Prospects of Mitigation in Rice Fields
and Possible Policy Support:
Examples from Asia

Reiner Wassmann
Climate Change Coo...
Significance of Rice Fields for GHG budgets
Forestry,
17.4%

All others ,
69.1%

National Scale in Asia:
Emissions from ri...
Measurement Approaches

GHG Measurements:
Automated and Manual
Alternate-Wetting- and-Drying (AWD)

Synonyms:
• Intermittent Flooding/ Drainage
• Single or Multiple Flooding/ Drainage
Benefits of AWD
• Irrigation water savings of up to 33%
• No yield difference
Yield
a
a

Water use
a a

a

a
b
a

a
a

33%...
Global Warming Potential under
Continuous Flooding (CF) and AWD

tons CO2eq / ha*season

8

Pump Irrigation
(Tarlac)

Cana...
Introducing AWD
Technical Support for Mitigation Policy
1. Prototyping ‘Clean Development
Mechanism’ projects
2. Country-specific/ Volunta...
CDM Pipeline
Project
Developer

Project
Proposal

Designated
Nat. Auth.

Letter of
‘no objection’

Project
Design
Docum.

...
SSM – Small Scale Methodology
Approved by UNFCCC (May 2011)

“Methane emission reduction
by adjusted water
management in r...
Methodology AMS-III.AU.
Version 3.0 (since 03 Aug. 2012)

Example:
• AWD in dry season
• Multiple aeration (1.8 kg ha/d)
•...
Technical Support for Mitigation Policy

1. Prototyping ‘Clean Development
Mechanism’ Projects

2. Mapping suitability for...
Bio-physical Assessment of AWD

Dekad #1

Rainfall <
Evapotranspiration +
Seepage&Percolation

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Ju...
Bio-physical Assessment of AWD

Dekad #5

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec
Bio-physical Assessment of AWD

Dekad #9

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec
Technical Support for Mitigation Policy

1. Prototyping ‘Clean Development
Mechanism’ Projects

2. Mapping suitability for...
New Policy in Vietnam (20-20-20)
Prime
Minister

Objective:
“Up to 2020, to reduce by 20% the total
GHG emissions in agric...
New Policy in Vietnam (20-20-20)
Prime
Minister

Ministry of
Agriculture
• Apply improved cultivation techniques such as
w...
New Mitigation Policy 20-20-20
Prime
Minister

Ministry of
Agriculture

Provincial
Governments

Farmers should use/apply A...
AWD Adoption Scenarios
Province “Chậm” (= slow)

Province “Nhanh” (= fast)

YEAR
0

10 ha conv.

Seasonal Emission at yr ...
AWD Adoption Scenarios
Province “Chậm” (= slow)
Adoption Rate: 1%/ yr

Province “Nhanh” (= fast)
Adoption Rate: 10%/ yr

...
AWD Adoption Scenarios
Province “Chậm” (= slow)
Adoption Rate: 1%/ yr

Province “Nhanh” (= fast)
Adoption Rate: 10%/ yr

...
AWD Adoption Scenarios
Province “Chậm” (= slow)
Adoption Rate: 1%/ yr

Province “Nhanh” (= fast)
Adoption Rate: 10%/ yr

...
Technical Support for Mitigation Policy
1. Prototyping ‘Clean Development
Mechanism’ Projects

2. Mapping suitability for ...
Measuring Mitigation Potential in
Smallholder Systems at Whole-farm and
Landscape Scales (SAMPLE)

• Initiative of
CCAFS/ ...
Determining
Emission Factor
for Straw Burning
Good Agricultural Practice
(GAP) Guidelines
Examples:

Vietnam

Philippines

Mot Phai/
Nam Giam

Palay
Check

(1 Must Do/
...
Sustainable Rice Platform
An initiative of the
• United Nations Environment Programme

• International Rice Research Insti...
Conclusion on impacts of
mitigation policies
Wishful
thinking

Significant impact on farmers’
income and poverty alleviati...
Conclusion on CCAFS role
in supporting mitigation
Wishful
thinking

