells 2 to 7 astronauts 2 to 18 days
  • 141. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours 1962-1963 Early Soviet Rockets Redstone Atlas Titan 2 Saturn 5 Early U.S. Rockets Fuel cells 2 to 7 astronauts 2 to 18 days
  • 142. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours The Russians made a last dash to beat the U.S. to the Moon. They needed a successful unmanned flight before they sent humans to the moon.
  • 143. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours So, Russians rushing to make and launch the biggest rocket in history. How can that work out? 4 Attempts.
  • 144. Space Shuttle U.S. 1981 - 2011 1957 - 1961 1960 - 1963 1964 - 1966 1967 - 1973 1981 - 2011 1969 - 1972 1 to 3 cosmonauts 1.75 hours to 5 days 1961 to 1969 N-1 Russia 1 astronaut 4 to 34 hours So, Russians rushing to make and launch the biggest rocket in history. How can that work out? 4 Attempts.
  • 145. The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight. Test Flight 1, Looking good . . . 10 Million pounds of thrust
  • 146. The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight. 2 seconds later
  • 147. The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight. 2 seconds later
  • 148. The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight. 2 seconds later The next 3 test flights did not do THIS well.
  • 149. The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight. 2 seconds later The next 3 test flights did not do THIS well. 17 days after their 2nd explosion. . .
  • 150. The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight. 2 seconds later The next 3 test flights did not do THIS well. 17 days after their 2nd explosion. . . 17 days after their 2nd explosion, we landed at Tranquility Base with Apollo 11!!! 17 days after their 2nd explosion, we landed on the Moon at Tranquility Base with Apollo 11!!!
  • 151. The MOST successful Soviet N1 Moon rocket test flight. 2 seconds later The next 3 test flights did not do THIS well. 17 days after their 2nd explosion, we landed on the Moon at Tranquility Base with Apollo 11!!! Fuel cells powered all the missions.
  • 152. Here they come! First ever shipment of fuel cell cars for sale/lease in USA. October 2015
  • 153. Sooooooo . . . .
  • 154. How will we know when we are “there”?
  • 155. How will we know when we are “there”? THIS is how
  • 156. When a kid goes to a junk yard and gets the fuel cell system from a wreck, installs it into an old fuel cell car with modified power electronics and electric motor, doubles the horsepower and wins at the drags. How will we know when we are “there”?
  • 157. OH, I forgot . . .
  • 158. Just so ya know . . . .
  • 159. Just so ya know . . . . Hydrogen fueled, fuel-cell powered, electric-drive airplane.
  • 160. By the way, since it often comes up . . .
  • 161. Passengers and crew: 62 survived 35 died Ground observers: 1 died from debris By the way, since it often comes up . . .
  • 162. Had it been filled with methane (natural gas), most, or all on board would have died, as well as most people on the ground, since a natural gas flame would have more engulfed the Zeppelin, and the heat radiation from the flame would be about 100 times higher than from a hydrogen flame. The visible flame here is from diesel fuel and fabric burning. Hydrogen flame is invisible. Passengers and crew: 62 survived 35 died Ground observers: 1 died from debris By the way, since it often comes up . . .