Generic recommendations
automatically result in effici...
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Prospects of mitigation in rice fields and possible policy support: Examples from Asia

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Presentation by R Wassmann, International Rice Research Institute, at the CCAFS Workshop on Institutions and Policies to Scale out Climate Smart Agriculture held between 2-5 December 2013, in Colombo, Sri Lanka

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Prospects of mitigation in rice fields and possible policy support: Examples from Asia

  1. 1. Prospects of Mitigation in Rice Fields and Possible Policy Support: Examples from Asia Reiner Wassmann Climate Change Coordinator International Rice Research Institute
  2. 2. Significance of Rice Fields for GHG budgets Forestry, 17.4% All others , 69.1% National Scale in Asia: Emissions from rice production (selected) Rice, 1.5% Agriculture (w/o rice), 12.0% Country Perc. of total Viet Nam 38.199 24.8 % India (IPCC 4th AR, 2007) (Mt CO2eq) 74.360 5.7 % Indonesia 33.600 2.5 % Data from the most recent National Communication submitted to UNFCCC
  3. 3. Measurement Approaches GHG Measurements: Automated and Manual
  4. 4. Alternate-Wetting- and-Drying (AWD) Synonyms: • Intermittent Flooding/ Drainage • Single or Multiple Flooding/ Drainage
  5. 5. Benefits of AWD • Irrigation water savings of up to 33% • No yield difference Yield a a Water use a a a a b a a a 33% 12% 22% 0.9% Contin. Flooding AWD 21% Adopted from: Wiangsamut (2010)
  6. 6. Global Warming Potential under Continuous Flooding (CF) and AWD tons CO2eq / ha*season 8 Pump Irrigation (Tarlac) Canal Irrigation (N. Ecija) N2O CH4 6 4 2 0 CF AWD CF “AWD “
  7. 7. Introducing AWD
  8. 8. Technical Support for Mitigation Policy 1. Prototyping ‘Clean Development Mechanism’ projects 2. Country-specific/ Voluntary emission reductions 3. Funding National Action Plans of developing countries
  9. 9. CDM Pipeline Project Developer Project Proposal Designated Nat. Auth. Letter of ‘no objection’ Project Design Docum. Approved Methodology CDM Executive Board Letter of approval Project Developer Designated Nat. Auth. Validation Report Designated Operating Entity #1 Project Registration Project Developer Project Design Monitoring Report Designated Operating Entity #2 Certified Emission Reduction Verification Report CDM Executive Board Project Implementation and Monitoring
  10. 10. SSM – Small Scale Methodology Approved by UNFCCC (May 2011) “Methane emission reduction by adjusted water management in rice” http://cdm.unfccc.int/methodologies/DB/D6MRRHNNU5RUHJXWKHN87IUXW5F5N0/view.html
  11. 11. Methodology AMS-III.AU. Version 3.0 (since 03 Aug. 2012) Example: • AWD in dry season • Multiple aeration (1.8 kg ha/d) • 100 d period  180 kg CH4/ ha season = 3.78 t CO2 eq/ ha season  @ 0.50 $/ t CO2 eq. = < 2 $/ ha season
  12. 12. Technical Support for Mitigation Policy 1. Prototyping ‘Clean Development Mechanism’ Projects 2. Mapping suitability for mitigation 3. National Action Plans of developing countries
  13. 13. Bio-physical Assessment of AWD Dekad #1 Rainfall < Evapotranspiration + Seepage&Percolation Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  14. 14. Bio-physical Assessment of AWD Dekad #5 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  15. 15. Bio-physical Assessment of AWD Dekad #9 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  16. 16. Technical Support for Mitigation Policy 1. Prototyping ‘Clean Development Mechanism’ Projects 2. Mapping suitability for mitigation 3. Assisting in ‘road maps’ at different scales
  17. 17. New Policy in Vietnam (20-20-20) Prime Minister Objective: “Up to 2020, to reduce by 20% the total GHG emissions in agriculture and rural development sector (18.87 million ton CO2e)”
  18. 18. New Policy in Vietnam (20-20-20) Prime Minister Ministry of Agriculture • Apply improved cultivation techniques such as water irrigation and inputs saving … • Scale 3.2 M ha of rice cultivation • Priority areas: Mekong and Red River Deltas, Central Coastline
  19. 19. New Mitigation Policy 20-20-20 Prime Minister Ministry of Agriculture Provincial Governments Farmers should use/apply AWD irrigation technology to not only greatly save water con-sumption and reduce GHGs emissions in irrigated rice fields, but also increase rice productivity.
  20. 20. AWD Adoption Scenarios Province “Chậm” (= slow) Province “Nhanh” (= fast) YEAR 0 10 ha conv. Seasonal Emission at yr 0: 1000 ha x 100 kg/ha + = 100 t CO2eq Seasonal Emission at yr 0: 1000 ha x 100 kg/ha + = 100 t CO2eq
  21. 21. AWD Adoption Scenarios Province “Chậm” (= slow) Adoption Rate: 1%/ yr Province “Nhanh” (= fast) Adoption Rate: 10%/ yr YEAR 1 10 ha conv. 10 ha AWD Seasonal Emission at yr 1: 990 ha x 100 kg/ha + 10 ha x 63 kg/ha = 99.6 t CO2eq Seasonal Emission at yr 1: 900 ha x 100 kg/ha + 100 ha x 63 kg/ha = 96.3 CO2eq
  22. 22. AWD Adoption Scenarios Province “Chậm” (= slow) Adoption Rate: 1%/ yr Province “Nhanh” (= fast) Adoption Rate: 10%/ yr YEAR 2 10 ha conv. 10 ha AWD Seasonal Emission at yr 2: 980 ha x 100 kg/ha + 20 ha x 63 kg/ha = 99.2 t CO2eq Seasonal Emission at yr 2: 800 ha x 100 kg/ha + 200 ha x 63 kg/ha = 92.4 CO2eq
  23. 23. AWD Adoption Scenarios Province “Chậm” (= slow) Adoption Rate: 1%/ yr Province “Nhanh” (= fast) Adoption Rate: 10%/ yr YEAR 7 10 ha conv. 10 ha AWD Seasonal Emission at yr 7: 930 ha x 100 kg/ha + 70 ha x 63 kg/ha = 97.4 t CO2eq 2.6% Seasonal Emission at yr 7: 300 ha x 100 kg/ha + 700 ha x 63 kg/ha 25.9% = 74.1 CO2eq
  24. 24. Technical Support for Mitigation Policy 1. Prototyping ‘Clean Development Mechanism’ Projects 2. Mapping suitability for mitigation 3. Assisting in ‘road maps’ at different scales 4. Developing guidelines - Measuring, Reporting, Verific. - Good Agricultural Practice
  25. 25. Measuring Mitigation Potential in Smallholder Systems at Whole-farm and Landscape Scales (SAMPLE) • Initiative of CCAFS/ Theme 3 • Collaboration with ICRAF, ILRI, IRRI, KIT (Germany) and NARES partners • Parallel assessment of mixed landscapes (Kenya) and crop land (Philippines)
  26. 26. Determining Emission Factor for Straw Burning
  27. 27. Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) Guidelines Examples: Vietnam Philippines Mot Phai/ Nam Giam Palay Check (1 Must Do/ 5 Reductions)
  28. 28. Sustainable Rice Platform An initiative of the • United Nations Environment Programme • International Rice Research Institute • National institutions from several Asian countries • and several private sector companies Aim: Higher rice production in a healthier environment for higher incomes http://www.unep.org/newscentre/default.aspx?DocumentID=2661&ArticleID=8967
  29. 29. Conclusion on impacts of mitigation policies Wishful thinking Significant impact on farmers’ income and poverty alleviation Realistic outlook More emphasis and – hopefully – funds for rural development (irrigation facilities, improved technol.)
  30. 30. Conclusion on CCAFS role in supporting mitigation Wishful thinking Generic recommendations automatically result in efficient mitigation policy Realistic outlook Increasing demand for countryspecific information at different scales

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